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1.
Clay Minerals ; 57(1):21-30, 2022.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162272

ABSTRACT

The worldwide use of pharmaceuticals is of concern to those researchers who develop new techniques for the removal of these compounds from the aquatic medium. The objective of the present work was to characterize and evaluate the performance of a commercial, bentonite-based organophilic clay in removing ivermectin from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by nitrogen physisorption, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch-scale adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics and effect of pH on removal of this drug and reuse of the clay. The bentonite has a small specific surface area with an irregular surface. The Elovich kinetic model fits the experimental data better than other models, indicating that chemisorption contributes to drug removal in this case. The Langmuir and Sips isothermal models best fit the experimental equilibrium data. The process was shown to be favorable (ΔG°ads<0), endothermic (ΔH°ads>0), with an increase in the degrees of freedom at the solid–liquid interface (ΔS°ads>0), and with characteristics of a physical-chemical adsorption process (Ea = 11.065 kJ mol–1) under the study conditions. Adsorption was favored at the natural pH of the solution and the organophilic clay could be regenerated with water and reused in consecutive adsorption cycles. The amount of ivermectin adsorbed on the organophilic clay ranged from 1.78 to 3.88 mg g–1. The organophilic clay was shown to be a cost-effective potential adsorbent for ivermectin-contaminated water-treatment applications.

2.
Journal of Land Use Science ; 17(1):245-261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160504

ABSTRACT

What are patterns of gender and authorship in urban land science? Our bibliometric analysis shows that the proportion of women shrinks among highly productive, impactful, and senior authors, akin to a pyramid shape. First, women are only one in ten researchers with an h-index above the 95th percentile. Second, women are first authors on 20% of all influential papers cited more than one hundred times. Third, women publish less frequently (1.6 papers/year) than men (2.2). Fourth, women have shorter career lengths (9.4 years) than men (11.8). Since the 2000s, citation rates for women and men have converged. For the generation starting careers since 2016, the proportion of women with an h-index above the 90th percentile increased to 25%. During the Covid-19 pandemic, there was a 51% increase in productivity for women. Despite these changes, gender disparities in urban land science are most pronounced among the most productive and impactful authors.

3.
Resources Policy ; 80:103196, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150485

ABSTRACT

We examine the time-frequency co-movements and return and volatility spillovers between the rare earths and six major renewable energy stocks. We employ the wavelet analysis and the spillover index methodology from January 1, 2018 to May 15, 2020. We report that the COVID-19-triggered significant increase in co-movements and spillovers in returns and volatility between the rare earths and renewable energy returns and volatility. The rare earths act as net recipient of both return and volatility spillovers, while the clean energy stocks are net transmitters of return and volatility spillovers before and during the COVID-19 crisis. The solar and wind stocks are net transmitters/receivers of spillovers before/during the pandemic. The remaining markets shift from net spillover receivers to transmitters or vice versa;evidencing the effects of the pandemic. Our results show that cross-market hedge strategies may have their efficiency impaired during the periods of crises implying a necessity of portfolio rebalancing.

4.
Open Geosciences ; - (1):1356-1379, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2140800

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the proliferation of coronavirus disease has profoundly affected the world. The vitality of urban space is difficult to recover in the short term. Therefore, in the early stage of human-to-human transmission of the epidemic, we need to determine the potential urban agglomeration space as soon as possible, the timely find of hidden danger areas, and carry out spatial optimization to prevent the further spread of the epidemic. This becomes the urgent problem at the moment. Jinan is the capital city of Shandong Province, and the mega-city of China. The study is focused on the main urban area within the bypass. This study used spatial data methods such as spatial grammar and GIS technology. First, we analyzed the spatial topological properties of urban road network during the epidemic. Then, we carried out spatial autocorrelation analysis on the topological attributes to get the shape of urban spatial clustering layout during the epidemic. Finally, the thesis crawled through various types of infrastructure points-of-interest and conducted nuclear density analysis to get the dynamic trend of urban space in Jinan. The research results showed that there is significant space for agglomeration in the main urban area of Jinan. The areas with strong agglomeration are basically located in tourism areas, school areas, business areas, living circle areas of residential communities in Licheng and Lixia districts, transportation hub areas in Tianqiao District, and high-tech industrial areas in Lixia District. Topography, water body, greening, and parks could effectively reduce the concentration of human flow, and are important areas to relieve the potential abnormal epidemic. This study provided a new method for detecting epidemic prevention and control areas, optimizing urban space layout and formulating prevention and control strategies in the early stage of human-to-human epidemic transmission and lack of case surveillance data and control measures.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(11): e11637, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130934

ABSTRACT

Not many efforts have been made so far to understand the effects of both the 2015-2016 drought and the 2020 lockdown measures on the agricultural production of smallholder vis-a-vis commercial farmers in Kwazulu-Natal. Google Earth Engine, and random forest algorithm, are used to generate a dataset that help to investigate this question. A regression is performed on double differenced data to investigate the effects of interest. A k-mean cluster analysis, is also used to determine whether the distribution patterns of crop production changed with drought and disruption of agricultural production input. Results show that: (1) droughts affected the agricultural production of both areas similarly. Crop cover declined in both areas for one season after droughts were broken. Then recovery was driven by greener, more productive crops rather than the expansion of crop area. (2) The response of both areas to the COVID-19 lockdown was also similar. Both smallholder and commercial areas' Normalised Difference Vegetation Index - a proxy for crop vitality - improved in response to regulations favourable to the sector and improved rainfall. No significant adjustments in crop cover were observed. Production therefore changed primarily at the intensive margin (improved productivity of existing croplands) rather than the extensive (changing the extent of land under cultivation). (3) Cluster analysis allows for a more granular view, showing that the positive impact of lockdowns on agriculture were concentrated in areas with high rainfall and close proximity to metropolitan markets. Both smallholder and commercial farmers therefore are reliant on market access together with favourable environmental conditions for improved production.

6.
Habitat Int ; 130: 102688, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117490

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak magnified territorial inequalities and increased vulnerability among low-income groups. Inhabitants in informal settlements are structurally disadvantaged in coping with communicative diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite that, the pandemic has been accompanied by the proliferation of informal settlements. This study explores how the pandemic caused the squatting on new land with the case of "Los Hornos" in suburban Buenos Aires. We used a random forest algorithm and Google Earth Engine to estimate the rapid growth of a new informal settlement from a series of satellite images from early 2020. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with inhabitants to investigate the link between squatting and COVID-19. The study revealed that squatting on new land during the pandemic was mainly due to economic difficulties, overcrowding in existing informal settlements in the metropolitan center, and speculation in the informal housing market. This case is an example of how the most vulnerable groups bore the brunt of the pandemic, how the households in the existing informal settlement were behaving similar to those in the formal housing market (i.e., away from the urban centers), and how the outbreak had also been an opportunity for collective action of squatting a new land to materialize.

7.
Tecnologia En Marcha ; 35:45-58, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121754

ABSTRACT

The National Plan for the Improvement of Productivity and Sustainability of the Agricultural Sector aims to be applied in a staggered manner to the entire country, under the name of AGRINNOVACION 4.0 to promote economic recovery and job creation after the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this work is to analyze geospatial information of the producers of the AGRINNOVACION 4.0 program using the free Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform, in order to establish the base of the digital agricultural cadastre of the North Zone of Cartago and have a system of geographic information for the application of high-precision technologies, as a basis for the identification model of productive areas with short-cycle crops developed in the North Zone of Cartago. A data acquisition methodology was generated using geographic information systems and machine learning techniques (Random Forest), with good fitting results. For the area under study, it is imperative that the information affected by cloud cover be reduced to make the classification of lands for horticultural use as accurate as possible. The tool is replicable and constitutes a support in the success of the plan for the later stages.

8.
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience ; 28(4):397, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118849

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the relationship between coro-navirus (COVID-19) and the spread of various heavy metal contaminants across Iraq. The study collects all confirmed, recovered, and death cases of the COVID-19 virus at its onset in Iraq until May 2, 2020, comparing Iraq with the top three infected countries in the world (the United States Spain, and Italy). In addition, numerous heavy metal contamination in different Iraqi cities have been summarized and associated with the allowable upper and lower worldwide standard limits. Furthermore, the study introduces a hierarchical predictive approach for the relationship between confirmed infected cases and deaths due to the COVID-19 virus and heavy metal contamination in various Iraqi cities. It is concluded that all the studied Iraqi cities have heavy metal contamination for different chemical elements exceeding the allowable standard limits. Extreme contents of copper, nickel, lead, and zinc are concentrated in Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Sulaimaniyah, Erbil, and Baghdad with limits of 160 µg/g, 240.9 µg/g, 378 µg/g, and 1,080 µg/g, respectively. Based on the hierarchical prediction approach, a linear positive relationship between both confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 with different heavy metal contamination was obtained with a maximum coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.97.

9.
Geophysical Research Letters ; 49(21), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118602

ABSTRACT

Hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations are widely associated with induced seismicity in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. This study correlates injection parameters of 12,903 HF stages in the Kiskatinaw area in northeast British Columbia with an enhanced catalog containing 40,046 earthquakes using a supervised machine learning approach. It identifies relevant combinations of geological and operational parameters related to individual HF stages in efforts to decipher fault activation mechanisms. Our results suggest that stages targeting specific geological units (here, the Lower Montney formation) are more likely to induce an earthquake. Additional parameters positively correlated with earthquake likelihood include target formation thickness, injection volume, and completion date. Furthermore, the COVID‐19 lockdown may have reduced the potential cumulative effect of HF operations. Our results demonstrate the value of machine learning approaches for implementation as guidance tools that help facilitate safe development of unconventional energy technologies.Alternate :Plain Language SummaryHydraulic fracturing (HF), a technique used in unconventional energy production, increases rock permeability to enhance fluid movement. Its use has led to an unprecedented increase of associated earthquakes in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the last decade, among other regions. Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between induced earthquakes and HF operations, but the connection between specific geological and operational parameters and earthquake occurrence is only partly understood. Here, we use a supervised machine learning approach with publicly available injection data from the British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission to identify influential HF parameters for increasing the likelihood of a specific operation inducing an earthquake. We find that geological parameters, such as the target formation and its thickness, are most influential. A small number of operational parameters are also important, such as the injected fluid volume and the operation date. Our findings demonstrate an approach with the potential to develop tools to help enable the continued development of alternative energy technology. They also emphasize the need for public access to operational data to estimate and reduce the hazard and associated risk of induced seismicity.

10.
Applied Economics ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083212

ABSTRACT

In recent years, climate change has attracted great attention from governments and promoted the booming of the new energy market indirectly. However, this market will be influenced by traditional energy, rare earth and technology markets. Hence, it is necessary to incorporate these markets into an analytical framework simultaneously and analyse their relationships. Based on the GARCH-vine-copula-EVT model considering extreme risks, we investigate the connectedness between crude oil, coal, rare earth, new energy, and technology markets. The results show that the technology market is most closely associated with the new energy market;the rare earth market reacts as an intermediary market between the new energy market and fossil fuel markets. When taking the rare earth market as the conditional market, the connectedness between the new energy and the other four markets weakens and even becomes negative. Besides, we find that the COVID-19 epidemic has increased the connectedness between these target markets. Finally, the backtesting results of value at risk and expected shortfall show that the GARCH-vine-copula-EVT model considering extreme risks can depict the risk dependence structure between these target markets well. Our study has important reference significance for market participants, risk managers and investors.

11.
Environ Health Insights ; 16: 11786302221131467, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079313

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the effect of seasonal land surface temperature variation on the COVID-19 infection rate. The study area of this research is Bangladesh and its 8 divisions. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform has been used to extract the land surface temperature (LST) values from MODIS satellite imagery from May 2020 to July 2021. The per-day new COVID-19 cases data has also been collected for the same date range. Descriptive and statistical results show that after experiencing a high LST season, the new COVID-19 cases rise. On the other hand, the COVID-19 infection rate decreases when the LST falls in the winter. Also, rapid ups and downs in LST cause a high number of new cases. Mobility, social interaction, and unexpected weather change may be the main factors behind this relationship between LST and COVID-19 infection rates.

12.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences ; 15(21), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2075686

ABSTRACT

Litter is one of the major environmental problems. These wastes cause adverse health, environmental, and even economic effects. One of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic is the impact on litter composition and density due to its changes in lifestyle and consumption patterns. In this study, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the composition and density of litter on the ten southern beaches of the Caspian Sea in Iran in 1 year was investigated. The results showed that the density of the litters was in the range of 36.5–306 items/m2. The highest and lowest proportions of the COVID-related litters on the locations studied were 2.54 and 5.95%, respectively. The indexes in the areas studied showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the density of the litter in 90% of the beaches studied by changing the style of citizens, but the emergence of new dumping related to COVID-19 has increased the potential for health and environmental hazards caused by litters. The effects of the COVID-related litters increased the clean environment index by 5 to 12% on the beaches. This study shows that the impact of social phenomena such as a pandemic on litter and its results can be used for the better management of municipal solid wastes, including litter in similar situations in the future.

13.
Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal-Geophysical Journal ; 44(4):74-94, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072414

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the results of a study on the possible relationship between the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Earth's magnetic field based on an analysis of digital data for 95 countries. Article is based on the statistic data of geomagnetic field and coro-navirus disease parameters, which allows, in our opinion, to obtain reliable results of their interpretation, which are as follows:The dependence of the spatial expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the value of modular values of the induction of the Earth's main magnetic field BIGRF is established. The maximum number of diseases occurs in countries located in regions with reduced (25.0-30.0 mkT) and increased (48.0-55.0 nT) values.The SARS-CoV-2 virus expansion of the dynamics of the geomagnetic field over the past 70 years dependence is established. Maximum diseases number refers to areas with maximum changes, in the direction of decrease (up to -6500 nT) and increase 2500 nT).Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 disease expansion dynamics with Kp-geomagnetic field perturbation index - shows the practical absence of such connection. The ratio of the maximum daily growth of diseases to the minimums of external geomagnetic activity detected. This ratio may be due to the intensity of galactic cosmic radiation increase during this period.The connection between the SARS-CoV-2 disease process dynamics and solar activity is shown, namely: the beginning of a pandemic is due to the superposition of minima of 11 (between 24 and 25) and 110 (120?) solar activity annual cycles. The increase of diseases number correlates well with the increase of the 25th cycle solar activity. The Spanish pandemic was characterized by a similar ratio, which arose about 110 years ago between 14-15 cycles and took place during the 15th cycle of solar activity growth phase.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12641, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066444

ABSTRACT

Vulnerable topographies and morphologies are reservoirs of resilience in reacting to social, economic, and environmental crises in the Italian Hinterlands. Moreover, the pandemic situation of recent years has influenced people’s values and priorities, allowing us to reconsider the value of lands outside urban centres. In Italy, overcoming a contrasting vision between cities and inland areas brings out a relationship of interdependence between territories, a fragile balance to be investigated and reconnected. The contribution of this paper aims to investigate the current state of vulnerability of these hinterlands, crossed by continuous phenomena and by discrete or sudden phenomena, to represent the tangible and intangible space to fully understand the performativity of these territories. The methodology used lies in an intermediate space between the values process of landscape ecology, which sees as its starting point the investigation of tangible land effects, and the quantitative-qualitative approach of mapping. A scale of values is assigned through the use of GIS-assisted multi-criteria evaluation. The proposed methodology is set and applied in the case of Val di Sole, Trentino, to spatialise the relationship between risk and resources in Italy’s hinterlands.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12358, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066404

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates and compares the export competitiveness of rare-earth products from China, the US, Russia, and India between 2006 and 2020 using the CMS model and the WRCA index. The results show that (1) the competitiveness of the four countries’ rare-earth products has changed differently. The overall competitiveness of rare-earth products of China, the US, and India has decreased, whereas the competitiveness of Russia’s rare-earth products has increased. (2) The factors inhibiting the development of the competitiveness of rare-earth products in the four countries are different. In China and India they are market factors and product factors, in the US it is the overall market share factor, and in Russia it is the market factor. (3) The competitiveness of rare-earth products varies greatly among the four countries. China has the highest rare-earth export competitiveness, whereas the US has significantly lower export competitiveness of rare-earth products than China. Russia and India do not have comparative advantages. (4) The four countries have different trends in the evolution of the competitiveness of rare-earth products. The export competitiveness of rare-earth products of China and India tends to decline, whereas that of the United States and Russia tends to rise. Based on the above findings, the paper puts forward corresponding policy recommendations.

16.
IEEE Microwave Magazine ; 23(10):47-58, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063281

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid and continuous development of communication and networking technologies, the goal of universal connectivity (i.e., the ability to communicate with any user at any time and in any place) is still unrealized. In 2019, a study [1] found that 40% of Earth's regions lack network coverage, which means that there are still 4 billion people on the planet without Internet access. Moreover, even as the COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for online working, learning, and accessing services-and, thus, increased the number of Internet users-2.9 billion people remain offline in developing countries [2]. Satellite communications (SatCom) have been emerging as a potential and indispensable solution to extending broadband coverage to underserved areas [2]. © 2000-2012 IEEE.

17.
Geoscience Communication ; 5(4):307-323, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056006

ABSTRACT

The rise seen in the use of the virtual field trip in 2020 and 2021 due to the global COVID-19 pandemic was unprecedented. Virtual field trips aim to replicate the learning outcomes and experiences of actual field trips by providing a digital alternative to in-field courses. They provide valuable opportunities for those unable to visit the field and alternative learning experiences for those that can. However, understanding their efficacy in terms of learning outcomes, the effectiveness of the learning support offered, and cohort cohesion generally remains untested. Here, we show how negative aspects of a virtual field trip both pre- and post-course are countered by positive outcomes in terms of the breadth of learning outcomes and experience. As part of our analysis, we tested methods to mitigate barriers to inclusion and learning on a virtual field trip, including internet connectivity and hardware access;the use of printed workbooks;and limitations to interaction, support, and cohort cohesion. Our results show that, although negative perceptions (as evidenced by questionnaire responses) are dominant, with 71 % of the 27 pre-course respondents and 88 % of the 21 post-course respondents commenting on these aspects across both student and staff cohorts, positive aspects of virtual field trips (43 %–57 %) also feature highly. Students show a positive shift in their perception of online teaching and learning over the course, with positive comments moving from 19 % pre-course to 71 % post-course, whereas positive comments by staff are low both pre- and post-course (at 14 %). Printed workbooks, staff-to-student ratios, and interaction are received positively. Overall, we find that negative perceptions of virtual field trips pre- and post-course exist but that both students and staff also identify positive elements, including the breadth of learning outcomes, particularly regarding data synthesis and analysis. We suggest ways to learn from these findings in order to design virtual field trips that deliver effectively in blended learning environments for the benefit of all.

18.
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics ; 127(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2050273

ABSTRACT

We present a low‐altitude satellite survey of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) at 50 Hz over Mainland China. We analyzed the month‐to‐month variation pattern in PLHR occurrence rate and further analyzed its correlation with some influencing factors (i.e., solar radiation, lightning flashes, and electricity consumption) using CSES satellite electric field data from 2019 to 2021. We also investigate the response of PLHR occurrence rate to COVID‐19. The statistical results show the dayside PLHR occurrence rate decreasing from winter to summer solstice and increasing from summer to winter solstice, which indicates it is controlled by the solar radiation. The nightside variation is more complex, which may be due to many sources that could influence the nightside lower ionosphere. The PLHR occurrence rate significantly decreased over Mainland China in February 2020, which is because of the significant decrease in electricity consumption due to the suspension of industrial production caused by COVID‐19.Alternate :Plain Language SummaryPower line harmonic radiation (PLHR) is the electromagnetic waves radiated by electric power systems at harmonic frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz, depending on the frequency of the system on the ground. Previous research mainly focuses on identification of individual PLHR events and their subsequent analysis. However, the number of base‐frequency PLHR signal events is the most abundant, which is suitable for the statistical study of PLHR occurrence rate and its variation pattern, and further study of the factors affecting its variation pattern. In this paper, we use 3 years of electric field data from the China Seismo‐Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) which is an LEO satellite launched into orbit in February 2018 to investigate the month‐to‐month variation pattern of PLHR occurrence rate over Mainland China and its correlation with the influencing factors. The response of PLHR occurrence rate to COVID‐19 are also investigated.

19.
7th International Conference on Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management, GISTAM 2021 ; 2021-April:109-115, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046743

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic forced many countries to adopt lockdown measures, temporarily closing factories, diminish maritime traffic and reducing the mobility of people in the cities. Analysis from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board Europe's Sentinel-5P, 3A/B respectively, for the first wave of the COVID-19, have shown a substantial improvement in air and water quality. More specifically, since COVID-19 lockdown until the end April, Lisbon and Porto were at their lowest PM10 levels of about 20% and a drop of 33% in 2 years, while Madrid had a significant drop since lockdown with vales significantly below 2018 levels but still close to 2019 levels. In terms of NO2 levels, Lisbon had an historical minimum of the last 2 years, dropping more than 40% during most of April 2020. Finally, Madrid had 2-year lowest level of more than 30% since lockdown. Concerning the water quality in the Portuguese coastal waters, it was verified an increase in water transparency since confinement started until May, accordingly to the Total Suspended Matter (TSM) indicator. From February to March, March to April and April to May there was a reduction in TSM levels of 17%, 37% and 53% respectively. © 2021 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda.

20.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S259-S261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045941

ABSTRACT

The National Academy of Medicine, among others, has called for decarbonizing the health sector,6 which will contribute to global goals as well as bring health cobenefits to populations.7 PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE GREAT TRANSITION Public health and health care delivery systems likewise must do a better job of adapting to the multiple health impacts that are ensuing from planetary health stresses, including the COVID-19 crisis. [...]reversal ofthe decline in public health spending must occur, now more than ever. [...]public health messaging must convey a sense of urgency and preparedness.

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