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1.
JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS RESEARCH ; 12(1):32-40, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965316

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the relationships between the variables of corruption, political polarization, economic growth, and income inequality for the Peruvian economy over the period 1998-2020. The methodology used to verify the degree of association and/or causality of the study variables were Pearson's correlation, linear, and quadratic regressions. The results point to a significant negative correlation between corruption and economic growth, and between electoral polarization and GDP, but that political polarization is positively associated with economic inequality measured by the Gini index (alpha = 1%). It was also found that economic growth decreases inequality. Therefore, it is concluded that corruption decreases economic growth, but that there is a "U"-shaped relationship between corruption and the Gini index. Consequently, at lower levels of corruption, an increase in the corruption perceptions index (CPI) decreases the Gini coefficient, but at higher levels of corruption, a rise in the CPI increases income inequality. Finally, the global coronavirus crisis has aggravated inequality in developed and developing countries, so it is recommended that policymakers implement political measures to reduce economic inequality and, at the same time, mitigate political polarization.

2.
WIDER Working Papers 2022. (67):34 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965139

ABSTRACT

Tanzania has experienced relatively strong and stable economic growth accompanied by social stability over the past two decades. The country is also pursuing an ambitious development plan with significant employment objectives. For development to be fully inclusive, specific attention must be paid to the gendered dimensions of employment policy, in terms of both design and outcomes. This constitutes a key challenge in Tanzania, where women and female-headed households are constrained by lower levels of education and social capital, deeper levels of poverty, and limited access to assets-while also being impacted disproportionately by the economic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper interrogates Tanzania's employment policies from a gender perspective by adopting a functional approach. We examine policies with (1) a labour market entry-facilitating function, (2) an enterprise- and productivity-enhancing function, and (3) a job quality-enhancing function, through their effects on working-age women's employment in the 2000s. We also discuss the extent to which women's employment is considered in the broader development approach and social policy model in the country. The analysis draws on a desktop-based scoping review of diverse sources of evidence. The paper shows that several progressive policies have been introduced in the areas of financial services, labour market regulations, and entrepreneurship support, and women's labour market position has slightly improved in the new millennium. However, women remain at the margins of the broader development strategy, and much needs to be done to enhance women's access to assets, skills training, and better-quality employment. Further gender-responsive social policy investments would facilitate this process.

3.
R-Economy ; 8(2):94-105, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964806

ABSTRACT

Relevance. China is the dominant trading partner for many countries of the world. The new plan for the Chinese economic development in 2021–2035, based on the “double circulation” model, has become the sub-ject of vigorous debate. Research objective. The study aims to identify China’s economic growth drivers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate the impact of external and internal factors on China’s economic growth, taking into account future strategic changes. Data and methods. To identify the growth factors of GDP, we used a factor model based on GDP components by spending and the data provided by the State Bureau of Statistics of the PRC for 2007–2020. Results. Over the past decade, the contribution of GDP components that shape domestic demand has been steadily reduced. The decline in the share of net exports in GDP growth was replaced by the fluctuations in the external and domestic demand shares in the subsequent periods. The evaluations show that in 2020, 1% of 3.56% of China’s economic growth in GDP (in national currency) was provided by net exports and 2% of 3.56% was provided by an increase in gross capital formation. Conclusions. The increase in the contribution of net exports to GDP growth was caused not only by the growth of exports with a slowdown in the growth of imports but also by the redistribution of the shares of all factors and pri-marily by the sharp reduction in the share of the contribution of household expenditures to consumption. To promote domestic circulation through per-sonal consumption, it is necessary for China to lower the savings rate, solve the problem of income inequality, and increase disposable income per capita. © Kheyfets, B.A., Chernova, V.Yu., 2022.

4.
Webology ; 19(1):3358-3368, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964735

ABSTRACT

Latin America and the Caribbean has started adopting the various policy measure to develop the economic status of the region. The Covid-19 situation has impacted significantly on various sectors and structures of the region such as poverty, unemployment, economic and social inequalities among the people. The LAC region is navigating the various challenging atmosphere during the Covid-19 era, which has been affected directly in the contraction of gross domestic product of the region. Because of the lockdown procedures has impacted significantly on all economic activities, reduced the global demand especially the trade, and affected the entire tourism sector. Subsequently, the Covid-19 lockdown measures hit the poor people who lives under the poverty and those working in the low-paid wages workers in the informal sector. The informal sector workers are already not receiving any kind of social security measures. It is also noticed that 38 percent of the total workforce in the informal sector are not having any form of social security and affected a lot during the lockdown. According to OECD, this pandemic crisis made the micro, medium and small industries in vulnerable situation of the LAC region countries. It affected 2.7 million companies in LAC and influenced for the loss of 8.5 million jobs. Many of the LAC policy makers and the government responded in a very effective manner to protect and safe-guard the people from extreme poverty and vulnerability. Various monetary and fiscal policy measures have been taken and the crisis and revive the economy. The immediate action is taken on important segment such as supporting the poor household by creation of new jobs, generating employment through industries and firms. The necessary economic policy formulation supported the transition of the economy from the crisis to prosperity.

5.
Webology ; 19(1):1521-1540, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964710

ABSTRACT

In a world where governments are looking at alternative ways of developing economies, infrastructure development remains a key aspect of these aspirations. For Middle East economies, which have relied on oil proceeds, the growth strategy is not as before as the oil prices have been fluctuating and resulting in low fiscal incomes. Saudi Arabia is one such economy. Thus, in the Kingdom's development strategy outlined in Vision 2030, there has been an emphasis on private players coming into partnering with the government in infrastructure and broader economic development projects. While the concept is easy on paper, running successful Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) projects is a complex endeavor given the conflicting interests of the partners themselves. This research investigated the critical success factors of PPP projects in Saudi Arabia based on the reflections of a quantitative study for infrastructure projects. For descriptive analysis, the entire population of participants (1200 respondents was used), and for the inferential statistics, a sample of 543 respondents was used in a Structured Equation Model tested on Smart PLS was used. The model tested critical success factors mediated by Openness and Communication and a multigroup analysis moderated by job level (representing the level of decision-making classified into strategic formulators - strategic level and above;and strategic implementersoperational managers). The models had an R2 of a stratified sample of 54.5% for the strategic level model and 45.9% for the strategic implementers model. Both models confirmed the importance of Procurement transparency, Risk sharing and allocation, Knowledge management. However, they had differences in the influence of governance, Openness and Communication and efficiency of the financial model. Governance had a significant influence on the success of PPPs only at the operational level while having a fully mediated relationship with Openness and Communication at the operational level. The study then produced two frameworks that are relevant for policymakers and potential private players to understand the relevant factors to be prioritised at each decision-making level to ensure the successful completion of PPPs in Saudi Arabia.

6.
Ekonomia i Prawo ; 21(2):317-334, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964629

ABSTRACT

Motivation: The coronacrisis has highlighted the fragility of the highly interdependent world economic order. The economic recession following numerous lockdowns weakened the position of the West in the geopolitical arena. Thus economic recovery is a must, though its significance for the US and the EU differs considerably. Aim: The paper aims to discuss the state and prospects of transatlantic relations in the era of new challenges posed in front of the US and the EU. We have selected two main issues: the incremental rivalry between the US and China, and the solidarity principle within the EU. The departure point for the analysis is the assumption that the tightening of economic cooperation between the US and the EU seems desired, but it might also lead to socioeconomic consequences questioning European solidarity in the long term. We employ the perspective of institutionalist political economy to understand the interplay between actors and the rules they create. We assume thus that actors pursue their goals, but must take various limitations into account. We also refer to the literature on economic policymaking and economic systems. Results: Under possible regionalization of the world economy after the COVID-19 pandemic, transatlantic relations will be under pressure to generate growth. As far as the US is willing to embrace this imperative, the EU might face the dilemma between struggling for better economic performance and rebuilding solidarity between member countries.

7.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(4):393-402, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1961357

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to profile the current state of sustainable tourism indicators (STIs) in order to assess risks and draw attention to potential solutions. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative methodology and documentary analysis were used, and primary data were gathered about STIs from four publicly available regulatory documents. Findings The study findings indicate that one of the primary impediments to sustainable tourism development is a lack of supervision and control over the enforcement of existing laws and regulations. Existing systems with relevant laws and regulations contribute to the fact that the environment is unsustainably developed because of the absence of specific explanations relating to STIs. The study identifies some of the actions that could be taken to mitigate the negative impacts of conventional forms of tourism development. Research limitations/implications This article argues that policymakers should act quickly to audit and manage the environment and that they should involve non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the tourism industry in this process. In addition, regulations should be revisited to include the necessity of being certified by international bodies for tourism enterprises and adopting European Union (EU) environmental standards. Practical implications: The tourism industry must adopt a more responsible and participatory approach to economic growth in order to ensure sustainable tourism, learning from the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Further, the industry must collaborate with policymakers to develop mechanisms to protect and control the resources they consume for the sake of future generations. Originality/value: Sustainable tourism development in which all aspects contribute to economic development, especially Small Island Developing States (SIDS), is of the utmost importance. No prior work seems to have been published that evaluates publicly available regulatory documents with reference to the current state of STIs in SIDS, especially in North Cyprus.

8.
Webology ; 19(2):7093-7105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958355

ABSTRACT

This study discusses changes in the open economy model in supporting economic stability after the COVID-19 7H-countries, where the countries are Turkey, Uruguay, Belarus, Kenya, Mongolia, Indonesia, and Mexico. This research uses the simultaneous regression analysis method and ARDL Panel. The study results show that consumption, investment, government spending, and Inflation are open economic models that can support financial stability during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the leading indicators on the panel only affect the Long Run, namely GDP, consumption, and exports. At the same time, for the Short Run, the open economy variables have not been able to become leading indicators of economic stability.

9.
Webology ; 19(2):985-996, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958237

ABSTRACT

Banyumas Regency is one of the districts rich in tourism potential, located in Central Java, Indonesia, with the state of the land-mountain transition zone. This natural potential has finally provided Banyumas with many advantages, especially in tourism. The tourist sites in Banyumas are located downtown, in a mountainous area, and in Baturraden. Banyumas has a very rapid development in economic growth, tourism, culture, and so forth. One of the causes of this growth is the high community travel activities drive it. The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted negatively on Indonesia's tourism industry and creative economy, particularly Banyumas. The number of domestic and foreign tourists experienced a very drastic decline, also experiencing a decline in hotel occupancy. This has an effect on the tourism industry's local revenue. Banyumas tourism management through the relevant agencies also makes efforts to save tourism from attracting tourists and revive the ecosystem. Many tourist locations are attractive, so people need to choose the fastest route to cross between them to get time efficiency when travelling between tourist attractions. In this paper, we are several ways to find the fastest path optimization for connecting one node with another node with the Bellman-Ford Algorithm. The results show that the Bellman-Ford Algorithm produces the shortest and fastest route with node routes 10-8-9-16-13-5-11-17-7-4-3-6-14-15-18-2-12. Determining the shortest path is essential in supporting tourism services to reach tourist sites easily.

10.
Webology ; 19(3):3277-3288, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958064

ABSTRACT

Humans have been facing pandemics since their existence but survived because of their resiliency. However, presently the world is under the dark shadows of Covid-19, which has setbacks the businesses and created uncertainties and stress in the people around the world. The purpose of this research was to highlight the setbacks, explore tensions, and discover the insightfulness and plans of the Pakistani nation in such deteriorating conditions. For this purpose, relevant literature was reviewed, and data were collected from one hundred and sixty-five people from different walks of life but having their businesses or doing private jobs where they are paid when they attend the appointment. The respondents indicated that they had setbacks but were found using substitute ways for survival because of their resiliency.

11.
Webology ; 19(2):2332-2340, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958044

ABSTRACT

The main problem in this research is the use of discretion in managing the regional government budgets for handling the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Material and method data related to discretionary budget management for handling the COVID-19 pandemic were obtained from secondary sources, namely laws and regulations, while the primary data were from the field, including the Jakarta Provincial Government. This research used the juridical normative analytical method. The Result of this research indicated during the COVID-19 pandemic, Law Number 30 of 2014 did not accommodate discretionary actions in budget management. The Conclusion of the research is eliminating the requirement of supervisor approval for budget discretion made by regional heads is the right concept for handling the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Webology ; 19(2):7164-7177, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957940

ABSTRACT

The influence of risk and return on debt policy, agency costs, and firm value in Indonesian public companies is investigated in this study. The research is based on quarterly data from companies in the LQ45 index. There are 180 observations in all. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling is used to analyze the data (SEM-PLS). The data analysis demonstrates that the company's sales decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in an increase in risk and a decline in the company's return. Even though the company's agency charges have failed to increase the sales value, the company's debt is nevertheless covered by its assets and capital. More findings will be presented in-depth. The findings might help researchers identify characteristics that impact business values. These characteristics may then be utilized to identify which strategies and policies a management team should employ to maintain a company's value.

13.
IUP Journal of Knowledge Management ; 20(2):60-74, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957893

ABSTRACT

We live in a rapidly changing, uncertain environment. The political and economic strength of countries and regions is changing based on their capabilities to become more resilient, futureoriented and knowledge-based. In this environment, basic economic indicators like growth measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) do not measure future readiness, resilience to change, or development in general, as they are based on past decisions. This paper argues that in order to be able to successfully adapt to the changing environment, economic and social achievements have to be measured not by growth indicators, but by development ones, which highlight real progress and convergence. Among them, intangible asset and intangible investment indicators are especially crucial, as they measure the real health of the economy and society. The key competitive factor on which progress will be based is human capital with good health, knowledge and skills. The paper proves that countries with excellent growth results lag behind in terms of development achievements, measured by the mentioned intangibles. This discrepancy may lead to a dangerous development trap situation. The paper uses statistical data of different countries to prove its suggestions.

14.
Webology ; 19(2):9350-9362, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957813

ABSTRACT

Role of money demand occupies a central place in regulating the monetary management of the economy and a topic of keen interest among researchers and academics (Sichei & Kamau, 2012). Growing money demand ensures an upsurge in the economic activity and vice versa. The present study analyzes the money demand function in Pakistan. The ARDL method to co-integration is used on data ranged between 1972 and 2018. The results showed that statistically significant effects of all main hypothesized factors including number of bank branches, population growth rate and agricultural output are found positive, negative and negative, respectively, both in the short-run and long- run. Whereas the effect of traditional factors viz., income and inflation rate on money demand appeared as positive, and statistically significant. The broad money demand function appeared to be stable in Pakistan. Policy to be focused on certain factors is discussed.

15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 856142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952793

ABSTRACT

The digital economy is considered as an effective measure to mitigate the negative economic impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, few studies evaluated the role of digital economy on the economic growth of countries along the "Belt and Road" and the impact of COVID-19 on their digital industries. This study constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system and applied a panel data regression model to empirically analyze the impact of digital economy on the economic growth of countries along the "Belt and Road" before COVID-19. Then, a Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on their digital industries and trade pattern. Our results show that although there is an obvious regional imbalance in the digital economy development in countries along the "Belt and Road", the digital economy has a significantly positive effect on their economic growth. The main impact mechanism is through promoting industrial structure upgrading, the total employment and restructuring of employment. Furthermore, COVID-19 has generally boosted the demand for the digital industries, and the impact from the demand side is much larger than that from the supply side. Specifically, the digital industries in Armenia, Israel, Latvia and Estonia have shown great growth potential during the epidemic. On the contrast, COVID-19 has brought adverse impacts to the digital industries in Ukraine, Egypt, Turkey, and the Philippines. The development strategies are proposed to bridge the "digital divide" of countries along the "Belt and Road," and to strengthen the driving effect of the digital economy on industrial upgrading, employment and trade in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt , Humans , Industry , Turkey
16.
Front Psychol ; 13: 794239, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952569

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still a major global health problem that had substantial consequences on people's daily lives. This paper evaluates the impact of education and institutional management on Vocational Education and Training (VET) schools in Oman during the COVID-19 period. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and identify possible challenges that may affect its impact on economic growth. This qualitative research is used as the main methodology of the study. Qualitative data are collected through convenience sampling of 108 VET college students and staff using interviews and questionnaires. The study revealed that the administration plays an important role in economic growth. The students suggested that the national educational administration of the government of Oman plays an important role in their education and that this in turn churns out industry-ready individuals who will impact the economic growth. The government's role, especially financially post-pandemic lockdown, will be a critical determinant of VET's impact on economic growth. This study introduces a new perspective on education administration from the perspective of students and staff of VET colleges.

17.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-341219

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the growth of the economy of the Baltic States and its sustainability before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. To identify the reasons for the differences in the economic growth of the Baltic countries, a comparison of the main indicators of international competitiveness and their growth rates is made. The highest indicators of economic growth in 2017–2019, as well as economic stability in 2020–2021, were in Estonia. The growth and sustainability of the Lithuanian economy was slightly lower than in Estonia. But on a number of indicators, including the growth rate of GDP per capita, exports, productivity, the volume of accumulated FDI, the growth of net turnover of companies, Lithuania was significantly ahead of Estonia, and in terms of purchasing power parity, Lithuania was ahead of Estonia. This study concludes that the main reasons why Latvia's international competitiveness lags behind Estonia and Lithuania, and as a result, lower economic growth rates, purchasing power parity indicators and the level of economic stability are mainly not external, but internal reasons. First of all, it is less effective economic policy and economic development strategy than in Estonia and Lithuania and/or less successful implementation of economic development strategy and plans. It is also concluded that, probably, one of the reasons for the continued lag of the Latvian economy behind Estonia and Lithuania may be that Latvia has a significantly higher tax burden on labour.

18.
Energy Strategy Reviews ; 42, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1944953

ABSTRACT

As the first country to restart the economy after the COVID-19 pandemic, China's fast-growing energy consumption has brought huge challenges to the energy system. In this context, ensuring a stable energy supply requires accurate estimates of energy consumption for China's post-Covid-19 pandemic economic recovery. To this end, this study uses multiple panel regression model to explore the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth from the perspective of energy sources (total energy, coal, oil, natural gas) and regional difference. The data from 30 provinces in China from 2000 to 2017 were selected. Our findings indicate that China economic growth has led to the largest increase for oil consumption, followed by natural gas consumption, and finally coal consumption. That is, China economic growth has led to the largest increase for oil consumption, followed by natural gas consumption, and finally coal consumption. In addition, the coefficients of regional energy consumption equations are heterogeneous. Among them, energy consumption growth in provinces with high energy consumption is most affected by economic growth, followed by provinces with low energy consumption, and finally provinces with middle energy consumption. © 2022 The Author(s)

19.
Journal of the Geological Society of India ; 98(7):971-975, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1943294

ABSTRACT

In the present situation, Covid-19 is considered to be an unbeaten global pandemic. In every single fleeting moment, this SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus-2) causes greater damage to our life including the physical world including drastic imbalance of the whole economic condition of any country. The lockdown governed in two consecutive years (2020 and 2021) in the world to control the spreading of the virus poses an undue threat to the industrial sectors including the coal mining sectors that determine the economic growth of the country. With these negative impacts of coronavirus-2 in our life, this present review aims to explore some of the positive influences of the Covid-19 pandemic through the restoration of the environmental system which are otherwise not possible. This quantitative review finds that spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic indirectly improves the air and water quality by reducing the number of vehicles, reduces the CO2, NOx, particulate matter, and other polluting gases emission from coal-based power plants through periodical lockdown in the country. Moreover, the lockdown implemented to minimise the spreading of the Covid-19 significantly reduces the coal dust production from the mining and transportation of coal that indirectly reduces environmental pollution.

20.
Environ Dev Sustain ; : 1-17, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942177

ABSTRACT

This study explores the interdependence among a sanitary crisis, environmental degradation, oil prices, and economic activity in the USA based on weekly data over the period from January 03, 2020, to October 02, 2020, through VECM and Granger causality methods. The study period is characterized by lockdowns and mobility restrictions due to COVID-19 pandemic that may affect the economic and energy sector in the USA. Thus, a meticulous analysis of the impact of a sanitary crisis on economic and energy sectors seems to be crucial. Findings are very interesting and confirm the existence of a significant impact of a COVID-19 pandemic on WTI oil price. More importantly, bidirectional causal relations between the three couples: COVID-19 infections-carbon emission, COVID-19 infections-economic growth, and COVID-19 infections-oil price are also discovered. Taken together, our empirical findings are effective for the relevant authorities and policymakers in the USA to develop an appropriate financial and fiscal policy such as reducing interest rates, subsidizing, promoting sustainable industrialization, and carbon taxation to boost investment and to recover the economic growth without harming the environment and complicating the sanitary situation.

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