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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 91-104, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201743

ABSTRACT

There are currently eight vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 that have received Emergency Use Authorization by the WHO that can offer some protection to the world's population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Though research is being published all over the world, public health officials, policymakers and governments are collecting evidence-based information to establish the public health policies. Unfortunately, continued international travel, violations of lockdowns and social distancing, the lack of mask use, the emergence of mutant strains of the virus and lower adherence by a sector of the global population that remains sceptical of the protection offered by vaccines, or about any risks associated with vaccines, hamper these efforts. Here we examine the literature on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, with an emphasis on select categories of individuals and against new SARS-CoV-2 strains. The literature shows that these eight vaccines are highly effective in protecting the population from severe disease and death, but there are some issues concerning safety and adverse effects. Further, booster shots and variant-specific vaccines would also be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(10): e41410, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are around 1.3 million people in the United Kingdom with the devastating psychological, physical, and cognitive consequences of long COVID (LC). UK guidelines recommend that LC symptoms be managed pragmatically with holistic support for patients' biopsychosocial needs, including psychological, emotional, and physical health. Self-management strategies, such as pacing, prioritization, and goal setting, are vital for the self-management of many LC symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the codevelopment and initial testing of a digital intervention combining peer support with positive psychology approaches for self-managing the physical, emotional, psychological, and cognitive challenges associated with LC. The objectives of this study were to (1) codesign an intervention with and for people with LC; (2) test the intervention and study methods; (3) measure changes in participant well-being, self-efficacy, fatigue, and loneliness; and (4) understand the types of self-management goals and strategies used by people with LC. METHODS: The study used a pre-post, mixed methods, pragmatic, uncontrolled design. Digital intervention content was codeveloped with a lived-experience group to meet the needs uncovered during the intervention development and logic mapping phase. The resulting 8-week digital intervention, Hope Programme for Long COVID, was attended by 47 participants, who completed pre- and postprogram measures of well-being, self-efficacy, fatigue, and loneliness. Goal-setting data were extracted from the digital platform at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The recruitment rate (n=47, 83.9%) and follow-up rate (n=28, 59.6%) were encouraging. Positive mental well-being (mean difference 6.5, P<.001) and self-efficacy (mean difference 1.1, P=.009) improved from baseline to postcourse. All goals set by participants mapped onto the 5 goal-oriented domains in the taxonomy of everyday self-management strategies (TEDSS). The most frequent type of goals was related to activity strategies, followed by health behavior and internal strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The bespoke self-management intervention, Hope Programme for Long COVID, was well attended, and follow-up was encouraging. The sample characteristics largely mirrored those of the wider UK population with LC. Although not powered to detect statistically significant changes, the preliminary data show improvements in self-efficacy and positive mental well-being. Our next trial (ISRCTN: 11868601) will use a nonrandomized waitlist control design to further examine intervention efficacy.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thymosin-α-1 (Tα1) may be a treatment option for COVID-19, but efficacy and safety data remain limited. METHODS: Prospective, open-label, randomized trial assessing preliminary efficacy and safety of thymalfasin (synthetic form of Tα1), compared with standard of care, among hospitalized patients with hypoxemia and lymphocytopenia due to COVID-19. RESULTS: 49 patients were included in this analysis. Compared with control patients, the incidence of clinical recovery was higher for treated patients with either baseline low flow oxygen (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR]: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.68-3.25) or baseline high flow oxygen (SHR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.35-4.63), although neither were significant. Among patients with baseline low flow oxygen, treated patients, compared with control patients, had an average difference of 3.84 times more CD4+ T cells on Day 5 than on Day 1 (p = 0.0113). Nine serious adverse events among treated patients were deemed not related to Tα1. CONCLUSION: Tα1 increases CD4+ T cell count among patients with baseline low flow oxygen support faster than standard of care and may have a role in the management of hospitalized patients with hypoxemia and lymphocytopenia due to COVID-19.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 171: 64-74, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccines immunogenicity in patients with cancer has been investigated, whether they can significantly improve the severity of COVID-19 in this specific population is undefined. METHODS: Capitalizing on OnCovid (NCT04393974) registry data we reported COVID-19 mortality and proxies of COVID-19 morbidity, including post-COVID-19 outcomes, according to the vaccination status of the included patients. RESULTS: 2090 eligible patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 02/2020 and 11/2021 were included, of whom 1930 (92.3%) unvaccinated, 91 (4.4%) fully vaccinated and 69 (3.3%) partially vaccinated. With the exception of a higher prevalence of patients from the UK (p = 0.0003) and receiving systemic anticancer therapy at COVID-19 diagnosis (p = 0.0082) among fully vaccinated patients, no demographics/oncological features were associated with vaccination status. The 14-days case fatality rate (CFR) (5.5% vs 20.7%, p = 0.0004) and the 28-days CFR (13.2% vs 27.4%, p = 0.0028) demonstrated a significant improvement for fully vaccinated patients in comparison with unvaccinated patients. The receipt of prior full vaccination was also associated with reduced symptomatic COVID-19 (79.1% vs 88.5%, p = 0.0070), need of COVID-19 oriented therapy (34.9% vs 63.2%, p < 0.0001), complications from COVID-19 (28.6% vs 39.4%, p = 0.0379), hospitalizations due to COVID-19 (42.2% vs 52.5%, p = 0.0007) and oxygen therapy requirement (35.7% vs 52%, p = 0.0036). Following Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting (IPTW) procedure no statistically significant difference according to the vaccination status was confirmed; however, all COVID-19 related outcomes were concordantly in favour of full vaccination. Among the 1228 (58.8%) patients who underwent a formal reassessment at participating centres after COVID-19 resolution, fully vaccinated patients experienced less sequelae than unvaccinated patients (6.7% vs 17.2%, p = 0.0320). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides initial evidence in support of the beneficial effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Front Artif Intell ; 5:1031450, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence in the educational domain has many uses;however, using AI specifically to enhance education and teaching in a K-12 environment poses the most significant challenges to its use. Beyond usage and application, the quality of the education is made even more arduous due to the dynamics of teaching primary and secondary school children, whose needs far exceed mere fact recollection. Utilizing prior research using AI in education and online education in the K-12 space, we explore some of the hurdles that AI applications face in K-12 teaching and provide core attributes for a "Turing Teacher," i.e., an AI powered technology for learning, specifically targeting the K-12 space. METHODS: Using a survey, which included qualitative responses during the implementation of online learning during the Covid Pandemic, we analyze the results using univariate and multivariate tests and analyzed the qualitative responses to create core attributes needed for AI powered teaching technology. RESULTS: The results present the challenges faced by any technology in an education setting and show that AI technology must help overcome negative feelings about technology in education. Further, the core attributes identified in the research must be addressed from the three stakeholder perspectives of teachers, parents and students. DISCUSSION: We present our findings and lay the groundwork for future research in the area of AI powered education. The Turing Teacher must be able to adapt and collaborate with real teachers and address the varying needs of students. In addition, we explore the use of AI technology as a means to close the digital divide in traditionally disadvantaged communities.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10:1076090, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199557

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions, including promotion of social distancing, have been applied extensively in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding cognitive and psychological factors regulating precautionary behavior is important for future management. The present study examines the importance of selected factors as predictors of having visited or intended to visit crowded places. Six online questionnaire-based waves of data collection were conducted in April-October 2020 in a Norwegian panel (≥18 years). Sample size at Wave 1 was 1,400. In the present study, "Visited or intended to visit crowded places" for different types of locations were the dependent variables. Predictors included the following categories of items: Perceived response effectiveness, Self-efficacy, Vulnerability, Facilitating factors and Barriers. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage distributions, descriptives, correlations, principal components analysis, negative binomial-, binary logistic-, and multiple linear regression, and cross-lagged panel models. Analyses of dimensionality revealed that a distinction had to be made between Grocery stores, a location visited by most, and locations visited by few (e.g., "Pub," "Restaurants," "Sports event"). We merged the latter set of variables into a countscore denoted as "Crowded places." On the predictor side, 25 items were reduced to eight meanscores. Analyses of data from Wave 1 revealed a rather strong prediction of "Crowded places" and weaker associations with "Supermarket or other store for food." Across waves, in multiple negative binomial regression models, three meanscore predictors turned out to be consistently associated with "Crowded places." These include "Response effectiveness of individual action," "Self-efficacy with regard to avoiding people," and "Barriers." In a prospective cross-lagged model, a combined Response effectiveness and Self-efficacy score (Cognition) predicted behavior ("Visited or intended to visit crowded places") prospectively and vice versa. The results of this study suggest some potential to reduce people's visits to crowded locations during the pandemic through health education and behavior change approaches that focus on strengthening individuals' perceived response effectiveness and self-efficacy.

7.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199423

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese medical postgraduates (CMPs) are a special subpopulation that has a great risk of mental health due to high workload, and heavy academic and clinical pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical activity has been demonstrated to be positive for the mental health of human being. However, little is known about the risks to mental health among CMPs as well as the potential effects of physical activity on mental health in CMPs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim(s): In the present study, the aims are to (1) investigate the levels of PA and mental health that CMPs had;(2) to identify the potential factors that contribute to mental health among CMPs;(3) to explore the potential effects of PA on the mental health in CMPs. Method(s): The survey was conducted online across 25 provinces of mainland China in 28 medical colleges or universities with structured questionnaires. Physical Activity Rating Scale-3 (PARS-3), Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were employed to assess the levels of PA, Negative emotional states, and self-efficacy of the participants, respectively. Resilience was evaluated using Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare inter-group differences in demographic data and mental health conditions. Spearman's rank correlation test and partial correlation analysis were used to assess associations between exercise scores and mental health. Result(s): We found some socio-demographic variables such as the location, education levels of parents and the levels of degrees they are training had potential effects on outcomes of mental health among 2,217 CMPs (P < 0.05);furthermore, we also found that PA was negatively correlated with the negative emotion (r = -0.045, P < 0.05) such as depression (r = -0.052, P < 0.05), anxiety and stress, (r = -0.051, P < 0.05) but positively correlated with the self-efficacy (r = 0.143, P < 0.001) and resilience (r = 0.192, P < 0.001) among Chinese postgraduate medical students. Conclusion(s): We concluded that for Chinese postgraduate medical students, taking part in physical activity would depress negative emotions such as depression, anxiety, and stress, but improve their self-efficacy and resilience, which will benefit them in completing their studies and training. Copyright © 2022 Yue, Ge, Liu, Zhang, Koda and Yan.

8.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199230

ABSTRACT

The normalization of epidemic prevention and control has exacerbated nurses' physical and mental stresses. The important role of physical activity in relieving nurses' physical and mental stresses has received extensive attention from researchers in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the regulatory emotional self-efficacy, resilience, and emotional intelligence of nurses and explain their interactions. The present study adopted the cluster sampling method. From April to May 2022, a total of 500 nurses in six municipal hospitals in Changsha City were selected. Finally, 402 valid data samples were obtained. Afterward, AMOS 23.0 (by maximum likelihood estimation) was used to process the collected data and analyze the proposed hypotheses by using 5,000 bootstrap samples to test the mediating effects of the structural equation model. The results demonstrated that there are positive correlations between physical activity and resilience (standardized coefficients = 0.232, p < 0.001), resilience and regulatory emotional self-efficacy (standardized coefficients = 0.449, p < 0.001), and emotional intelligence and regulatory emotional self-efficacy (standardized coefficients = 0.330, p < 0.001). The positive influence of physical activity on emotional regulation self-efficacy is completely mediated by emotional intelligence and resilience (standardized indirect effect = 0.237, p < 0.01), and this explanatory power is far higher than any previous study (R-2 = 0.49). The positive emotions generated by an individual's physical activity have an important explanatory role for individuals who want to establish more emotional regulation self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and psychological resilience.

9.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199228

ABSTRACT

IntroductionDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, emergency remote teaching was implemented at all conventional Dutch universities;however, the degree of limitations in on-campus teaching and learning varied during the pandemic dependent on the strictness of the measures. In the present study, it will be investigated how study-related experiences of university students changed in the face of varying limitations in on-campus teaching and learning. MethodsThe study had a longitudinal natural experiment design with three points of measurement during the academic year 2020-2021: November-December 2020 (t1;campuses partially open), March 2021 (t2;campuses fully closed) and June-July 2021 (t3;campuses partially open). In total, 680 Dutch university students (65.9% female;age: M = 21 years, SD = 2.06) filled in online surveys measuring study-related wellbeing (academic burnout and study-engagement), study-related behavior (study effort), and study-related attitudes (education satisfaction, online self-efficacy, and attitudes toward online education). ResultsOverall, students reported moderate levels of academic burnout, study engagement, study effort, education satisfaction, and online self-efficacy;their attitudes toward online education were rather negative. Students' study-related wellbeing and education satisfaction decreased in the period when on-campus teaching and learning was impossible (t2) compared to periods in which on-campus teaching and learning was possible at a low level with several restrictions (t1 and t3). Students' attitudes toward online education and online self-efficacy slightly increased at the end of the academic year (t3);however, the attitudes toward online education remained negative. DiscussionThe findings indicate that students' academic burnout, study engagement, and education satisfaction varied over the course of the academic year in the context of changing limitations in on-campus teaching and learning. To facilitate positive study-related experiences, universities are advised to offer as much on-campus education as possible in times of pandemics.

10.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199227

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019, China's education leaders began to focus on and promote blended learning. The process is still in its infancy in Chinese colleges and universities, and its development remains a problem to be solved. By combining technology acceptance and student participation, this article proposes an analysis model for assessing the factors influencing blended learning. A questionnaire was designed and distributed, and 796 valid responses were collected. The mean and variance were used to examine the status of students' technology acceptance and satisfaction with blended learning. The t-test method was employed to analyze the gender differences between students in regard to the topic. The results show that: (1) students majoring in computer science view the factors as having a high level of influence in blended learning. (2) There are major variances regarding the perception of service quality between male and female computer science major students. There is no significant difference between them in terms of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, or computer self-efficacy. (3) There are considerable disparities in the skill involvement and participation of computer science major college students. The results show that the technology acceptance and participation of students determine the effect of blended learning. Based on these findings, this article provides theoretical and practical suggestions for the implementation of blended learning to improve its effect.

11.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199182

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe COVID-19 pandemic led to school closure and loss of in-person instruction during the 2019-2020 academic year across the United States, which had a profound impact on the reading development of beginning readers. In this study we tested if a research-informed educational technology (EdTech) program-GraphoLearn-could help alleviate the COVID-19 slide. We also sought to understand the profiles of children who benefitted most from this EdTech program. MethodsWe tested participants' (N = 172 K-2 children) early literacy skills using a standardized measure (STAR) before and after playing GraphoLearn, and used the pre to post difference as the dependent variable. We first compared children's STAR actual and expected growth. Then we conducted a multiple regression analysis with data about engagement with GraphoLearn included as predictors. Additional predictors were extracted from GraphoLearn performance at study onset to assess children's letter-sound knowledge, rime awareness, and word recognition. ResultsThe difference between actual average reading growth and expected growth in a regular school year was not statistically significant. This suggests that children in our sample seem to be gaining reading skills as expected in a regular school year. Our multiple linear regression model (which accounted for R-2 = 48% of reading growth) showed that older children, with higher baseline GraphoLearn word recognition, who played more units in a fixed number of days, made significantly more early literacy progress. DiscussionWhile lacking a control group, our preliminary results suggest that an EdTech program such as GraphoLearn may be a useful reading instructional tool during school shutdowns. In addition, our results suggest that practice with GraphoLearn was more effective and efficient when foundational instruction was already in place.

12.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199173

ABSTRACT

IntroductionWith the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work was increased all over the globe. As a consequence, workers had to adapt their communication behaviors to smoothly coordinate work in their flexible teams (i.e., when team members divide work between the office and their homes). Drawing on relational coordination theory, we constructed and validated a scale to capture the most relevant team communication behaviors. MethodsWe employed interviews and focus groups to construct the scale, refined the scale based on three samples with employees working flexibly and finally validated the scale with 130 teams from diverse organizations. ResultsOur scale comprises three dimensions: focused communication, knowledge sharing and spontaneous communication. All three dimensions showed convergent validity with team planning and discriminant validity with time-spatial flexibility. Also, predictive validity with collective efficacy and team viability was achieved for focused communication and knowledge sharing. Spontaneous communication only predicted collective efficacy, but not team viability. DiscussionWe conclude that the TCS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing team communication and contribute by focusing on behaviors.

13.
Frontiers in Oncology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199068

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease has a strong impact on hematological patients;those receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) represent a particularly vulnerable group, in which the effectiveness of vaccination is very variable. Chiarucci et al. showed that patients affected by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and treated with rituximab experienced a lower rate of immunization against SARS-CoV-2 (54%), as well as significantly lower IgG antibody titers. In our multicenter retrospective observational study, we included 82 patients who underwent aHSCT, divided into two groups: 58 patients vaccinated after aHSCT (group A) and 24 vaccinated before getting transplantation (group B). In group A, 39 (67%) patients had positive serology, and the rate of positivity increased with time after aHSCT. In the subgroup of patients with NHL the administration of rituximab predicted negative serology, particularly when administered in the 6 months before vaccination (13% response rate). Patients affected by plasma cells had a higher rate of positivity (83% overall), independently of the time to aHSCT. In group B, no patient who initially showed positive serology became negative after transplantation, so the aHSCT did not affect the response to the vaccination. Our study confirmed the role of rituximab as a negative predictor of response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, whereas the conditioning and transplantation procedure itself seemed to be less important.

14.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198754

ABSTRACT

Employee resilience is commonly understood as a process that protects against distressing conditions and helps employees to cope with stress factors, to survive and adapt to changing work environments. Over the past few years Lithuanian teachers have had to deal with unexpected force majeure situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, a large influx of Ukrainian refugee pupils, ongoing school related issues, such as the introduction of new curricula, full inclusion of children with special needs, reorganizations, and increasing workloads. Our study based on the four-dimensional Teacher Resilience Framework and Job Demands-Resources theory aimed to examine relationships between supportive leadership, job resources and teacher resilience, and to reveal the mediating role of job resources in the relationships between supportive leadership and teacher resilience. A cross-sectional research sample included 455 Lithuanian teachers working in elementary and secondary schools. Data were collected using a self-administered online survey. The study identified that supportive leadership and job resources, i.e., feedback, autonomy, opportunities for development, and social support - were positively related with teacher resilience and its four dimensions. The mediation analysis established an indirect impact of supportive leadership on resilience types via job resources, however, the role of work resources as mediators differed depending on resilience type. The results complement studies analyzing the role of work environments in resilience, such as personal capability studies. They suggest that supportive school leadership and job characteristics as contextual resources available at the workplace should be considered when planning and implementing interventions aimed at strengthening teacher resilience.

15.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198749

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life of families of children with disabilities and the mediating roles of perceived social support, perceived parental self-efficacy, psychological health, psychological resilience, and perceived family burden on this relationship. BackgroundChildren with disabilities and their families are among the most affected populations from the restrictions imposed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 virus, as the special education and rehabilitation services they had been receiving were interrupted. MethodA correlational survey design was used to collect data from 824 parents of children with disabilities in Turkey. Path analysis was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on family quality of life. ResultsResults indicated that COVID-19 had a significant total effect on family quality of life and perceived social support, parental self-efficacy and psychological resilience had a mediating role on the relationship between impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and family quality of life. Perceived social support was found to the strongest mediator of the relationship between the impact of COVID-19 and the family quality of life, while perceived family burden did not have a statistically significant association with these variables. ConclusionFamily quality of life for children with disabilities decreased as the impact of COVID-19 pandemic increased. Perceived social support, parental self-efficacy and psychological resilience had mediating roles in the relationship between the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and family quality of life. ImplicationsCOVID-19 has resulted in disruption of special education and rehabilitation services for children with disabilities and their families. Changes in daily routines have brought up additional responsibilities to parents of children with disabilities. These additional responsibilities may adversely affect and increase the burden and stress families of children with disabilities experience. The high levels of stress in families negatively affect the welfare and quality of life and result in decreased parental attention to support their children. Findings of this study show the mediating link of perceived social support, parental self-efficacy and psychological resilience in the relationship between the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and family quality of life. Policymakers and service providers should develop and implement specific care actions to support children with disabilities and their families during and after the pandemic.

16.
"„Bila su to najbolja vremena, bila su to najgora vremena"" – studija motivaciono-afektivnih aspekata podučavanja tokom pandemije COVID-19 u Srbiji 2020–2021 godine" ; 56(1):115-144, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2198209

ABSTRACT

In order to shed light on the intrapersonal mechanisms that underlie the teaching in the blended learning environment, which implies the integration of complementary face-to-face and online approaches, we focused on the relationship between teachers' self-efficacy and motivation for teaching, with reference to the mediating role of teachers' emotional experiences. The sample included 341 subject teachers from Serbian primary schools, who use the blended learning model in teaching (84% female;average age 43.97 years). The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale, Emotions in Teaching Inventory – Revised, and Autonomous Motivation for Teaching Scale were used to examine the variables of interest. The overall fit of the mediated model to the data was adequate, confirming the mediating role of teachers' emotions in the relationship between the studied motivational constructs. The results indicate that the motivation for teaching in a blended learning environment relies on self-efficacy in instructional strategies and self-efficacy in classroom management, which partially act through the emotions concerning the experience of tension. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR]

17.
Future Virology ; 17(12):849-862, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198203

ABSTRACT

What is this summary about?This is a summary of an article about part of a clinical study for the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, also called the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. The article was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in September 2021. The part of the study described in the article began in July 2020 and is ongoing. This means that the final results may be different from the results included in this summary.What happened in this study?The participants in this study received 2 injections of either the BNT162b2 vaccine or a placebo, 21 days apart. The placebo looked like the BNT162b2 vaccine but had no active vaccine in it. None of the trial participants or study teams knew who received vaccine or placebo.What were the results?Most of the reactions to the injections were mild or moderate and lasted for a short period of time. The most common reactions were pain at the injection site, extreme tiredness (fatigue), and headache. These reactions usually happened in the first 7 days after receiving a vaccine dose. A small number of participants had severe reactions to the vaccine.Compared to participants who received the placebo, participants who received the BNT162b2 vaccine were much less likely to become ill if they were infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. The vaccine also had very good efficacy at preventing severe COVID-19.Participants in South Africa who received the BNT162b2 vaccine were less likely to become ill after infection with the beta variant of the virus compared to participants who received the placebo. The beta variant was very common in South Africa when the study was taking place.

18.
Computational and Mathematical Biophysics ; 10(1):281-303, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2197311

ABSTRACT

In this study, we develop a mathematical model incorporating age-specific transmission dynamics of COVID-19 to evaluate the role of vaccination and treatment strategies in reducing the size of COVID-19 burden. Initially, we establish the positivity and boundedness of the solutions of the non controlled model and calculate the basic reproduction number and do the stability analysis. We then formulate an optimal control problem with vaccination and treatment as control variables and study the same. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle is used to obtain the optimal vaccination and treatment rates. Optimal vaccination and treatment policies are analysed for different values of the weight constant associated with the cost of vaccination and different efficacy levels of vaccine. Findings from these suggested that the combined strategies (vaccination and treatment) worked best in minimizing the infection and disease induced mortality. In order to reduce COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 induced deaths to maximum, it was observed that optimal control strategy should be prioritized to the population with age greater than 40 years. Varying the cost of vaccination it was found that sufficient implementation of vaccines (more than 77 %) reduces the size of COVID-19 infections and number of deaths. The infection curves varying the efficacies of the vaccines against infection were also analysed and it was found that higher efficacy of the vaccine resulted in lesser number of infections and COVID induced deaths. The findings would help policymakers to plan effective strategies to contain the size of the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 Bishal Chhetri et al., published by De Gruyter.

19.
BMC Proceedings. Conference: 6th International Conference on Molecular Diagnostics and Biomarker Discovery, MDBD ; 16(Supplement 7), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196276

ABSTRACT

Background Coronaviruses are well-known to possess high mutation rate. The recent pandemic has demonstrated this fact that multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged since the first occurrence in 2019. Variants such as Beta, Delta and Omicron variant, even showed the ability of immune evasion in convalescent and vaccinated individuals [1], raising global concern about the efficacies of existing vaccines. Immunoinformatics approach is gaining traction in vaccine development due to significant time and cost reduction in immunogenicity studies and improved reliability [2]. Viral genome can be analysed for the mapping of potential T-cell and B-cell epitopes. Structural proteins, particularly spike protein (S) have been studied extensively as promising vaccine candidates. One rationale is that the RBD of SARS-CoV- 2 attaches to the ACE2 receptor on the host cells to initiate infection. Taken together, a vaccine that offers protection over a wide spectrum of coronaviruses is crucially demanded. Methodology The sequences of S proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were retrieved from the NCBI database. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) was performed to identify the conserved regions among S proteins from different human coronaviruses. All conserved regions were analysed for the antigenicity through VaxiJen. The conserved regions that passed the threshold value of 0.5 were then analysed for T-cell and B-cell epitope predictions using NetMHCpan EL4.1, IEDB recommended 2.22 and BepiPred 2.0, respectively. The antigenic conserved regions were also used to construct 3D model using SWISS-MODEL followed by structural refinement using GalaxyRefine2. All refined models were validated using ERRAT and PROCHECK. Lastly, the docking of 3D models against TLR-3 was performed via PatchDock and FireDock. Results and Discussion Based on the MSA result, S protein contains 12 conserved regions, which were then subjected to further analyses. Altogether 9 conserved regions were above the antigenicity threshold value and therefore selected. In terms of epitope prediction, the antigenic conserved regions were predicted to contain a total of 69 MHC Class-I epitopes, 45 MHC Class-II epitopes and 5 linear B-cell epitopes. Furthermore, all antigenic conserved regions were sent for 3D model building followed by structural refinement. The best refined model for each conserved region was chosen based on the Galaxy energy. These refined models were validated and the results showed that the models were of good quality. Following that, the refined model for each conserved region was docked against TLR-3. The global energies of complexes formed between the conserved regions and TLR-3 fell within the range of -11.74 to -7.36 kcal/mol. This implies that the conserved regions have good binding affinities with TLR-3. Conclusion The identified conserved regions of S protein were predicted to have a significant number of epitopes and showed promising docking results. This study provides some insights about the interaction of conserved S peptides with TLR-3, contributing to the vaccine design. Still, further analyses such as molecular dynamics and immune simulation are required to polish the results. In vitro and in vivo validation are also essential to evaluate the immunological roles of designed universal coronavirus vaccine.

20.
BMC Nurs ; 22(1):16, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 changed many studies' teaching mode in higher education profoundly, including nursing. This study evaluated the impact of distance education on the course performance of nursing students in a nursing fundamentals course during the epidemic of COVID-19. METHODS: This is a comparative prospective and retrospective quasi-experimental study. Nursing students in a Sino-foreign cooperative program were allocated to either an intervention group (distance education, n = 48) or control group (face-to-face teaching, n = 36). A self-efficacy questionnaire, an academic engagement scale and grades of the final written examination were used to evaluate the students' self-efficacy, academic engagement and academic performance, respectively. The data in this study were analyzed by two independent sample t-tests and the Chi-square test. Students experiencing distance teaching had worse academic performance (p = 0.001) and lower levels of learning behavior self-efficacy (p<0.05). The total score of academic engagement (p = 0.04) for students experiencing distance teaching were significantly lower than the scores of those students in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of COVID-19, nursing students conducted using distance education had poor course performance.

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