Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 20(1):17-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026591

ABSTRACT

Background: Poultry and livestock are a leading sub-sector of agriculture, playing an important role to fulfill the protein requirements of the human diet and contributing to the national economy in Bangladesh. This sub-sector is often vulnerable due to frequent outbreaks of diseases in animals and unrest situations worldwide that hamper earning a profit up to the expected mark. Due to pandemic COVID-19, the Bangladesh government was bound to announce a countrywide lockdown and periodical restriction of movement in March 2020 to minimize the spread of the infection. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on poultry and livestock health.

2.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):167-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012667

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has a significant impact on both the poultry industry and individual households. The pandemic's rapid spread has a significant impact on the country, leading to a total lockdown. As a result, the study focused on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on egg production and income of marketers among poultry farmers in Ido Local Government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 120 questionnaires were distributed. The respondents were chosen using a multi-stage randomization technique. The descriptive, budgetary technique was used to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on egg marketing, and the challenges faced by poultry farmers in egg marketing, while the budgetary technique was used to analyze the cost and return of egg marketing in the study area. Females had the highest percentage of respondents with the highest socioeconomic characteristics, according to the findings (80.8%). The majority of respondents (96.8%) were between the ages of 31 and 60, and the vast majority was married (94.2%). It was also revealed that the majority of poultry farmers (92.5%) had formal education and that the majority of them (67.5%) practiced Christianity. According to the budgetary analysis, the average variable cost incurred by the farmers polled was 33764.85. It also revealed that the total fixed cost was 388392.98 and the total production cost was 422157.83. The profitability index was 0.38, indicating that poultry egg farmers in the study area earned N0.38 for each naira invested in production. The presence of COVID 19 was statistically significant in determining the level of income of poultry farmers. High input costs, product marketing, a lack of storage facilities, disease outbreaks, insufficient feed formulation ingredients, a lack of extension services, and movement restrictions were some of the challenges faced by poultry farmers and egg marketers in Ido Local Government. To keep poultry production afloat during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, the government should provide expanded income support to affected farms, as well as tax deferment or waiver, and lower interest rates.

3.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):71-77, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011268

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important, highly contagious, acute disease of Chickens caused by a single-stranded positive RNA Virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family. The Virus can replicate in the oviduct and cause permanent damage in young hens resulting in the false layer occurrence. In laying hens, infectious bronchitis Virus (IBV) infections can cause a severe decline in egg production and a number of effects on egg quality and reduced hatchability. The most effective means of controlling IB in poultry is vaccination. In the areas with increased pressure of circulating field challenge Virus, live attenuated vaccines are also used during the laying period with the intention of keeping local protection of the respiratory tract at a high level. The vaccine strain IB V-173/11 contained in Avishield IB GI-13 vaccine is a strain that genetically (S1 gene) belongs to GI-13 lineage and antigenically to 793B IBV serotype. Viral infections of this serotype occur frequently in Europe and therefore most vaccination programs in broilers, layers and breeders along a live IBV vaccine of the Massachusetts serotype also include a live vaccine of the 793B serotype, GI-I3 lineage. In this paper, results of a safety evaluation of live attenuated IB vaccine strain V-173/11, when administered by spray method in a ten-fold maximum dose repeated by one maximum dose in 28-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) layer Chickens are presented. As a control, non-vaccinated SPF layer chickens were included in the study. The vaccine is considered to be safe when used in laying period because no vaccinated chicken showed abnormal local or systemic reactions or signs of IB related disease, no chicken died from the causes attributable to the vaccine, egg quality was not altered, and there was no statistically significant difference in. egg production between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated group.

4.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):15-17, 2022.
Article in Cr | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010958

ABSTRACT

In the years between the two poultry symposia, the European and Croatian poultry industry has been faced With additional challenges caused by COVID-19 pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic. These years were characterised by considerable production and market disorders, which influenced the level of production and pricing deviations in primary production, as well as in processing industry, poultry meat and poultry product market.

5.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1611-1619, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002783

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) disease, avian Infectious Bronchitis disease in one of the major cause of respiratory problems and economic loss in poultry industry, even in developed countries with good biosecurity practice. Since the first isolation of the virus in 1931, a lot of serotypes and genotypes of the virus have been reported around the world. The GI-1 lineage, including Massachusetts (Mass) serotype viruses, is one of the most widely spread types worldwide. Moreover, the GI-23 lineage with a growing incidence rate was reported approximately 20 years ago in the Middle East, with no or little homologues vaccine use. The genotype was previously restricted to the Middle East;now, there is evidence that it has spread to European countries, raising concerns regarding potential outbreaks. In the present study, our attempt was to phylogenetically analyze the S1 gene of six isolates from Massachusetts and variant 2 genotypes, which were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder flocks in Iran. The variant 2 viruses were compared to other reported variant 2 viruses from neighboring countries and they had more than 98% identity with the latest reported Iranian variant 2. In addition, Three Mass type viruses were similar to vaccine strains which may be shows continuous circulation of vaccine viruses in the field. This event can cause increasing the risk of their mutation or even reversion to virulence after several passages in natural host, furthermore circulating viruses may recombinant with virulent field viruses and cause emergence of new variants. Considering the variable nature of IB viruses in which few changes lead to important differences, continuous epidemiological surveillance along with clinical studies of new isolates, are crucial to a better understanding of their pathogenicity and subsequent disease control.

6.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 839(37), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1973036

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the hematological profile and specific immunity of laying hens with the addition of oil extracts of lycopene or astaxanthin to the diet. The study used High Line W36 chickens that were vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis and egg drop syndrome. It was found that the addition of lycopene (20 mg/kg) and astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days did not affect the hematological profile of laying hens. Increasing the content of lycopene to 40 and 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin to 20 or 30 mg/kg of feed for 30 days reduced the number of leukocytes and hemoglobin in the blood compared to the control, which received an equivalent amount of refined sunflower oil in the diet. Lycopene and astaxanthin supplements, regardless of dose and duration of administration, did not affect the titer of antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis, and egg drop syndrome in serum of vaccinated laying hens. The obtained data can be used to justify the optimal dose and term of feeding of lycopene or astaxanthin supplements in the development of a model of carotenoid enrichment of chicken egg yolks.

7.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

8.
Journal of Food Distribution Research ; 53(1):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904813

ABSTRACT

The American Rescue Funds Program seeks improvements to infrastructure, capacity, and diversification in meat and poultry processing, with clear prioritization of increased competition via small- and medium-sized processing facilities. The need to euthanize animals at a time when retailers were rationing meat sales was one of several examples of market failures during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated the disruptions to agricultural meat, poultry, and egg production at $15 billion based on CFAP and CFAP2 payments. Marani et al. (2021) estimate the probability of a repeat event at 1% to 2% per year, justifying the use of these public funds to add surplus capacity and infrastructure to mitigate disruptions in case of recurrence. Economics of scale are modest beyond slaughter of more than 125 head per hour in beef plants and 2,000 head per day in pork plants (Duewer and Nelson, 1991;Ollinger, MacDonald, and Madison, 2005). Dozens of such "medium-sized" U.S. pork and beef processing plants have survived since 2000, typically relying upon niche market connections. Given historic processing plant construction costs for medium-sized plants (Aherin, 333333 2021) and an assumed 20% USDA grant to incentivize construction, a $100 million expenditure on each of the beef and pork plants creates an opportunity to add as much as 5% additional capacity for each species, easing current capacity as the industries prepare for local and export growth. Whether producer-ownership of capacity can generate stability and additional benefits in the supply chains is of key interest. Models of producer ownership-including cooperatives and carefully structured LLCs-allow livestock producers to capture processing margins and remove some of the price uncertainty around live animal prices to the plant and producer. It follows, too, that producer-ownership can therefore reduce the ability of existing larger plants to poach supply from medium-sized plants during the crucial startup phase and ensure that plants run at optimum capacity. A significant portion of the additional capacity added to the pork industry in the last 15 years exhibited some form of producer ownership. Anecdotally, the pork and beef sectors may be moving away from commodity production and into systems that maintain animal identity from farm to consumer. Producers have an opportunity to capitalize on this shift by collectively investing in medium-sized plants with the ability to preserve identity and be more responsive to evolving consumer preferences. An overarching concern is of the need to maintain capacity into the future and the potential of existing packers to acquire this subsidized capacity should medium sized processing fail.

9.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 12:64-68, 2021.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841843

ABSTRACT

The antigenicity of three inactivated emulsified associated vaccines against viruses of chicken infectious bronchitis (IB), Newcastle disease (ND), and egg drop syndrome-76 (EDS-76) based on the oil adjuvant ISA-15 (O/W) was comparatively studied: (1) reference vaccine (IB+ND+EDS-76/ISA-15);(2) experimental vaccine (IB+NB+EDS-76/ISA-15-Nano) with a nanoscale-dispersed oil phase obtained by the use of a high-pressure homogenizer;(3) similar nano-scale vaccine (IB+NB+EDS-76+CoAA/ ISA-15-Nano) additionally supplemented with a copolymer of acrylic acid (CoAA). The in vivo tests of the vaccines on the chicks evidenced that both nano-scale vaccines enhanced the immune response in vaccinated chicks as compared to the reference vaccine and that supplementation with CoAA resulted in the highest postvaccinal antibody titers.

10.
Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology ; 15(59), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841817

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and has numerous serotypes and strains. Rapid replication combined with high mutation rate and recombination are the main causes of the observed high diversity. Feed conversion and average daily gain are affected in broilers, and infection is often followed by secondary bacterial infections. In layers, IBV causes a reduction in egg production. Today, IB is one of the most economically important diseases in the poultry industry. Transcriptional profiles of trachea tissue of the infected group (IBV) were studied with control group to evaluate changes in transcriptome profile at the early stages of infection. After the challenge of SPF chickens with IBV IS-1494 like (GI-23), the trachea tissue was used for RNA extraction, and changes in the transcriptome were investigated by Illumina RNA-seq technique. Up-regulated and down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the transcriptome of trachea were identified. Gene ontology category, KEGG pathway were analyzed to identify relationships among differentially expressed genes. In general, the numbers of up-regulated genes were higher than of down-regulated genes in experimental group. In the experimental group, a more severe immune response occurred;an important up-regulated genes in this group's was Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, apoptotic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. Results of this study could provide a general overview of transcriptome changes in the trachea at the early stage of infection with avian infectious bronchitis (IBV) virus.

11.
Comptes Rendus de l'Acad..mie d'Agriculture de France ; 106(1):74-75, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743911

ABSTRACT

This article presents the performance of livestock and poultry farmers in France highlighting their competitiveness in the global market in terms of import, export, and domestic production of meat, milk and poultry products. Also highlighted are measures taken by local livestock producers to cope with the constraints due to Covid-19.

12.
Indian Journal of Extension Education ; 58(1):172-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1717368

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted during 2020-2021 to assess the information sources utilization pattern of livestock and poultry farmers of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 120 farmers, 40 from each group i.e., dairy, piggery and poultry were selected randomly. Semi-structured personal interview and online survey through google forms were considered together for collection of data keeping in view the COVID-19 second wave. Information source utilization by majority of the respondents was medium. ICT utilization among the respondents was maximum with mean score of 0.63 followed by mass media with mean score of 0.51 and extension agency contact with mean score of 0.498. Education, land holding and experience in farming business were found to be significant contributors in information source utilization. Except age, all the variables such as education, annual income, land holding, experience in farming business and number of trainings undergone were positively correlated with information source utilization of the respondents.

13.
Journal of ISSAAS ; 27(2):55-68, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1602468

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has shocked the demand and supply of food product leading to large price fluctuations in the market not only at the national level but also at the regional level. This paper examines the existence of structural break and the volatility of chicken meat prices in six main islands in Indonesia by using additive outlier and ARCH-GARCH models. During the Covid-19 outbreak in Indonesia, the structural break in the chicken meat prices occurred in the six islands. There were variations in terms of the timing of the structural break where Kalimantan and Java island experienced the fastest structural break. Further examinations showed that after the structural break time, the prices of chicken meat in Sumatera, Java, Sulawesi and Papua tended to increase. Meanwhile, the prices of chicken meat in Kalimantan and Bali-NT tended to decline after the break time. The Covid-19 pandemic had a significant impact on chicken meat prices in Java and Bali-NT. The results have important implications for local and central governments that are still under the Covid-19 crisis on how to attain price stabilisation of regional chicken meat prices during the Covid-19 pandemic.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL