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1.
International Journal of Social Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070219

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study analyzes the dynamic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumption among Ghanaian households, by identifying the existing consumption inequalities in the households according to the different age categories of the household head and changes in consumption patterns among the household constituents. In particular, the study examines the effects of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on household consumption and the differing impact on the different age categories of the household. Design/methodology/approach The research methodology of the study is based on the input-output analysis of the Ghanaian economy during the years 2015 and 2021 by using data on household consumption disaggregated by age. Economic impact is estimated through multi-sector modeling, specifically a demand model expressed based on a money metric measure valued in Ghanaian cedis. This model allows us to obtain the direct impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the manufacturing sector, professional, scientific and technical activities, Water supply, sewerage, and waste management within Ghanaian households. The model also observed a negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the public sector works and defense, and SSNIT sectors of the Ghanaian economy. Findings The findings of the study revealed that for the category of age group between the ages of 15-29 years, the consumption of manufacturing products experienced an increase of 6.20% whiles that of electricity consumption, air conditioning and heating reduced by 2.26% for the period under consideration. However, public sector works and defense, and SSNIT experienced a decline by 8.24%. For the age group between 30 and 45 years, the highest and most positive percentage change in household consumption was noted to be professional, scientific and technical activities (6.20%), Water supply, sewerage, waste management (5.98%), as well as manufacturing (5.65%). However, there was a decline in the consumption level of education by Ghanaian households during the lockdown especially among people within the age group of 46-65 years. There was a decline of 6.11% for the administrative and support services and there was also a decline the services of defense and SSNIT service consumption by 2.10%. For the final age group of 66 years and above, there was an increase of 6.94% in the consumption of such essential utilities in Ghana between 2015 and 2021. The demand for education however showed a drastic reduction of 8.1% over the study period due to this category of age group with majority of them retiring from work. Research limitations/implications The findings from this study will help in understanding the effects caused by the pandemic on household consumption and the differing impact on different age category of the household, especially on young households. This can potentially shape future policy by especially helping policymakers to device a more targeted social safety-net policies not only to speed-up recovery, but also to mitigate the negative impact of any future outbreak of a pandemic on household consumption and limit the age gaps in consumptions. However, the study does not consider the income levels of the different age groups. This becomes a limitation of the study and can be further explored in future studies. Originality/value This study measures the impact of a global health pandemic on the consumption of all households, with its accompanying impact of this variation. It can be noted that analyzing household consumption and quantifying the positive and negative impact on different age category of the household and the different sectors of the Ghanaian economy add to the limited knowledge of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at the household level.

2.
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases ; 6(5):41-46, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071980

ABSTRACT

We present some recent activity in Ontario on the mathematical modeling of COVID-19 and the development of optimal strategies for vaccine distribution that take into account equity issues.

3.
Investigacion Economica ; 81(322):110, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067513

ABSTRACT

Este artículo presenta un análisis de la caída de la producción de los estados de México en el segundo trimestre de 2020 como consecuencia de la pandemia de COVID-19. Estimamos modelos econométricos de corte transversal (ante la ausencia de efectos espaciales) y encontramos que las variables asociadas al contexto internacional, como las remesas, el grado de integración internacional y el sector básico, no tienen efectos estadísticamente significativos en la profunda contracción de la producción estatal, en tanto que la producción manufacturera, en particular de la bienes durables, las actividades turísticas y de esparcimiento resultaron significativas en su explicación.Alternate :This paper develops an analysis of the deep production contraction of Mexico's 32 states in the second quarter of 2020 as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-section econometric models are estimated (in the absence of spatial effects);the main results suggest that variables associated to the international context, such as remittances, degree of international integration and basic tradeable goods production do not have statistically significant effects on the drop of production, while manufacturing production, particularly that of durable goods, and touristic and leisure activities are significant in explaining it.

4.
Energies ; 15(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2065777

ABSTRACT

In recent years, due to the rise in energy prices and the impact of COVID-19, energy shortages have led to unsafe power supply environments. High emissions industries which account for more than 58% of the carbon emissions of Guangdong Province have played an important role in achieving the carbon peak goal, alleviating social energy shortage and promoting economic growth. Controlling high emissions industries will help to adjust the industrial structure and increase renewable energy investment. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the policies of energy security and the investments of high emission industries. This paper builds the ICEEH-GD (comprehensive assessment model of climate, economy, environment and health of Guangdong Province) model, designs the Energy Security scenario (ES), the Restrict High Carbon Emission Sector scenario (RHS) and the Comprehensive Policy scenario (CP), and studies the impact of limiting high emissions industries and renewable energy policies on the transformation of investment structure, macro-economy and society. The results show that under the Energy Security scenario (ES), carbon emissions will peak in 2029, with a peak of 681 million tons. Under the condition of ensuring energy security, the installed capacity of coal-fired power generation will remain unchanged from 2025 to 2035. Under the Restrict High Carbon Emission Sector scenario (RHS), the GDP will increase by 8 billion yuan compared with the ES scenario by 2035. At the same time, it can promote the whole society to increase 10,500 employment opportunities, and more investment will flow to the low emissions industries. In the Comprehensive Policy scenario (CP), although the GDP loss will reach 33 billion yuan by 2035 compared with the Energy Security scenario (ES), the transportation and service industries will participate in carbon trading by optimizing the distribution of carbon restrictions in the whole society, which will reduce the carbon cost of the whole society by more than 48%, and promote the employment growth of 104,000 people through industrial structure optimization. Therefore, the power sector should increase investment in renewable energy to ensure energy security, limit the new production capacity of high emissions industries such as cement, steel and ceramics, and increase the green transition and efficiency improvement of existing high emissions industries. © 2022 by the authors.

5.
Int J Data Sci Anal ; : 1-22, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060136

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, organizations and businesses have been forced to constantly adapt and develop effective responses to the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. The acuteness, global scale and intense dynamism of the situation make online news and information even more important for making informed management and policy decisions. This paper focuses on the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, using natural language processing (NLP) techniques to examine the news media as the main source of information and agenda-setters of public discourse over an eight-month period. The aim of this study is to understand which economic topics news media focused on alongside the dominant health coverage, which topics did not surface, and how these topics influenced each other and evolved over time and space. To this end, we used an extensive open-source dataset of over 350,000 media articles on non-medical aspects of COVID-19 retrieved from over 60 top-tier business blogs and news sites. We referred to the World Economic Forum's Strategic Intelligence taxonomy to categorize the articles into a variety of topics. In doing so, we found that in the early days of COVID-19, the news media focused predominantly on reporting new cases, which tended to overshadow other topics, such as the economic impact of the virus. Different independent news sources reported on the same topics, showing a herd behavior of the news media during this global health crisis. However, a temporal analysis of news distribution in relation to its geographic focus showed that the rise in COVID-19 cases was associated with an increase in media coverage of relevant socio-economic topics. This research helps prepare for the prevention of social and economic crises when decision-makers closely monitor news coverage of viruses and related topics in other parts of the world. Thus, monitoring the news landscape on a global scale can support decision-making in social and economic crises. Our analyses point to ways in which this monitoring and issues management can be improved to remain alert to social dynamics and market changes.

6.
Phronimos ; 2(1):60-79, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058334

ABSTRACT

In this examinations inspect, an endeavor has been made to take a gander at the effect of raw petroleum rate at the Indian full scale not expensive variable by utilizing GDP, Index of Industrial Production (IIP) and Wholesale Price Index (WPI) as the applicable factors. Literature Review: 1.A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL PRICE ON INDIAN ECONOMY With the guide of PANKAJ BHATTACHARJEE (2015). The 2nd literature is The effect of covid-19 on charge volatility of crude oil and natural gasoline indexed on multiple commodity exchange of India Bharat Kumar Meher, Iqbal Thonse Hawaldar, Latasha Mohapatra, Adel M. Sarea (July 2020). The flare-up of COVID19, which was started in the Wuhan town of China all through November 2019, has been proclaimed as a worldwide pandemic by utilizing the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020.

7.
Management Accountant ; 57(10):43, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058067

ABSTRACT

One of the positive fallouts of the Covid crisis seems to be the policy initiatives of GOI in line with PM's clarion call for Vocal for Local targeted to expand the efficiency and competitive edge of the indigenous industries. Basically it may be in line with the Swaraj calls during the pre-independence India or the earlier steps like Make in India but there were obvious risk minimization steps necessitated by the dislocation of the international supply chain as a result of the world wide shut down due to covid impacts. Many segments of the economy have already started benefitting from the policy and it seems to be on a firm course for greater good for the overall economy.

8.
Phronimos ; 2(3):26-35, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058065

ABSTRACT

The rise in COVID-19 cases has had a significant influence not only on people's health and daily life, but also on India's economic growth. Stock returns from diverse sectors show that a country's economy has slowed, but the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries may be affected in a different way. The goal of this research is to determine how the epidemic has influenced healthcare stocks and pharmaceutical industry . As a research paper , consider the top 3 companies in the both the sectors taken for the research paper. Daily closing prices of these companies for 156 days, from 27 Aug 2019 to 21 Jan 2020( pre-covid data ) and daily closing prices of these companies 187 days , from 27 Jan 2020 to 27 July 2020. Event study of this paper is to compare the returns of these companies before covid-19 and after covid-19 returns.

9.
Business Inform ; 7:155-161, 2022.
Article in Bulgarian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057037

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to identify the features, problems and perspectives in the development of international tourism in the post-covid world. Analyzing the statistical and forecast data of relevant international organizations, as well as expert opinions of market practitioners, a significant dependence of the tourism system on exogenous factors of negative impact is revealed, and COVID-19 is viewed as the largest crisis in terms of consequences, because the highly globalized world itself contributes to the large-scale and rapid spread of the pandemic. For the purpose of comparative analysis of the periods of development of tourist activity in the world, the following indicators were analyzed: the dynamics of the growth rate of the world economy and world tourism;dynamics of development of sectors of the world economy with the separation of the place of tourism;regional dynamics of international tourist arrivals and revenues from international tourism;loss of jobs in the tourism industry by region of the world as result of the spread of COVID-19, reduced business activity and tourist mobility. All indicators show a significant reduction and there is a relationship with the overall economic and social environment of countries. As result of the study, the main vectors of public policy on countering the consequences of COVID-19 in the tourism sector are defined and attention is focused on the need for consolidated precise and timely actions at all management levels: local, national, and international. An algorithm for overcoming the crisis phenomena in the tourism business caused by the pandemic has been developed, which provides for a set of consistent measures aimed at managing and controlling the crisis, stabilizing the market situation and accelerating the revitalization of the industry, as well as developing a new paradigm for the functioning of world tourism in post- covid realities. Trend tendencies in the further development of international tourism activities are proposed, taking into account changes in consumer preferences, namely: digitalization, virtualization, shifting the vector to domestic tourism, staycation and workation, wellness tourism, deeper awareness of the need for further implementation of the principles of sustainable development, etc.

10.
Revista de Investigacion en Agroproduccion Sustentable ; 6(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056879

ABSTRACT

Efficiency in shrimp farming is due to the use of an extensive system that includes fewer larvae per pool, which increases productivity, improves financial results, and even the environmental impacts generated during these operations. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect supply in the Ecuadorian shrimp sector. To this end, some statistical techniques such as linear regression and hypothesis testing were used. A bibliographic study was carried out regarding shrimp production in Ecuador, taking as reference the data provided by the National Chamber of Aquaculture and public control entities and reviewing the unprecedented impact on the current COVID19 sanitary crisis and the reduction of shrimp demand affecting Ecuador's income. Finally, it was observed that the research variables considered directly impact crustacean production, and a mathematical model was established.

11.
Afr J AIDS Res ; : 1-9, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054872

ABSTRACT

Aim: Women and girls living with or at high risk of acquiring HIV (WGL&RHIV) in Africa are economically vulnerable. This study aims to advance understanding of the economic impact of COVID-19 on WGL&RHIV and to identify the factors associated with this insecurity.Methods: Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a convenience sample of WGL&RHIV in Nigeria between May and September 2021. Logistic regressions enabled the study of the role of HIV status, mental health and macrosocial characteristics (people with disability, transgender women, sex workers, persons engaged in transactional sex, substance users, and people on the move) on economic vulnerability, measured by food, financial and housing insecurity, since the COVID-19 pandemic began. The model accounted for the possible interactions between the macrosocial characteristics and controlled for confounders.Results: There were 3 313 (76.1%) of 4 355 respondents facing food insecurity, 3 664 (83.6%) of 4 385 with financial vulnerability and 1 282 (36.2%) of 3 544 with housing insecurity. Being a member of the key and vulnerable groups was strongly associated with food insecurity, financial vulnerability and housing insecurity, regardless of HIV serostatus. For example, WGL&RHIV engaging in transactional sex were more than four times more likely (aOR 4.42; 95% CI 2.57-7.59) to face housing insecurity and more than twice more likely to face food insecurity (aOR 2.47, 95% CI 1.35-4.52) and financial vulnerability (aOR 2.87, 95% CI 1.39-5.93). This economic vulnerability may reduce their negotiating power for safer sex or the use of HIV prevention methods, exposing them to increased risks of HIV infection. Poor mental health was also associated with the three forms of economic vulnerability.Conclusions: As the long-term impact of the COVID-19 crisis on African economies unfolds, HIV programmes at the country level must include economic vulnerability and mental unwellness mitigation activities for WGL&RHIV.

12.
Land ; 11(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the world economy since 2020. This study analyzed the impact of the pandemic on innovative agri-food companies from different branches of agro-industrial activity located in Extremadura (Spain). The main aim of this study was to determine which activities have been most affected. Differences between actions and changes made depending on the nature of the product, process, or services were also evaluated. The information was obtained from an online questionnaire in which the research questions were posed (what consequences, actions, or changes has the pandemic had on the development of firms' activities?). Data were analyzed descriptively, and a statistical study was conducted on the existence or absence of independence between effects and actions based on the branches of activity of agri-food industries. The main results showed that companies' financial (decrease in turnover and reduction/displacement of product demand) and operational functioning (difficulty in marketing activities and standstill/decline in the fiscal year) has mainly been affected. In response, innovative agro-industries have acted regarding their processes (increased ICT use and new marketing strategies) and procedures (implementation of stricter hygienic-sanitary protocols and reorganization of activities and personnel) to deal with the negative effects on their activities. In general, all agro-industrial branches have incorporated changes in their products and services, mainly by providing new and better customer benefits, and improving product formats and forms of payment to suppliers. These findings provide information for the regional public administration in the development of initiatives that mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and favor the implementation of actions that help the adaptation of agro-industrial activities. Agricultural policies should incorporate specialized measures to ensure the global sustainability of the food and agriculture system and the supply and production.

13.
European Energy and Environmental Law Review ; 31(4):241-257, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046752

ABSTRACT

Effective from 1 January 2020, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has brought down the permissible sulphur emission from vessels to 0.50% m/m from the earlier set 3.5% m/m Sulphur emission limit. The maritime stakeholders stepping away from Heavy Sulphur Fuel Oil (HSFO) and looking towards Very Low Sulphur Fuel Oil, Liquefied Natural Gas, Marine Gas Oil, (VLSFO, LNG, MGO), for compliance or use of Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (EGCS) with HSFO. These modes of compliance however are not completely failsafe as they present economical and regulatory challenges. The article presents a study of IMO and Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) regulations, guidance, and guidelines for the implementation of low Sulphur limit. The nations member to International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MAR-POL) are subject to new Sulphur limit and they have devices their own set of policies for compliance causing a lack of uniformity. MARPOL has left the decision of sanctions on the Member State thus the set standards also vary and there exist certain nations with sanction policies in case of violation. The research has addressed the national policies of major maritime contributing nations having varied geographical proximity. Greece, UK, Panama, USA, Australia, China, India, and Nigeria are considered for the study. The study has shown that open-loop EGCS have been prohibited in various nations due to environmental concerns. Further, many states have not formed sanction policies reflecting the allocation of responsibility in case of non-compliance consequently have established a threat of criminal action against the captain and the crew of the ship. The article concludes that the IMO can issue reservations for national implementation or formulate modal law for national policy-making so that uniformity is achieved. Furthermore, the economic challenges prevalent have occurred due to the high cost of alternative fuel and installation of EGCS which has consequently impacted the opting of compliance mechanism by the shipping industry. The newly built ships preinstalled with EGCS are preferred. The study has suggested that for old vessels EGCS might be the adequate option as the cost of fuel is expected to increase in the post COVID-19 era. © 2022, Kluwer Law International. All rights reserved.

14.
Phronimos ; 2(4):67-75, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045938

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic was the major event that occurred in the history of mankind. COVID-19 pandemic had brought major changes in every field of nation. The effect was seen to have major impact on economics, agriculture, manufacturing and service sectors. The organizations have seen major changes with respect to different aspects of business-like code of conduct, scheduling of activities, operations' plan, strategic planning etc. In the same way organizations have also seen changes with respect to behavior. The working conditions and priorities have changed to a drastic level in terms of working hours, nature of work and most importantly working dynamics. Organizations have employed different working models to overcome the challenges faced due to pandemic so that the business is not hampered. Companies have used hybrid models like combination of work from home and work from office. This has led to changes in work flexibility. Sales have been seen as a key factor and Covid-19 has brought major changes in the sales parameter. During Covid-19, social distancing was the major concern. In this regard it has to be tested whether the covid-19 has a direct/indirect impact on sales. This paper deals about how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the behavior of organization especially with respect to e-commerce industry, especially pertaining to sales.

15.
Phronimos ; 2(4):41-53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045930

ABSTRACT

Work from home is a new concept which is widely introduced all over the world due to covid 19 Pandemic. Before pandemic the wfh was only restricted to some big organizations where outsourcing was done through software's hardly contributing 5% of the total work flow. But the covid pandemic influenced the work from home culture throughout the world. Even in India wfh has covered major sectors including education. Most of the meetings, customer support services, supply chain management, medical advices have been carried out through online services. The employees of the company were allowed to work from home through software's. Overnight many organizations developed online platforms and provided the support systems to their employees in order to work effectively from their residence. Most of the service organizations especially financial services, insurance services and many other advisory services including education services have largely adopted online work which has effectively helped the employees as well as organizations. Even after covid pandemic some of the organizations still preferred especially IT sector industries prefer wfh an effective concept. The reason behind it is, the workers can enjoy family and work together and most convenient in terms of quality food at home and rest posses as and when required, from company's point of view it is cost effective and quick disbursement of job. Therefore the wfh concept has largely gained an attention from most of organizations even in India. In order to understand the real philosophy of effectiveness of wfh in Indian context research has been conducted in India

16.
Industria Saccarifera Italiana ; 113(1/2):3-5, 2020.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045457

ABSTRACT

The international economy is already being severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, both directly and indirectly as a result of the required controls put in place to stop the disease's spread. The food and agriculture industry is likewise being affected by these effects. While the food supply has been stable thus far, in many nations the virus-containment efforts are beginning to affect the flow of agro-food items to markets and consumers, both domestically and abroad. The composition of the industry as well as the degree of demand for specific commodities are both significantly changing. How detrimental these effects wind up being to food security, nutrition, and the livelihoods of farmers, fishers, and others involved in the food supply chain will be greatly influenced by the short-, medium-, and long-term policy responses. Governments have a lot on their plates right now, including responding to the health crisis, dealing with the fallout from the economic shock, and making sure the food system runs smoothly. While the pandemic creates some major short-term issues for the food system, it also presents a chance to speed up changes in the food and agriculture industry that will increase its resilience to a variety of threats, including climate change.

17.
Working Paper - University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa 2022. (2022-4):29 pp. 37 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045056

ABSTRACT

The economy of Hawaii was extremely vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic due to its heavy reliance on tourism. This article is a thorough survey of issues affecting a tourism-dependent open economy during the COVID-19 pandemic. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the pandemicaTMs economic impact in Hawaii by comparing the actual outcomes during the affected period with the pre-pandemic forecast. We explain why HawaiiaTMs experience differed from other states, suggest reasons for a slow recovery, and discuss the pandemicaTMs lasting effects in the Islands. We also describe changes in the economic forecasting process necessitated by the increase in uncertainty.

18.
Working Paper - Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University 2022. (22-WP 637):29 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044960

ABSTRACT

We analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated policy responses on the global economy and food security in 80 low- and middle-income countries. We use a global economy-wide model with detailed disaggregation of agricultural and food sectors and develop a business as usual baseline for 2020 and 2021 called "But-for-COVID" (BfC). We then shock the model with aggregate income shocks derived from the IMF World Economic Outlook for 2020 and 2021. We impose total-factor productivity losses in key sectors as well as consumption decreases induced by social distancing. The resulting shocks in prices and incomes from the CGE model simulations are fed into the USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment model to derive the impact of the pandemic on food security in these 80 countries. The main effect of the pandemic was to exacerbate the existing declining trend in food security. Food insecurity increases considerably in countries in Asia through income shocks rather than prices effects. We also review trade policies that were put in place to restrict imports and exports of food, and we evaluate their potential for further disruption of markets focusing on the food-security implications.

19.
Journal of ISSAAS ; 28(1):152-153, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044831

ABSTRACT

Prior to the pandemic, agri-tourism was on its rise in the Philippines. It is known as a fusion of Agriculture and tourism, linked to other sectors, including hospitality and transportation. However, travel bans and other restrictions amid the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely affected tourism. This study aimed to describe the pandemic effects on agri-tourism enterprises in the province of La Union, Philippines, and their adaptation strategies. A survey of 16 enterprises was conducted in May 2021. Descriptive and content analysis was employed to analyze the data and information gathered. The pandemic was found to have significantly affected the enterprises' marketing function, resulting in financial losses and adjustments to their business models. Their adaptation strategies were categorized as either survival or sustaining. Survival strategies were the farms' initial coping mechanisms like shifting to a new market, lowered prices, and switching to online marketing. On the other hand, sustaining strategies were also known as long-term solutions like diversification and expansion. The enterprises that adopted both strategies had wider offerings and possessed more than one accreditation. It is recommended that agri-tourism enterprises continue strategizing as the pandemic remains a threat. They should consider employing sustaining strategies for post-pandemic.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the pandemic time went by in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), various patterns toward COVID-19 itself and its impacts, implementation of prescribed preventive measures among the team members, and those of their patients, including immunization process, have been revealed. These patterns were of both empirical and evidence-based kind and consequently formed dental personnel behavior. The aim was to evaluate and compare the COVID-19 status of dentists in B&H, implementation of prescribed preventive measures, and usage of various kinds of PPE, at the beginning of the pandemics and now, 2.5 years later, including dentists' current vaccination status, and their opinions and attitudes toward the national COVID-19 economic impact on dental practice. METHODOLOGY: Study research was in a form of a cross-sectional longitudinally designed online survey and was conducted in two parts. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Dental professionals in B&H had a high frequency of COVID-19 symptoms in the second pandemic year. The vaccination status of dentists in B&H was in line with the global average values of vaccinated professionals. Dentists used patient management preventive measures and PPE recommended by WHO, but some preventive measures have been changed and prioritized recently. The economic impact of pandemics on dentistry was predominantly negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Dentists , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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