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1.
South African Journal of Childhood Education (SAJCE) ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1753746

ABSTRACT

Background: Litigation has been utilised to advance a range of socio-economic rights in post-apartheid South Africa, including the right to basic education. Nonetheless, there has not been significant litigation or sustained broad-based mobilisation around issues impacting the early childhood development (ECD) sector in the democratic era. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, however, saw some ECD stakeholders turning to the courts to advocate for their survival, as well as to mobilise and advocate for sector reforms. Aim: This article aimed to critically reflect on the role of litigation and social mobilisation in advancing the right to ECD during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Setting: The article assesses two South African cases with national implications. Methods: The article critically assesses two South African cases relating to ECD during the pandemic. At the time of writing, these were the only South African judgements specifically relating to the impact of COVID-19 on the ECD sector. Results: The two cases played an important role in: (1) reopening the ECD sector during the pandemic;and (2) making efforts to ensure that the sector could remain open. However, the cases were not based on a holistic rights-based approach to ECD, which remains an area for further development. Conclusion: The article concludes that litigation may play a significant role in advancing children’s rights to ECD, particularly as a complement to broader social mobilisation strategies. The cases highlight the (1) need and potential for building a holistic rights-based foundation of ECD jurisprudence post the pandemic;and (2) strategic use of litigation interventions as part of broader mobilisation strategies.

2.
Revista de Psihologie ; 67(2):153-168, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1738202

ABSTRACT

Prenatal maternal distress has a negative impact on the course of pregnancy, fetal development, offspring development, and later psychopathologies. The study aimed to understand the guidelines and recommendations related to the prevention and management of the prenatal distress and psychiatric symptomatology of pregnant women during COVID-19 Pandemic. This paper is a review based on information found in specialty literature. The analysis was limited to English language articles and guidelines published between January 1, 2003 and October 14, 2020 on PubMed using the next keywords: perinatal mental health, anxiety, coronavirus disease 2019, depression, mental health, pregnancy, prenatal, post-traumatic stress disorder. In this review we discuss about the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and an uptrend in psychological distress and psychiatric symptomatology in pregnant women. Pregnant women are experiencing substantially elevated anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic that are in a close relationship to COVID-19 specific problems about threats to their own lives, their baby's health, not getting enough prenatal care, and social isolation. A significant number of studies correlate maternal stress during pregnancy with atypical fetal development, in a way that increases susceptibility to disease and maladaptation in children. Several research groups have used elevated prenatal anxiety as an indicator to suggest prenatal stress, relating to the correlation with cognitive, behavioral, and neurological disorders in children. Protective resilience factors can be social support and physical activity. There is an urgent need to support pregnant women during this critical time to mitigate long-term negative outcomes, given the known effects of stress in pregnancy, infant and child outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Romanian) Stresul matern prenatal are un impact negativ asupra evolutiei sarcinii, dezvoltarii fetale, dezvoltarii copilului si psihopatologiilor ulterioare. Studiul a urmarit sa inteleaga liniile directoare si recomandarile legate de prevenirea si gestionarea stresului prenatal si a simptomatologiei psihiatrice a femeilor insarcinate in timpul pandemiei COVID-19. Aceasta lucrare este o recenzie bazata pe informatiile din literatura de specialitate. Analiza s-a limitat la articolele si ghidurile in limba engleza publicate in perioada 1 ianuarie 2003 - 14 octombrie 2020 pe PubMed folosind urmatoarele cuvinte-cheie: sanatate mintala perinatala, anxietate, boala coronavirus 2019, depresie, sanatate mintala, sarcina, prenatal, tulburare de stres posttraumatica. In aceasta revizuire, discutam despre asocierea dintre pandemia COVID-19 si o tendinta ascendenta a stresului psihologic si a simptomatologiei psihiatrice la femeile gravide. Femeile gravide se confrunta cu simptome crescute de anxietate si depresie in timpul pandemiei COVID-19, care sunt intr-o relatie stransa cu problemele specifice COVID-19 legate de amenintarile la adresa vietii lor, sanatatea bebelusului lor, neacordarea unei ingrijiri prenatale suficiente si izolarea sociala. Un numar insemnat de studii coreleaza stresul matern din timpul sarcinii cu dezvoltarea atipica fetala, intr-o maniera in care creste sensibilitatea la boli si inadaptarea, la copii. Mai multe grupuri de cercetare au folosit nivelul crescut de anxietate prenatala ca indicator pentru a sugera stresul prenatal, raportandu-se la corelatia cu tulburarile cognitive, comportamentale si neurologice la copii. Factorii protectivi, de rezilienta pot fi sprijinul social si activitatea fizica. Exista o nevoie urgenta de a sprijini femeile insarcinate in acest moment critic, pentru a atenua rezultatele negative pe termen lung, avand in vedere efectele cunoscute ale stresului in sarcina, pentru fat si, ulterior, pentru copil. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(4-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1717503

ABSTRACT

Hope has been shown to be an important protective factor, with hypothesized origins in early childhood (Snyder, 2002). However, despite the established importance of hope, little research to date has examined its developmental origins. Specifically, a lack of appropriate instrumentation represents a significant barrier to detecting hope in children under the age of eight years old. The current study meets this need by examining the reliability and validity of a novel parent-report measure of hope in early childhood, titled the Parent Report of Child Hope (PRCH). The PRCH represents an initial step towards understanding individual differences in early childhood hope. The present study also sought to provide an understanding of the developmental influences on hope in early childhood using the PRCH. The PRCH was hypothesized to be a reliable and valid measure of hope in children younger than 8 years old. Specific Aims of the current study included, Aim 1: To provide evidence of the construct validity of the PRCH as an assessment of hope in young children, Aim 2: To provide evidence of the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Parent PRCH as an assessment of hope in young children, and Aim 3: To understand whether factors hypothesized to either contribute to or undermine hope development are predictors of hope, as well as agency and pathways thinking individually, in young children in order to provide a foundational understanding of hope development.Participants included 263 caregivers of children between the ages of 60 and 82 months. Parents completed online surveys containing the PRCH, an adapted, parent-report version of the Children's Hope Scale, and measures assessing child behaviors, social understanding, school readiness, and ego resilience. Parents also reported on the quality of their relationship with their child, their own level of depression, and the impact that COVID-19 has had on their family structure. The overall findings of the present study support the PRCH as a reliable and valid measure of hope in early childhood. The PRCH sufficiently captured individual differences in hope among young children and followed the expected two factor structure, confirming construct validity. The PRCH demonstrated good internal consistency and criterion-related validity. Child social understanding, parent-child closeness, and school readiness positively predicted PRCH scores. Parent-child conflict negatively predicted PRCH scores. Scores on the PRCH predicted ego resilience and prosocial behaviors in children. These findings are consistent with hope theory, which suggested that the developmental origins of hope could be measured in early childhood (Snyder, 2000). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 61-66, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689696

ABSTRACT

A large research-based consensus was achieved over the past 30 years concerning the importance of prenatal and early childhood development: Preventive interventions are needed early in life because physical and psychological problems during pregnancy and early childhood often lead to serious physical, psychological, educational, and social problems throughout the life course. These problems are also transmitted to the next generation. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have increased the number of families who need these early-life preventive interventions. Without intensive support, children from high-risk families are likely to fail in school, to have serious physical and mental health problems, and to reproduce another generation of children with similar physical, cognitive, and mental health problems. We underline the need to: (1) assess the extent of the COVID-19 damage on pregnant women and on their spouses, as well as on the families with preschool children; (2) help service providers identify the state-of-the art services they should implement; (3) assess the implementation of these services; and (4) help service providers maintain highly effective interventions. For the next 20 to 30 years at least, governments will be under intense pressure to invest massively in the health and care of the baby boomers. We are thus facing abysmal health care and retirement costs for the next 3 decades. Governments should be pressured to substantially invest in the support of pregnant women and preschool children, rather than in the sustained quality of life of the aging baby boomers.


RéSUMé: Un consensus important de la recherche au cours des 30 dernières années souligne l'impact de la période prénatale et de la petite enfance sur le développement à long terme. Des mesures préventives doivent être mises en place dès le jeune âge. Les problèmes physiques et/ou psychologiques pendant la grossesse et la petite enfance mènent souvent à de graves problèmes physiques, psychologiques, académiques, et sociaux la vie durant. Ces problèmes sont souvent transmis à la génération suivante. La pandémie de la COVID-19 augmentera vraisemblablement le nombre de familles nécessitant des interventions préventives précoces. Sans ce soutien intensif, ces enfants seront à risque de décrochage scolaire, de troubles de santé physique et mentale graves, et de transmission intergénérationnelle de problèmes semblables. L'impact de la pandémie se ferait ainsi ressentir par la société jusqu'au siècle prochain. D'autre part, l'impact de la pandémie sur nos aînés a mis en évidence le problème de la qualité des soins pour les personnes âgées. Il faudra donc faire pression auprès des gouvernements pour que, malgré les autres urgences, ils investissent de façon importante pour soutenir les femmes enceintes et les enfants d'âge préscolaire.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 750012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566657

ABSTRACT

Background: There is little direct or indirect evidence of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy on early childhood development. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 1 to October 31, 2020, that enrolled 135 mother-infant dyads: 57 dyads in the infection cohort and 78 in the non-infection cohort. Among all infants, 14.0% were preterm birth in the infection cohort and 6.4% in the non-infection cohort. Participants were followed by telephone interviews to collect demographic characteristics, medical records of coronavirus disease 2019, breastfeeding data, and early childhood development was assessed by the Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ-3) and Age and Stage Questionnaire Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE-2) Chinese versions at 3 months after childbirth. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable linear regression models and a mediation model were used to test the direct and indirect associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ASQ-3 score. This study was approved by the Peking University Third Hospital Medical Science Research Ethics Committee (No. IRB00006761-M2020127). Results: In the infection cohort, 13.6% of the children showed social-emotional developmental delay, and 13.5% showed overall developmental delay. The corresponding rates in the non-infection cohort were 23.4 and 8.1%. Compared with the non-infection cohort, SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy did not increase the risk of social-emotional (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.51-1.49) or overall (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.60-1.73) developmental delay. The mediation model showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection indirectly affected the ASQ-3 score by increasing the length of mother-infant separation. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 during late pregnancy did not increase the risk of developmental delay of the offspring 3 months after delivery. However, SARS-CoV-2 may have indirect effects on early childhood development by increasing mother-infant separation.

6.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 215, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of control over life situations is an important social determinant that may negatively affect parental and child health. This study took place in an area of Stockholm, Sweden with high indications of socioeconomic disadvantage, a large part of the population with foreign background, as well as higher levels of poor health than the county average. It investigated staff perceptions of pathways from situations of low control, potentially leading to health inequities, affecting families enrolled in an early childhood home visiting programme during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 23 child health care nurses and parental advisors working in a home visiting programme. The data was analysed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in five pathways on two explanatory levels, affecting parents' health and parenting capacity and children's health and well-being, potentially damaging health and leading to health inequities. The first four pathways related to control at the personal explanatory level: Families facing instability and insecurity; Caring for children in crowded and poor housing conditions; Experiencing restricted access to resources; and Parenting with limited social support. The fifth pathway, Living in a segregated society, covered the collective experience of lack of control on community level. The Covid-19 pandemic was observed to negatively affect all pathways and thus potentially aggravate health inequities for this population. The pandemic has also limited the delivery of home visits to the families which creates further barriers in families' access to resources and increases isolation for parents with already limited social support. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of pathways connected to health inequities presented in this study highlights the importance of considering this variety of influences when designing interventions for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The additional negative consequences of Covid-19 indicate the need for sustainable preventive early childhood interventions for families in such areas. The study also emphasizes the need for further research as well as policy action on possible long-term effects of changing behaviours during the Covid-19 period on child health and health equity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered (11 August 2016) in the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN11832097 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , COVID-19/epidemiology , House Calls , Humans , Observation , Qualitative Research , Sweden/epidemiology
7.
Children (Basel) ; 8(10)2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the functioning and services of academic high-risk infant follow-up (HRIF) clinics throughout North America. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective 25-question questionnaire survey through REDCAP links that was sent over 10 weeks, to 105 US and 10 Canadian programs. Finally, 59 of 105 US programs and 5 of 10 Canadian responses were analyzed using SAS version 9.4. RESULTS: In the US, 67% of programs reported closures between 1-5 months, whereas in Canada 80% of programs closed for 1-3 months. In the US 86% of programs provided telemedicine visits and only 42.5% provided multidisciplinary HRIF telemedicine visits. We enumerated innovative approaches specifically for the conduct of Telemedicine visits, the need for the standardization of various tests and services in a telemedicine setting, and to emphasize the urgent need for more government funding to improve follow-up and developmental services to this fragile group of newborns.

8.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100197, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447076

ABSTRACT

Children are not small adults. This is a critical point that many pediatricians and other child health professionals get bored of saying, yet it does seem to need repeating. While children have the lowest risk from COVID-19 directly, they risk suffering the indirect impacts of policy decisions, many of which appear to have been made with next to no explicit consideration of their interests. Public health interventions should not only be about infectious disease control, they should consider a broad set of outcomes. In addition, they ought to consider vulnerability, including that in early childhood - a time when young children's brains are developing rapidly and are most susceptible to adversity. We believe that mandating masking of pre-school children is not in line with public health principles, and needs to be urgently re-considered.

9.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 466-482, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217663

ABSTRACT

In a career spanning six decades, Edward Zigler redefined developmental psychology as the equal integration of scientific inquiry and evidence with social policy formulation and analysis to improve child well-being. The theme of his accumulated work was advancing child development as social action for children and families. Besides early childhood intervention and policy, for which he devoted most of his time, Dr. Zigler did pioneering work in education and school reform, social policy, prevention, child maltreatment, family support, developmental disabilities, and in service to government. In this article, I reflect on four of Dr. Zigler's major contributions to science and society that are underrated and, in many respects, under-appreciated in the larger context of the field. These are (a) historical analysis of Head Start, (b) conceptualization and analysis of motivation as a key component of early childhood program impacts, (c) development of preschool-to-third-grade programs and school reforms, and (d) critical analysis of theory, research, policy, and practice. Together, these and other contributions by Dr. Zigler provide a strong foundation to build a better society for all.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Early Intervention, Educational , Child , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Humans , Male , Schools
10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 409-420, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217660

ABSTRACT

This article provides an overview of selected ongoing international efforts that have been inspired by Edward Zigler's vision to improve programs and policies for young children and families in the United States. The efforts presented are in close alignment with three strategies articulated by Edward Zigler: (a) conduct research that will inform policy advocacy; (b) design, implement, and revise quality early childhood development (ECD) programs; and (c) invest in building the next generation of scholars and advocates in child development. The intergenerational legacy left by Edward Zigler has had an impact on young children not only in the United States, but also across the globe. More needs to be done. We need to work together with a full commitment to ensure the optimal development of each child.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Family , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , United States
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006180

ABSTRACT

In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems; economic protection; social and child protection; and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the reorientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children's ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child Care , Child, Preschool , Humans , Kenya , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
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