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1.
IEEE Spectrum ; 59(11):34-39, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2107849

ABSTRACT

When the COVID-19 pandemic erupted in early 2020, the world made an unprecedented shift to remote work. As a precaution, some Internet providers scaled back service levels temporarily, although that probably wasn't necessary for countries in Asia, Europe, and North America, which were generally able to cope with the surge in demand caused by people teleworking (and binge-watching Netflix). That's because most of their networks were overprovisioned, with more capacity than they usually need. But in countries without the same level of investment in network infrastructure, the picture was less rosy: Internet service providers (ISPs) in South Africa and Venezuela, for instance, reported significant strain.

2.
IEEE Spectrum ; 59(11):22-27, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2107848

ABSTRACT

RICHARD COSTANZO STANDS BESIDE A MANNEQUIN HEAD sporting  spectacles decked with electronics and holds a vial of blue liquid up to a tiny sensor.An LED glows blue, and Costanzo's phone displays the word “Windex.” Then he waves a vial of purple liquid and gets a purple light along with the message “Listerine.” • “There won't be Scotch tape on the final model,” says Costanzo, as he rearranges the gear in his lab at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), in Richmond. The prototype is a partial demonstration of a concept that he's been working on for decades: a neuroprosthetic for smell. The mannequin represents someone who has lost their sense of smell to COVID-19, brain injury, or some other medical condition. It is also intended to show off the sensor, which is the same type used for commercial electronic noses, or e-noses. In the final product, the sensor won't light up an LED but will instead send a signal to the user's brain.

3.
IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine ; 64(4):6, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1992665

ABSTRACT

As I write this column, the 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (AP-S) and the U.S. National Committee International Union of Radio Science (URSI) Meeting (AP-S/URSI 2022) in Denver, Colorado, is just one month away. This is a truly special event for all AP-S members as the conference marks the first IEEE AP-S/URSI Symposium since 2019 to be held primarily in person, with a “backup option” for virtual presentation for authors who cannot travel due to COVID-19-related restrictions or the inability to obtain a visa. Recently, pretravel testing requirements to go to the United States have been lifted, and we hope that this change will enable most of our members worldwide to join us in person in Denver for what promises to be a fantastic conference. Although final numbers will be available only after the conference, as of now, the AP-S/URSI 2022 counts 1,446 accepted papers, which is comparable to the previous in-person prepandemic conference. The conference will hold 15 parallel sessions each day;a total of 23 special sessions and 12 short courses and workshops will further enrich the program, which received international contributions with a geographical distribution similar in number to prepandemic times. The conference features a spectacular exhibit and an exceptional technical program. Prof. Branislav Notaros, AP-S/URSI 2022 general chair, and all the organizing committee members have been working tirelessly to make this a truly unique event. I am very grateful for their incredible work and dedication!

4.
IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine ; 64(4):174-177, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1992664

ABSTRACT

The year 2022 has been one of hybrid events all over the world, as we emerge from the effects and aftereffects of COVID-19. With the repercussions still lingering, there are many aspects that need to be addressed before announcing any event. We are geared up to attend the 2022 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society (AP-S) International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation/U.S. National Committee–International Union of Radio Science Meeting in Denver, Colorado, from 10 to 15 July 2022. In August, when you will be reading this issue’s “COPE Corner” column, we hope that we will have met in person at the IEEE symposium and will have many more topics to share.

5.
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing ; 35(3):381-384, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1985508

ABSTRACT

We are very pleased to introduce this Special Section covering ASMC 2020 and ASMC 2021. These two conferences were held virtually, like most other technical conferences over the last two years;fortunately, the technical community has now reverted to in-person conferences, allowing attendees more personal interaction and the ability to focus on the conference. This includes ASMC 2022 which was held in May of this year, as we hope the COVID-19 pandemic is for the most part behind us.

6.
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series B ; 103(4):1127-1146, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1971889

ABSTRACT

The volume of E-commerce transactions had accelerated on huge scale due to COVID-19. Telemedicine comes under the segment of E-commerce, where the patients can get their treatments from isolates. Patients’ information security is a basic challenge in this COVID-19 telemedicine segment. The majority of the non-obtrusive and non-emergency patients are encouraged and treated distantly from their secludes without the inclusion of COVID-19 transmission. Anxiety, depressive disorders, stress, dementia, mood disorder, OCD, aggression, etc. are the critical mental challenges that have abruptly occurred during this COVID period. The present work focused on “New Normal Mode” of COVID-19 telepsychiatry so that the patients’ mental illness can be treated remotely in a secure way. An episode of dual neural-genetic firefly (DNGF) has been proposed on COVID-19 "New Normal Mode" 2nd wave telepsychiatry. The pool of transmission keys was generated with the help of firefly algorithm, neural perceptron, and genetic operations. Besides these, the proposed DNGF keys are effective to be used for different online psychiatric transactions. The objectivity of this paper is to generate a robust pool of transmission keys in order to nullify different types of intruding. It has effectively cleared Avalanche test and Strict Avalanche test. The outcome of parameterized functional security test has been recorded with adequacy. These were: 0.327933, 0.350467, 0.332533, 0.317867, and 0.350267 on the generated pool of DNGF. The correlation coefficient between the key generation time and parameterized functional security has been found to be rGT,FS=-0.53404. Distinctive mathematical arranged examinations were directed on the proposed key pool. It has shown better reasonability on the part of the COVID-19 2nd wave telepsychiatry, which is a component of E-commerce.

7.
International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics ; 14(2):344-357, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964796

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 virus in the world and Indonesia since March 2020 has made it difficult for all elements of society. At the same time, there is one alternative solution to provide an overview to the public and the government so that they can take further action in dealing with the pandemic, that is by modeling the spread of COVID-19. One of the known disease modeling is SIR model, which is a model that divides individuals into certain groups/compartments. The SIR model and one of its derivatives, namely SIR-D, was developed to analyze and simulate several scenarios of the spread of a pandemic. There are 3 simulation scenarios made, namely a scenario without vaccination, a scenario with vaccination, and a scenario with vaccination without being accompanied by strict health protocols. The simulations of the models show that the vaccination process has an impact on reducing the spread of COVID-19, although it is less significant due to the vaccination process that is not optimal and comprehensive. Meanwhile, if the vaccination process is not carried out according to health protocols, then the spread of the pandemic will increase rapidly and form a second wave in Indonesia. This indicates that the vaccination process cannot be underestimated, and the public must continue to keep following health protocol. In general, it can be concluded that the epidemiological model used can provide an overview of the COVID-19's spread simulation with accuracy level MAPE, 0.41198 for the SIR model and 0.01712 for the SIR-D model.

8.
Integrated Ferroelectrics ; 228(1):183-191, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960724

ABSTRACT

To quickly and efficiently detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and prevent and control the spread of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a highly sensitive duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) detection method has been established. In this study, the specificity of primers and probes were designed, respectively, according to the ORF1ab gene and N gene sequence of SARS-COV-2, and fluorescent probes were labeled with carboxyl fluorescein (FAM) and green fluorescent protein (VIC). The duplex RT-PCR method for detecting SARS-COV-2 with TaqMan probe was established, which has a limit of detection of 10 copies/µL, and the linear detection range of ORF1ab and N gene were 1.0 × 101-1.0 × 105 copies/µL and 1.0 × 101-1.0 × 106 copies/µL, respectively, realizing the simultaneous detection of ORF1ab and N genes in simulated SARS-COV-2 samples. The method has high sensitivity, accurate quantification, simple operation, and cost-saving, which can be used for rapid and efficient quantitative detection of SARS-COV-2.

9.
Periodica Polytechnica. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science ; 66(2):116-121, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1924053

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a new antenna system for rapidly emerging multifunction devices is presented. The proposed antenna system consists of four antenna components each one operating at different frequency bands separately. The designed antennas are isolated and integrated on a single substrate. The first antenna is designed to operate at 1920–2170 MHz covering the UMTS band, whereas the second antenna is proposed for the lower band 5G systems and WiMAX operating within the frequency range of 3.4–4.2 GHz. Furthermore, another antenna is designed to cover the higher band 5G system and the IEEE 820.11a WLAN within the frequency range of 5.1–5.85 GHz. Finally, a 28 GHz bowtie-based MIMO antenna array is designed and simulated for the mmWave future 5G mobile networks. The proposed antennas were designed and simulated by using CST microwave studio. The results showed that all of the proposed antennas exhibited excellent reflection characteristics below −20 dB at the resonant frequency and achieved high radiation efficiency reached 99% in some cases with a peak gain ranging between 4–6 dBi. The proposed antenna system helps smartphones to perform multitasks and achieve a better-quality operation especially with the enormous growth of IoT techniques.

10.
IEEE Journal of Solid - State Circuits ; 57(7):1955-1956, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1909246

ABSTRACT

This Special Section of the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits (JSSC) features extended versions of articles invited to be submitted from those presented at the 47th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) which is held fully virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. ESSCIRC 2021 consisted of three main parts: a preamble week providing access to the virtual content from September 6 to November 30, 2021, an interactive conference week for the live broadcast of joint plenary and keynote presentations and live Q&A sessions between September 13–17, 2021, and lastly, an educational week for live Q&A sessions for all educational events during September 20–22, 2021.

11.
IEEE Communications Magazine ; 60(6):48, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1901481

ABSTRACT

This first edition of the Internet of Things Series of IEEE Communications Magazine comes at a time when the world is slowly rolling back from the COVID pandemic to a possible endemic. Organizations worldwide are preparing business operations for this change, anticipating that the return-to-office plan will be set in motion soon. A common denomination that has helped most organizations adapt to these changes is ICT and IoT technologies. While ICT systems provided operations resilience “at scale,” IoT technologies have become instrumental in monitoring the COVID infection spread and compliance with safety protocols. Social distancing and proximity tracking, handwashing, mask wearing, and temperature screening are few of the important COVID use cases where IoT systems have proved their ground and continue to deliver results under the prevailing circumstances.

12.
IEEE Open Access Journal of Power and Energy ; 9:183-184, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1891415

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related shutdowns have significantly impacted the electrical grid operation worldwide, as governments put strict measures in place to manage the global pandemic. The global electrical demand plummeted around the planet in March, April, and May 2020, with countries such as Spain and Italy experiencing more than 20% decrease in their usual electric consumption. On the other hand, countries like Canada experienced unusually high summer peaks due to the increase in demand for the residential HVAC systems. Electricity network operators are facing unprecedented challenges in scheduling energy resources;for example, energy forecasting systems struggle to provide an accurate demand prediction given massive changes in patterns of electricity consumption induced by COVID-19 restrictions.

13.
IEEE Communications Magazine ; 60(5):50-56, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1853475

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 has increased the need for connectivity around the world, researchers are targeting new technologies that could improve coverage and connect the unconnected in order to make progress toward the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. In this context, drones are seen as one of the key features of 6G wireless networks that could extend the coverage of previous wireless network generations. That said, limited onboard energy seems to be the main drawback that hinders the use of drones for wireless coverage. Therefore, different wireless and wired charging techniques, such as laser beaming, charging stations, and tether stations, are proposed. In this article, we analyze and compare these different charging techniques by performing extensive simulations for the scenario of drone-assisted data collection from ground-based Internet of Things devices. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each charging technique, and finally show that laser-powered drones strongly compete with, and outperform in some scenarios, other charging techniques.

14.
IEEE Spectrum ; 59(5):20-22, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1840285

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic on 11 March 2020. Two years later, it put the cumulative number of cases at about 452 million, more than 5 percent of the world's population, and the number of new infections was still averaging more than a million a day.

15.
IEEE Signal Processing Letters ; 29:1147-1151, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1840273

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic makes wearing masks mandatory in supermarkets, pharmacies, public transport, etc. Existing facial recognition systems encounter severe performance degradation as the masks occlude key facial regions. Recently, simulation-based methods are proposed to generate masked faces from unmasked faces. However, among simulated faces, there are low-quality samples with negative occlusion, which leads to ambiguous or absent facial features. In this paper, we propose a consistent sub-decision network to obtain sub-decisions that correspond to different facial regions and constrain sub-decisions by weighted bidirectional KL divergence to make the network concentrate on the upper faces without occlusion. In addition, we perform knowledge distillation to drive the masked face embeddings towards an approximation of the original data distribution to mitigate the information loss. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the baseline on public masked face recognition datasets, i.e., RMFD, MFR2, and MLFW.

16.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 11(6):4825-4832, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837812

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, automated liquid dispensers have been increasingly developed to assist transmission prevention. However, data availability of automatic liquid dispenser mechanism's technical characteristics is not yet widely available. This causes frequent over or under design in its development. Therefore, we specifically measure push and pull forces engineering characteristics generated by the automatic liquid dispenser mechanism. A wire mechanism-based automatic liquid dispenser apparatus was used to experiment. A load-cell sensor was used to detect the force that occurs from a servo motor controlled by a microcontroller. The force data (push and pull) will be sent directly to the database server cloud with a recording frequency of every second. Three types of fluid treatment levels are used i.e. water, liquid soap, and hand sanitizer gel. Three types of fluid volume treatment levels used were 50 ml, 150 ml, and 250 ml. Each treatment level combination is carried out at the servo motors rotation steps 180°, 150°, 120°, 90°, 60°, and 30°. The results show that no significant differences were found in maximal forces required to release the water, liquid soap, and hand-sanitizer gel. It is also known that the volume of the fluid has a very significant effect on the amount of push and pull forces generated.

17.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 11(5):3828-3837, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837763

ABSTRACT

In 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic has suddenly stopped society and changed human interaction. In this work, a thermoelectric generator wearable device for early fever detection symptoms is presented as a possible solution to avoid higher propagation of this disease. To identify a possible fever symptom, numerical and parametric simulations are developed using a highquality-refined hexahedral mesh. At first, a 2-pair-leg thermoelectric module has undergone simulations to establish temperature conditions, open-circuit voltage, and power output generation;and secondly, these previous results are extrapolated for a larger thermoelectric module containing 28 pair-leg of N-P type material. The numerical study shows that a maximum value of electrical power of 60.70 mW was reached for 28-pair-leg N-P type thermocouples under a constant temperature difference of 20 K.

18.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 11(3):2467-2476, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837598

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which originated from Wuhan, rapidly spread throughout the world and became a public health crisis. Recognizing the positive cases at the earliest stage was crucial in order to restrain the spread of this virus and to perform medical treatment quickly for patients affected. However, the limited supply of RT-PCR as a diagnosis tool caused greatly delay in obtaining examination results of the suspected patients. Previous research stated that using radiologic images could be utilized to detect COVID-19 before the symptoms appeared. With the rapid development of Artificial intelligence in medical imaging in recent years, deep learning as the core of this technology could achieve human-level-performance in diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, deep learning was implemented to detect COVID-19 using a chest X-ray dataset. The proposed model employed a multi-kernel convolution neural network (CNN) block combined with pre-trained ResNet-34 to overcome an imbalanced dataset. The model block adopted different kernel sizes as follows 1x1, 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7. The findings show that the proposed model is capable of performing binary and three class classification tasks with an accuracy of 100% and 93.51% in the validation phase and 95% and 83% in the test phase, respectively.

19.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 11(3):2090-2100, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837568

ABSTRACT

The application of disinfection is becoming popular in recent months due to the COVID-19. Usually, the disinfection is used by spraying the liquid into an object. However, the disinfection process for humans and objects in the human environment is still done manually and takes time and increases exposure to viruses. Robotic technology can be a solution to handle that problem. Following that problem, robot design is proposed with many abilities and features. The robot can operate in remote conditions and full function for approximately 56 minutes and spray the liquid for more than 1 meter. This research can effectively be applied in COVID-19 handlings.

20.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 11(5):4325-4335, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837540

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has stressed more than any-time before the necessity for conducting election processes in an electronic manner, where voters can cast their votes remotely with complete security, privacy, and trust. The different voting schema in different countries makes it very difficult to utilize a one fits all system. This paper presents a blockchain based voting system (BBVS) applied to the Parliamentary elections system in the country of Jordan. The proposed system is a private and centralized blockchain implemented in a simulated environment. The proposed BBVS system implements a hierarchical voting process, where a voter casts votes at two levels, one for a group, and the second for distinct members within the group. This paper provides a novel blockchain based e-Voting system, which proves to be transparent and yet secure. This paper utilizes synthetic voter benchmarks to measure the performance, accuracy and integrity of the election process. This research introduced and implemented new algorithms and methods to maintain acceptable performance both at the time of creating the blockchain(s) for voters and candidates as well as at the time of casting votes by voters.

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