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1.
2022 International Semiconductor Conference, CAS 2022 ; 2022-October:261-264, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136126

ABSTRACT

Monitoring and controlling infection is required in order to prevent the progression of the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome 2(SARS-Co- V-2). To accomplish this goal, the development and implementation of sensitive, quick and accurate diagnostic methods are essential. Electrochemical sensors have exposed large application possibilities in biological detection due to the advantages of high sensitivity, short time-consuming and specificity. Here, we report the improvement of a sensitive electrochemical sensor capable of detecting the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus using graphene-modified interdigitated working electrodes functionalized with antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N protein). © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Mater Today (Kidlington) ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105556

ABSTRACT

In late 2019 SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread to become a global pandemic, therefore, measures to attenuate chains of infection, such as high-throughput screenings and isolation of carriers were taken. Prerequisite for a reasonable and democratic implementation of such measures, however, is the availability of sufficient testing opportunities (beyond reverse transcription PCR, the current gold standard). We, therefore, propose an electrochemical, microfluidic multiplexed polymer-based biosensor in combination with CRISPR/Cas-powered assays for low-cost and accessible point-of-care nucleic acid testing. In this study, we simultaneously screen for and identify SARS-CoV-2 infections (Omicron-variant) in clinical specimens (Sample-to-result time: ∼30 min), employing LbuCas13a, whilst bypassing reverse transcription as well as target amplification of the viral RNA (LODs of 2,000 and 7,520 copies/µl for the E and RdRP genes, respectively, and 50 copies/ml for combined targets), both of which are necessary for detection via PCR and other isothermal methods. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of combining synthetic biology-driven assays based on different classes of biomolecules, in this case protein-based ß-lactam antibiotic detection, on the same device. The programmability of the effector and multiplexing capacity (up to six analytes) of our platform, in combination with a miniaturized measurement setup, including a credit card sized near field communication (NFC) potentiostat and a microperistaltic pump, provide a promising on-site tool for identifying individuals infected with variants of concern and monitoring their disease progression alongside other potential biomarkers or medication clearance.

3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032846

ABSTRACT

Human beings continue to endure the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has spread throughout the world and significantly affected all countries and territories, causing a socioeconomic crunch. Human pathogenic viruses are considered a global burden for public health, both in the present and the future. Therefore, the early and accurate diagnosis of viruses has been and still is critical and should be accorded a degree of priority that is equivalent to vaccinations and drugs. We have opened a Special Issue titled "Conjugated polymers-based biosensors for virus detection". This editorial seeks to emphasize the importance and potential of conjugated polymers in the design and development of biosensors. Furthermore, we briefly provide an overview, scientific evidence, and opinions on promising strategies for the development of CP-based electrochemical biosensors for virus detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers
4.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 1487-1488, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012716

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the need for better understanding of the kinetics of anti-SARSCoV-2 antibody production and development of serological assays for multiple viral antigens. Electrochemical (EC) sensor platforms offer the potential to develop rapid, sensitive, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for this type of application. Here, we describe multiplexed EC biosensors with novel antifouling properties that detect anti-SARSCoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) against spike protein (S), spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (NC) antigens. This POC assay was validated using 69 clinical blood samples and obtained 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98 for multiplexed detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

5.
Carbon Trends ; : 100208, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003909

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic due to the emergence of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which was resulted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Significant efforts have been devoted by many countries to develop more advanced medicines and vaccines. However, along with these developments, it is also extremely essential to design effective systems by incorporating smart materials to battle the COVID-19. Therefore, several approaches have been implemented to combat against COVID-19. Recently, due to its superior physicochemical properties along with other fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have been explored for the current COVID-19 and future pandemics. Therefore, in this review article, we discuss the recent progress and the most promising strategies related to graphene and related materials and its applications for detection, decontamination, diagnosis, and protection against COVID-19. In addition, the key challenges and future directives are discussed in detail for fundamental design and development of technologies based on graphene and its related materials and lastly, our personal opinions on the appropriate approaches to improve these technologies respectively.

6.
Angewandte Chemie ; 134(31):1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1999826

ABSTRACT

Animal Testing, Aptamers, Coronavirus, Electrochemical Biosensors, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses Keywords: Animal Testing;Aptamers;Coronavirus;Electrochemical Biosensors;Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses EN Animal Testing Aptamers Coronavirus Electrochemical Biosensors Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses 1 1 1 07/27/22 20220801 NES 220801 B Schnelle und reagenzienfreie Erregertests b werden dringend benötigt. Innenrücktitelbild: A DNA Barcode-Based Aptasensor Enables Rapid Testing of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses in Swine Saliva Using Electrochemical Readout (Angew. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Angewandte Chemie is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997516

ABSTRACT

With the rise of zoonotic diseases in recent years, there is an urgent need for improved and more accessible screening and diagnostic methods to mitigate future outbreaks. The recent COVID-19 pandemic revealed an over-reliance on RT-PCR, a slow, costly and lab-based method for diagnostics. To better manage the pandemic, a high-throughput, rapid point-of-care device is needed for early detection and isolation of patients. Electrochemical biosensors offer a promising solution, as they can be used to perform on-site tests without the need for centralized labs, producing high-throughput and accurate measurements compared to rapid test kits. In this work, we detail important considerations for the use of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of respiratory viruses. Methods of enhancing signal outputs via amplification of the analyte, biorecognition of elements and modification of the transducer are also explained. The use of portable potentiostats and microfluidics chambers that create a miniature lab are also discussed in detail as an alternative to centralized laboratory settings. The state-of-the-art usage of portable potentiostats for detection of viruses is also elaborated and categorized according to detection technique: amperometry, voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In terms of integration with microfluidics, RT-LAMP is identified as the preferred method for DNA amplification virus detection. RT-LAMP methods have shorter turnaround times compared to RT-PCR and do not require thermal cycling. Current applications of RT-LAMP for virus detection are also elaborated upon.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Viruses/genetics
8.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition ; 61(31):1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1971220

ABSTRACT

Keywords: Animal Testing;Aptamers;Coronavirus;Electrochemical Biosensors;Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses EN Animal Testing Aptamers Coronavirus Electrochemical Biosensors Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses 1 1 1 07/27/22 20220801 NES 220801 B Rapid and reagent-free pathogen tests b are urgently needed. Inside Back Cover: A DNA Barcode-Based Aptasensor Enables Rapid Testing of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses in Swine Saliva Using Electrochemical Readout (Angew. Animal Testing, Aptamers, Coronavirus, Electrochemical Biosensors, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
Veterinary Microbiology ; n/a(n/a):622-658, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1905768

ABSTRACT

Summary The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses first established the order Nidovirales in 1996. Initially, the order contained only two viral families, Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae . Since the emergence of the human severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the spring of 2003, coronaviruses became more recognized and generated significant interest among researchers. Coronaviruses are spherical, enveloped virions with large club-shaped surface projections (peplomers) extending from the viral envelope. SARS-CoV-2 disease in hamsters is associated with high levels of virus replication and some of the histopathological changes similar to COVID-19 in humans (e.g., ground-glass opacities). ToVs have recently been classified into the new subfamily Torovirinae within the family Tobaniviridae in the suborder Tornidovirineae . ToVs are associated with enteric diseases in animals and humans, and they are recognized as pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, preventive social paradigms and vaccine development have undergone serious renovations, which drastically reduced the viral spread and increased collective immunity. Although the technological advancements in diagnostic systems for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection are groundbreaking, the lack of sensitive, robust, and consumer-end point-of-care (POC) devices with smartphone connectivity are conspicuously felt. Despite its revolutionary impact on biotechnology and molecular diagnostics, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique as the gold standard in COVID-19 diagnosis is not suitable for rapid testing. Today's POC tests are dominated by the lateral flow assay technique, with inadequate sensitivity and lack of internet connectivity. Herein, the biosensing advancements in Internet of Things (IoT)-integrated electroanalytical tools as superior POC devices for SARS-CoV-2 detection will be demonstrated. Meanwhile, the impeding factors pivotal for the successful deployment of such novel bioanalytical devices, including the incongruous standards, redundant guidelines, and the limitations of IoT modules will be discussed.

10.
Trends Analyt Chem ; 155: 116686, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895467

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are responsible for the deaths of millions of people throughout the world. Since outbreak of highly contagious and mutant viruses such as contemporary sars-cov-2 pandemic, has challenged the conventional diagnostic methods, the entity of a thoroughly sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive detecting technique with minimum level of false-positivity or -negativity, is desperately needed more than any time in the past decades. Biosensors as minimized devices could detect viruses in simple formats. So far, various nucleic acid, immune- and protein-based biosensors were designed and tested for recognizing the genome, antigen, or protein level of viruses, respectively; however, nucleic acid-based sensing techniques, which is the foundation of constructing genosensors, are preferred not only because of their ultra-sensitivity and applicability in the early stages of infections but also for their ability to differentiate various strains of the same virus. To date, the review articles related to genosensors are just confined to particular pathogenic diseases; In this regard, the present review covers comprehensive information of the research progress of the electrochemical, optical, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) genosensors that applied for human viruses' diseases detection and also provides a well description of viruses' clinical importance, the conventional diagnosis approaches of viruses and their disadvantages. This review would address the limitations in the current developments as well as the future challenges involved in the successful construction of sensing approaches with the functionalized nanomaterials and also allow exploring into core-research works regarding this area.

11.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science ; 17, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847942

ABSTRACT

Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV CoV-2) pathogen and protein biomarkers can improve the diagnosis accuracy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Electrochemical biosensors have attracted extensive attention in the scientific community because of their simple design, fast response, good portability, high sensitivity and high selectivity. In this review, we summarized the progress in the electrochemical detection of COVID-19 pathogen and SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers, including SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid protein and their antibodies. © 2022. The Authors. Published by ESG. All Rights Reserved.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(31): e202204252, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843851

ABSTRACT

Pen-side testing of farm animals for infectious diseases is critical for preventing transmission in herds and providing timely intervention. However, most existing pathogen tests have to be conducted in centralized labs with sample-to-result times of 2-4 days. Herein we introduce a test that uses a dual-electrode electrochemical chip (DEE-Chip) and a barcode-releasing electroactive aptamer for rapid on-farm detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDv). The sensor exploits inter-electrode spacing reduction and active field mediated transport to accelerate barcode movement from electroactive aptamers to the detection electrode, thus expediting assay operation. The test yielded a clinically relevant limit-of-detection of 6 nM (0.37 µg mL-1 ) in saliva-spiked PEDv samples. Clinical evaluation of this biosensor with 12 porcine saliva samples demonstrated a diagnostic sensitivity of 83 % and specificity of 100 % with a concordance value of 92 % at an analysis time of one hour.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
13.
Curr Opin Electrochem ; 23: 174-184, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683018

ABSTRACT

Herein, we have summarized and argued about biomarkers and indicators used for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Antibody detection methods are not considered suitable to screen individuals at early stages and asymptomatic cases. The diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 using biomarkers and indicators at point-of-care level is much crucial. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop rapid and sensitive detection methods which can target antigens. We have critically elaborated key role of biosensors to cope the outbreak situation. In this review, the importance of biosensors including electrochemical, surface enhanced Raman scattering, field-effect transistor, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors in the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been underscored. Finally, we have outlined pros and cons of diagnostic approaches and future directions.

14.
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry ; : 100941, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1648341

ABSTRACT

Since L-Arginine (Arg) is a semi-essential amino acid for humans, its adequate amount must be consumed in the diet to prevent certain negative consequences related to insufficient synthesis of this amino acid under specific physiological conditions. Arg metabolism results in the production of a biochemically diverse range of such products as urea, some amino acids, creatine, polyamines, nitric oxide, etc. Arg, an important biomarker in clinical diagnostics, is also used for prevention/treatment of different diseases, including cancer and COVID-19. Furthermore, it serves as an indicator of food and beverages quality. A variety of optic and electrochemical methods for Arg determination have already been suggested. The biosensor systems based on the enzymes of Arg metabolism were shown to be the most promising tools for Arg assay. This review focuses on the peculiarities of electrochemical biosensors for Arg assay based on the use of Arg-degrading enzymes and on the analysis of their advantages as compared to other approaches.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512475

ABSTRACT

Monitoring human health for early detection of disease conditions or health disorders is of major clinical importance for maintaining a healthy life. Sensors are small devices employed for qualitative and quantitative determination of various analytes by monitoring their properties using a certain transduction method. A "real-time" biosensor includes a biological recognition receptor (such as an antibody, enzyme, nucleic acid or whole cell) and a transducer to convert the biological binding event to a detectable signal, which is read out indicating both the presence and concentration of the analyte molecule. A wide range of specific analytes with biomedical significance at ultralow concentration can be sensitively detected. In nano(bio)sensors, nanoparticles (NPs) are incorporated into the (bio)sensor design by attachment to the suitably modified platforms. For this purpose, metal nanoparticles have many advantageous properties making them useful in the transducer component of the (bio)sensors. Gold, silver and platinum NPs have been the most popular ones, each form of these metallic NPs exhibiting special surface and interface features, which significantly improve the biocompatibility and transduction of the (bio)sensor compared to the same process in the absence of these NPs. This comprehensive review is focused on the main types of NPs used for electrochemical (bio)sensors design, especially screen-printed electrodes, with their specific medical application due to their improved analytical performances and miniaturized form. Other advantages such as supporting real-time decision and rapid manipulation are pointed out. A special attention is paid to carbon-based nanomaterials (especially carbon nanotubes and graphene), used by themselves or decorated with metal nanoparticles, with excellent features such as high surface area, excellent conductivity, effective catalytic properties and biocompatibility, which confer to these hybrid nanocomposites a wide biomedical applicability.

16.
IEEE Trans Instrum Meas ; 70: 4007710, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476079

ABSTRACT

A critical path to solving the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, without further socioeconomic impact, is to stop its spread. For this to happen, pre- or asymptomatic individuals infected with the virus need to be detected and isolated opportunely. Unfortunately, there are no current ubiquitous (i.e., ultra-sensitive, cheap, and widely available) rapid testing tools capable of early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this article, we introduce an accurate, portable, and low-cost medical device and bio-nanosensing electrode dubbed SenSARS and its experimental validation. SenSARS' device measures the electrochemical impedance spectra of a disposable bio-modified screen-printed carbon-based working electrode (SPCE) to the changes in the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 antigen molecules ("S" spike proteins) contained within a sub-microliter fluid sample deposited on its surface. SenSARS offers real-time diagnostics and viral load tracking capabilities. Positive and negative control tests were performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at different concentrations (between 1 and 50 fg/mL) of SARS-CoV-2(S), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein gp350, and Influenza H1N1 M1 recombinant viral proteins. We demonstrate that SenSARS is easy to use, with a portable and lightweight (< 200 g) instrument and disposable test electrodes (

17.
Biochem Eng J ; 176: 108200, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401242

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified a new zoonotic virus, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for causing the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Since then, there has been a collaborative trend between the scientific community and industry. Multidisciplinary research networks try to understand the whole SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and its relationship with the different grades of severity presented by COVID-19. The scientific community has gathered all the data in the quickly developed vaccines that offer a protective effect for all variants of the virus and promote new diagnostic alternatives able to have a high standard of efficiency, added to shorter response analysis time and portability. The industry enters in the context of accelerating the path taken by science until obtaining the final product. In this review, we show the principal diagnostic methods developed during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, when we observe the diagnostic tools section of an efficient infection outbreak containment report and the features required for such tools, we could observe a highlight of electrochemical biosensing platforms. Such devices present a high standard of analytical performance, are low-cost tools, easy to handle and interpret, and can be used in the most remote and low-resource regions. Therefore, probably, they are the ideal point-of-care diagnostic tools for pandemic scenarios.

18.
J Electroanal Chem (Lausanne) ; 893: 115289, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201492

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still causing a dramatic loss of human lives worldwide, constituting an unprecedented challenge for the society, public health and economy, to overcome. The up-to-date diagnostic tests, PCR, antibody ELISA and Rapid Antigen, require special equipment, hours of analysis and special staff. For this reason, many research groups have focused recently on the design and development of electrochemical biosensors for the SARS-CoV-2 detection, indicating that they can play a significant role in controlling COVID disease. In this review we thoroughly discuss the transducer electrode nanomaterials investigated in order to improve the sensitivity, specificity and response time of the as-developed SARS-CoV-2 electrochemical biosensors. Particularly, we mainly focus on the results appeard on Au-based and carbon or graphene-based electrodes, which are the main material groups recently investigated worldwidely. Additionally, the adopted electrochemical detection techniques are also discussed, highlighting their pros and cos. The nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors could enable a fast, accurate and without special cost, virus detection. However, further research is required in terms of new nanomaterials and synthesis strategies in order the SARS-CoV-2 electrochemical biosensors to be commercialized.

19.
Mater Today Chem ; 20: 100443, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131652

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the COVID-19 an international health emergency due to the severity of infection progression, which became more severe due to its continuous spread globally and the unavailability of appropriate therapy and diagnostics systems. Thus, there is a need for efficient devices to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection at an early stage. Nowadays, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique is being applied for detecting this virus around the globe; however, factors such as stringent expertise, long diagnostic times, invasive and painful screening, and high costs have restricted the use of RT-PCR methods for rapid diagnostics. Therefore, the development of cost-effective, portable, sensitive, prompt and selective sensing systems to detect SARS-CoV-2 in biofluids at fM/pM/nM concentrations would be a breakthrough in diagnostics. Immunosensors that show increased specificity and sensitivity are considerably fast and do not imply costly reagents or instruments, reducing the cost for COVID-19 detection. The current developments in immunosensors perhaps signify the most significant opportunity for a rapid assay to detect COVID-19, without the need of highly skilled professionals and specialized tools to interpret results. Artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) can also be equipped with this immunosensing approach to investigate useful networking through database management, sharing, and analytics to prevent and manage COVID-19. Herein, we represent the collective concepts of biomarker-based immunosensors along with AI and IoMT as smart sensing strategies with bioinformatics approach to monitor non-invasive early stage SARS-CoV-2 development, with fast point-of-care (POC) diagnostics as the crucial goal. This approach should be implemented quickly and verified practicality for clinical samples before being set in the present times for mass-diagnostic research.

20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 180: 113112, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116326

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by viruses can elevate up to undesired pandemic conditions affecting the global population and normal life function. These in turn impact the established world economy, create jobless situations, physical, mental, emotional stress, and challenge the human survival. Therefore, timely detection, treatment, isolation and prevention of spreading the pandemic infectious diseases not beyond the originated town is critical to avoid global impairment of life (e.g., Corona virus disease - 2019, COVID-19). The objective of this review article is to emphasize the recent advancements in the electrochemical diagnostics of twelve life-threatening viruses namely - COVID-19, Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Influenza, Hepatitis, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human papilloma virus (HPV), Zika virus, Herpes simplex virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rotavirus. This review describes the design, principle, underlying rationale, receptor, and mechanistic aspects of sensor systems reported for such viruses. Electrochemical sensor systems which comprised either antibody or aptamers or direct/mediated electron transfer in the recognition matrix were explicitly segregated into separate sub-sections for critical comparison. This review emphasizes the current challenges involved in translating laboratory research to real-world device applications, future prospects and commercialization aspects of electrochemical diagnostic devices for virus detection. The background and overall progress provided in this review are expected to be insightful to the researchers in sensor field and facilitate the design and fabrication of electrochemical sensors for life-threatening viruses with broader applicability to any desired pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , SELEX Aptamer Technique
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