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1.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 14(3):799-807, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2321522

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the EFL university instructors' perceptions of online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were 32;87.5% of them were females while 12.5% were males. They belonged to many higher educational institutions in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected using an online questionnaire. This questionnaire included four parts which were (1) the participants' demographic information, (2) the advantages of online education during the COVID-19 pandemic, (3) the disadvantages of online education during the COVID-19 pandemic, and finally (4) the effectiveness of online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results revealed that most of the participants had a more dominant positive attitude regarding online learning activities although some of them claimed that there were some negative aspects that should be taken into consideration. Online education is fundamentally characterized by its flexibility, being chargeless, and enabling EFL instructors to think creatively and improve their performance. However, the lack of regulating sinful activities such as cheating, lack of face-to-face social interaction, and poor accessibility to the internet connection were essentially the three significant disadvantages of online education that most of the participants agreed on. Based on the findings obtained, this study provided some recommendations as well as suggestions for further research.

2.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 14(3):780-788, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2323505

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has forced online classes to be conducted mostly without proper introduction and preparation. This shift also made teachers and students gradually accustomed to independent learning. Several mobile applications have been developed for foreign language learning. However, only few Android applications were developed for non-linguistic courses offered by foreign language departments at the university level. The effectiveness of such an application to improve students' learning in universities, therefore, has not been conducted. This article reports the finding of a quasi-experimental research on the effect of using an Android application tailored for Research Method for Applied Linguistics students at an English department on their mastery of the course. The research data were collected through tests and a documentary study and calculated using ANCOVA statistical calculation. With the course mastery as the dependent variable, the use of Android application as the independent variable, and reading skills as covariates, the research revealed that the use of Android Learning Application significantly improves the EFL students' mastery of Research Methods for Applied Linguistics course. Further researchers are suggested to study the effect of the use of Android learning application on EFL students' mastery of a non-language course with significantly different students' levels of reading skills.

3.
Applied Linguistics Review ; 14(3):473-501, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2318561

ABSTRACT

Due to the spread of Covid-19, universities had to move their courses online abruptly. This paper explores its impact on 510 European tertiary-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' classroom emotions and analyses possible links to their trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and learner autonomy. Statistical analyses of data gathered with a web survey revealed that students rated their ‘in-person' classes as significantly more enjoyable and also more anxiety-provoking. Overall, levels of foreign language enjoyment (FLE) and foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) were positively correlated between both contexts. The moderate negative correlation between FLE and FLCA in ‘in-person' classes disappeared in emergency remotely taught classes. TEI and learner autonomy were positively correlated, and both were positively linked to FLE and negatively to FLCA in both contexts. This means that more autonomous, emotionally intelligent students tend to be able to enjoy the FL class more – even more so under particularly challenging circumstances. Overall, it seems that learners not being physically present in classrooms weakens all emotions, and breaks the relationship between them. One possible explanation is that disembodied classes have less emotional resonance.

4.
Bartin &Uuml ; niversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi; 12(2):325-340, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2306101

ABSTRACT

Çevrimiçi bir kursta eǧitmenler ve öǧrenciler arasındaki kişilerarası etkileşimi çeşitli faktörler etkileyebilir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye'de çeşitli üniversitelerde görev yapan altı çevrimiçi yabancı dil olarak Íngilizce dersleri veren öǧretim elemanının çevrimiçi derslerinde etkileşimi artırdıǧına inandıkları faktörlere ilişkin görüş ve tutumlarını araştırmayı ve ilgili literatüre katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Íşbirlikli araştırma kapsamında, amaçlı örnekleme tekniǧinin kullanılması ve katılımcılarla yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmelerin yapılması, koronavirüs pandemisi (COVID-19) nedeniyle bir acil uzaktan öǧretim ortamında çevrimiçi eǧitim vermek üzere görevlendirilen bu öǧretim elemanlarının tutum ve görüşlerinin betimlenmesi için en iyi fırsatı saǧlamıştır. Nihai sonuç, çevrimiçi derslerinde kişilerarası etkileşimi etkilemeyi amaçlayan deneyimli ve deneyimsiz çevrimiçi öǧretim elemanları tarafından kullanılabilecek etkileşimi etkileyen çeşitli faktörler ve stratejiler içermektedir. Tüm katılımcılar çevrimiçi kurslar sırasında daha kaliteli etkileşim saǧlanması gerektiǧini ifade ederken, istenen etkileşim düzeyine ulaşma çabalarında karşılaştıkları engeller görüşmelerin ana gündemini oluşturmuştur. Görüşme verilerinden ortaya çıkan kodlar halinde kategorize edilen ana temaları oluşturan ders yapısı faktörlerinin, çevre ve medya etkilerinin, geri bildirim ve deǧerlendirme tekniklerinin ve söylem kolaylaştırıcılarının rolünü tartışmışlardır.Alternate :A variety of factors might impact interpersonal interaction between instructors and students in an online course. This study seeks to explore the opinions and attitudes of six EFL instructors working at various universities in Turkey regarding the factors they believe increase interaction in their online courses and to contribute to the pertinent literature. Within the scope of collaborative research, the use of purposeful sampling technique and semi-structured interviews with the participants provided the best opportunity to describe the attitudes and opinions of these instructors who were assigned to teach online in an emergency remote teaching environment due to the coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19. The end result includes a variety of factors and strategies influencing interaction that can be used by novice and experienced online instructors aiming to influence interpersonal interaction in their online courses. While all the participants expressed the need to provide higher quality interactions during the online courses, the obstacles they face in their efforts to reach the desired level of interaction were the main agenda of the interviews. They discussed the role of course structure factors, environment and media effects, feedback and assessment techniques, and discourse facilitators, which constituted the main themes that were categorized into codes emerging from the interview data.

5.
i-Manager's Journal on English Language Teaching ; 13(1):42-53, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2295248

ABSTRACT

The aim of the current research is to investigate the language assessment literacy perceptions of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers working at state primary, middle, and high schools in Turkey. Another purpose of the study was to investigate how EFL teachers adapted their language assessment skills to the online teaching context during the Covid- 19 pandemic, and to what extent. Additionally, challenges and solutions of teachers in transforming their language assessment skills into online education were investigated. A mixed-methods study was employed as the research design. The study obtained and triangulated both qualitative and quantitative data to enhance its validity. In the quantitative phase, Vogt and Tsagari (2014)'s LAL questionnaire which includes three factors i.e. Language Testing and Assessment (LTA), classroom-focused LTA, and purposes of testing, content and concepts of LTA was administered to the participants. The quantitative data were descriptively analysed through the SPSS program in order to identify EFL teachers' training levels and needs in online language assessment. The qualitative data for the study were gathered through written structured interviews with (n) EFL teachers and analyzed using inductive methods. The study's findings revealed that the teachers have a high level of assessment literacy in terms of both face-to-face and online assessment and are familiar with basic assessment tools. However, there is a gap between their theoretical knowledge of assessment and their classroom practices. Additionally, the teachers expressed a need for more in-service training in assessing the skills of English language learners in online environments.

6.
i-Manager's Journal on English Language Teaching ; 12(3):61-75, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2248552

ABSTRACT

This study aims to improve English Language Teaching (ELT) student teachers' teaching practice process with comprehensive and diverse feedback from four different mentors (two national and two international) and to help them better prepare lesson plans and micro-teaching considering intercultural perspectives. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze quantitative data gathered from the scores of five lesson plans and micro-teachings. Qualitative data were obtained from the written feedback to lesson plans, oral feedback to micro teachings and interviews, and analyzed by content analysis. Results showed that mentees' lesson plan and micro teaching scores increased significantly over the semester and this was especially notable in mentees' first three lesson plans and micro teaching. All participants favoured the study activities and suggested that e-co mentoring should be implemented together with face-to-face mentoring in some periods.

7.
Saudi Journal of Language Studies ; 3(1):32-46, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2272331

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis study aims to focus on how online presentations have a positive effect on the anxiety of the students, especially students who are introverted by nature and always suffer from anxiety and stress while performing face-to-face presentations in the classrooms, which negatively affect students' performance and, thereby grade.Design/methodology/approachThis study adopted a quantitative research design to obtain a broader perspective. An online questionnaire, developed using Google Forms, was accessed by 239 female undergraduate students from Level 1 to 8 of the English Department at the College of Languages and Translation in King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire consisted of 15 closed Likert-type questions. The Arabic translation of the questions was included in the questionnaire to make the participants more comfortable answering the questions as all the participants' L1 is Arabic.FindingsWith the outbreak of the pandemic in March 2020, COVID-19 became a global health issue and significantly impacted education worldwide. With this, a digital transformation took place, resulting in a total e-learning distance education system. This type of technology enhanced distance learning approach had to be adopted as social and physical contacts were limited globally to mitigate the transmissions of the virus. Accordingly, all lectures, learning activities, tests and other forms of evaluation were conducted via distance e-learning. When oral presentations were conducted online, a new reality emerged in this changed situation. This study sought to prove that online oral presentations positively reduce introvert EFL learners' anxiety and stress.Research limitations/implicationsThe study was conducted using a small number of samples;thus, to gain substantial insight, future research could be conducted with a greater number of samples from diverse demographic backgrounds. Teachers' perceptions of online oral presentations could also be considered in future studies since education consolidates between learners and teachers. In addition, as this research explored English language major students only, further comparative studies can be conducted including students from other disciplines, which may lead to new insights and issues related to online presentations. This study used a questionnaire as a data collection instrument. It is recommended to use qualitative tools such as interviews, focus group meetings, journals and student diaries in future studies so that more information about in-person presentation anxiety can be discovered.Originality/valueParticipants' opinions, procured through the questionnaire of this study, can bring new insights for educators and policymakers to incorporate online presentations as one of the mainstream assessment methods for tertiary-level courses.

8.
Language and Literacy ; 25(1):32-56, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2268670

ABSTRACT

This paper uses "prolepsis,” a process of reaching into the past to inform present and future practices, to understand 12 English-as-a-second language (ESL) teachers' practices of supporting English language learners (ELLs) through remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic from 2020-2021 in British Columbia and to envision some different current and future post-pandemic classroom literacies for diverse learners. Accounts of these ESL teachers' synthetical moments of teaching and supporting ELLs during the pandemic suggest that they had to navigate "new” areas of teaching, including attending to students' social-emotional learning (SEL), connecting with ELL parents, teaching and engaging students via technology-supported instruction, and co-teaching with mainstream teachers, on the basis of limited or no pre-pandemic experience. These insights suggest a need to widen the focus on ESL teachers' knowledge and expertise in applied linguistics and instructional strategies to include classroom literacies in integrating SEL into ESL instruction, adopting interactive, student-driven instructional designs and practices afforded by multimodal technologies, maintaining multiple channels of communication with parents and students, and team-teaching with classroom teachers to provide tailored language support for ELLs.

9.
Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning ; 13(1):27-49, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2284582

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, the abrupt global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic prompted Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) in all fields of education. This abrupt transition to online teaching and learning shocked most language educators. Practitioners and researchers around the globe raised questions and concerns as a result of the rapid planning and implementation. In this study, which forms part of an international survey on educators' attitudes and online teaching activities during the pandemic, we look into EFL instructors' behaviours within the Greek educational system. More specifically, the article presents EFL educators' attitudes towards online learning and their reported feelings of confidence and satisfaction when facing the challenges of converting their face-to-face (F2F) courses into online ones during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of our study, we were able to look into the psychological and instructional difficulties the Greek ELT community experienced when reimagining synchronous and asynchronous teaching in a digital environment. Finally, the article discusses the impact and some of the lessons learned from this national experience.

10.
Bartin &Uuml ; niversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi; 12(1):47-56, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2227190

ABSTRACT

Dil eǧitiminde öǧretmenin geri bildirimi, öǧrencilere bireyselleştirilmiş ilgi saǧladıǧından oldukça deǧerli kabul edilir. Uzaktan eǧitimde öǧrenciler ve öǧretmen arasında kişisel etkileşim yokluǧu hesaba katıldıǧında, öǧretmen tarafından saǧlanan geri bildirimlerin yüz yüze eǧitime göre daha önemli bir rol oynaması beklenir. Çünkü bu geri bildirimler sadece öǧrencilerin performansının artmasına yardımcı olmakla kalmaz, öǧrenciler ve öǧretmen arasında güçlü bir ilişki kurmak için de araç görevi görür. Buna dayanarak, vaka çalışması olarak tasarlan bu makalede, üniversite düzeyinde yabancı dil olarak Íngilizce öǧrenen öǧrencilerin, acil uzaktan öǧretimde üniversitenin uzaktan eǧitim platformundaki yazı ödevlerine öǧretmenleri tarafından saǧlanan yazılı geri bildirimlere ilişkin bakış açıları ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Veriler, sekiz Íngilizce hazırlık sınıfı öǧrencisi ile yapılan görüşmeler ve öǧretmenin araştırma günlüǧüyle toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler tematik olarak analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular, öǧrencilerin yazılı geri bildirimler hakkında olumlu görüşlere sahip olduǧunu göstermiştir. Öǧrenciler, öǧretmen tarafından saǧlanan geri bildirimlerin kişiler arası bir yönü olduǧunu, onlara duyuşsal destek verdiǧini ve hedef dilde gelişmelerine yardımcı olduǧunu ifade etmişlerdir. Ayrıca üniversitenin çevrim içi uzaktan eǧitim platformunun geri bildirim vermek için kullanılması, öǧrencilere geri bildirim belgelerine istedikleri zaman ulaşma fırsatı sunması nedeniyle yararlı bulunmuştur. Çalışmanın sonuçları dil öǧretmenlerinin yazılı geri bildirim verme yöntemlerine ilişkin yeni bakış açıları saǧlayabilir.Alternate :In language education, instructor's feedback is considered to be of high value as it provides learners with individualized attention. Regarding the absence of personal interaction between learners and instructors in remote teaching, it is expected that instructor's feedback plays a more significant role compared to the case in face-to-face education because it does not only help to increase learners' performance in the target language and but it also serves as a tool in building a strong relationship between learners and instructor. Based on this, the present paper which was designed as a case study attempted to reveal university level English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perspectives on written feedback given by their instructor on their writing assignments on the distance education platform of the university in emergency remote teaching. The data were collected through interviews conducted with eight English preparatory class students and the instructor's research diary. Thematic analysis was carried out on the collected data. The findings showed the interviewees had positive viewpoints about the instructor's written feedback. They stated that the instructor's feedback had an interpersonal side, gave them affective support and helped them improve in the target language. Moreover, the use of online distance education platform for giving feedback was found to be useful by the interviewees in that it provided the learners with the opportunity to have access to the feedback documents whenever they wanted. The results may imply new insights into the way foreign language instructors give written feedback.

11.
i-Manager's Journal on English Language Teaching ; 12(4):36-51, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2226620

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a reflective account of tertiary level Turkish learners of English language about their emergency remote learning experiences amid Covid-19 pandemic. The participants of this case study were the preparatory year students of the English Language and Literature undergraduate programme at Iğdır University in two successive years, covering the second half of the 2019 - 2020 spring semester and the entire 2020 - 2021 academic year. In an online survey form of open-ended questions, the students were asked to reflect on their experiences during the instruction and assessment processes of pandemic-driven Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) with a specific focus on the development of foreign language skills. Student answers were coded through thematic analysis, and the main themes and categories were determined. The findings indicated both the affordances and shortcomings of ERT. Reflecting on their performance in the instruction and assessment practices, the students reported improvement in all language skill areas to varying extents, most effectively in writing, along with challenges, especially in the development of oral skills (speaking and listening) and in the assessment of productive skills (writing and speaking). The reasons are discussed in the light of available literature, and implications for future experiences are provided.

12.
Theory and Practice in Language Studies ; 13(1):78-88, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2204364

ABSTRACT

[...]eight adult learners were interviewed to give their perceptions towards this newly designed module. [...]language learners of English (ESL) often faced difficulties in speaking skills, thus, they could not perform well in speaking assessment. A. Underpinning Theory The Speaking Assessment Module was developed for adult learners to experience learning remotely via the online distance learning approach (ODL). Since the module is designed for adult learners, it is equipped with teaching and learning materials based on andragogy learning theory. [...]online distance learning (ODL) has become a learning option for Malaysians.

13.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 14(1):239-248, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2204361

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, teaching math using English as a foreign language creates many challenges because learners may not have yet acquired the skills they need to understand the lesson. The study aimed to identify the challenges faced by teachers of math in English when course instruction shifted to online because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, the study presents three essential lessons from this experience from the teachers' perspectives. During the COVID-19 outbreak, all schools abruptly switched to Online Education. Most participants in the study had never done online teaching before the pandemic and were unfamiliar with using technology. The researchers used a mixed methods approach, incorporating the following two ways of gathering data: a questionnaire and face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: (1) English language challenges and (2) access to technology. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of 50 female teachers, followed by structured interviews. The interview consisted of one question about the most important lessons learned, and the data were analysed using SPSS Statistics. The findings indicated that the English language and a lack of technology constituted obstacles for teachers. According to the participants, they identified three future lessons. The researchers provide recommendations to teachers, students, and governments.

14.
Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064861

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus pandemic, online education continued to expand across varied educational factors. Therefore, the teachers had to develop and change some of the strategies used in their classes previously. Online classroom management is a synchronous-based online learning environment in education that is worthwhile to modify. For this purpose, the current study sought to understand the perceptions of classroom management and teaching self-efficacy by Iranian EFL teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic. Concerning sampling, 100 male and female English teachers constituted the study sample. Data were collected via Online Teaching Self–Efficacy Inventory questionnaire through different online platforms. The findings reflected that EFL teachers could select appropriate classroom management during online and face-to-face classes. In addition, the teachers had a positive attitude toward managing the classroom during the Covid-19 pandemic. The implications of this study may open up new perspectives into successful pedagogy for, teachers and students in outbreak days.

15.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 13(5):1115-1124, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040514

ABSTRACT

-The current study aims to explore the effect of virtual classes on promoting autonomous learning of Saudi EFL students in the PYP Year Program (PYP). Data were collected through an online questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Two hundred eighty female undergraduate Saudi students in the PYP completed the questionnaire voluntarily. Fifteen English language instructors voluntarily agreed to be interviewed. The result of the study indicated that 64% of students demonstrated a high level of autonomous learning in virtual EFL classes. However, 36% of students showed an average level of autonomous learning in doing assignments, self-motivation, accelerating learning, and willingness to learn. Furthermore, the results show that students' level of autonomy in virtual classes depends on factors such as lack of motivation, constructive feedback, and students' educational culture. Additionally, the study provides some guidelines to help instructors implement autonomous learning in EFL virtual classes. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research are provided.

16.
Ilha do Desterro ; 74(3):161-182, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025057

ABSTRACT

This article aims at analyzing the pedagogical potential of the Digital Educational Resource (RED) Quizizz as far as the promotion of teaching· learning-use of English as a second language (L2) is concerned, due to the need to reconfigure pedagogical practices, adapting them to the pedagogical potentials of digital technologies, which make it possible to carry out educational activities in a context of social isolation caused by the Coronavirus pandemic. To achieve this goal, we designed an exploratory research, with descriptive characteristics, conducted by a high school and undergraduate courses teacher, in the light of Sabota and Pereira (2017), who propose three groups of criteria for an analysis of Digital Educational Resources: technical aspects, theoretical aspects and practical aspects. The results indicate that the use of Quizizz may be relevant in teaching-learning-use of English at all levels of education. Keywords: English Language Teaching;Digital Educational Resources;Pedagogical potential Consideraçöes iniciáis As benesses de se aprender uma segunda lingua1 (L2) sao célebres: pesquisas conduzidas pela Oxford University Press (2015) indicam que, além dos beneficios práticos, há a) uma melhora na memória e no poder do cérebro;b) um atraso no inicio da doença de Alzheimer e da demencia;c) um desenvolvimento de habilidades na lingua materna, tornando-nos comunicadores mais eficientes na comunicaçao em geral e na escrita em particular.

17.
Educational Research Quarterly ; 46(1):3-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011313

ABSTRACT

There has been extensive amount of research in terms of digital literacy and digital literacy education since the notion of embracing digital literacies in teaching contexts to reach the objectives has been highly emphasised within the 21st century teaching contexts. However, a considerable amount of research has been conducted for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. This study aims to investigate digital literacy levels of pre-semce EFL teachers and also investigates if there are any significant differences of the participants' critical digital literacies in relation to their gender, grade, age, the amount of time they spend online, their beliefs concerning how competent they are while they are using digital technologies and their preferences about reading online or print materials. The study also aims to explore the possible relationships among their subs kills: technological skill, personal security skill, critical skill, device security skill, informational skill, and communication skill. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. The results indicated that the general digital literacy levels of the participants were moderately high (x=3.75). Considering the changes with regard to their demographics, the study showed that their digital literacy levels revealed a significant difference in relation to their gender, grade, and the information they had using digital platforms. However, their digital literacy level did not show a significant difference with regard to the amount of time spent online and their preferences about reading online or print materials. Finally, considering the relationships among their sub-skills also revealed some positive or negative oriented significant relationships. Particularly with the occurrence of the pandemic disease COVID-19, many institutions all around the world have had to reorganise their programs and curricular activities in accordance with distance education to suit all practices to the learners' needs and this dictated an urgent need for the development of the digital skills of teachers to make a smooth transition. Investigating digital literacy levels and lite ray skills of EFL pre-service teachers will enlighten educators in preparing language programs.

18.
ReCALL : the Journal of EUROCALL ; 34(3):253-254, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1984340

ABSTRACT

Given the central role of teachers, it is not surprising that a substantial part of this issue is devoted to language teacher education and training. While researchers have mainly explored blended learning in English as a foreign language (EFL) university settings, this synthesis provides an interesting snapshot of the technologies, effectiveness and challenges in the context of language learning at a crucial moment for the adoption of pedagogies based on multimodality and artificial intelligence (AI). For the authors, educational robots have a role to play in language learning as they may strengthen social aspects such as turn-taking, non-verbal communication and mutual peer learner support in multi-learner settings.

19.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 13(4):891-896, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934767

ABSTRACT

-Over the last decade, research on the quality of EFL students' English academic writing has increased. However, research on EFL students' academic writing that incorporates grammatical metaphors is regarded scarce. As such, this study seeks to elucidate the occurrences of ideational metaphors in students' academic writing essays. The qualitative descriptive method was used in this study. This research involved a total of 25 undergraduate students from the University of HKBP Nommensen Medan, Indonesia, English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, who studied Academic Writing course in the third semester. Students were required to submit a 350-word essay on the subject "Learning Challenges during the Coronavirus Pandemic." The research's data corpus totals 10,252 words. The results indicate that the students' writings contain 281 clauses comprising the ideational metaphor. It is deemed little in comparison to the corpus's overall data set of 10,252 words. Material processes dominate the incidence of ideational metaphors, followed by mental processes, relational processes, behavioral processes, and existential processes. This finding implies that the essay structure of EFL students is unlikely to have a large proportion of solid grammatical metaphor clauses. The pedagogical implication of this research is that EFL students, lecturers, teachers, and other educational practitioners interested in teaching English academic writing should be aware of grammatical metaphors in writing texts as a proxy for the quality of scientifically academic writing.

20.
Journal of Language Teaching and Research ; 13(4):809-819, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934766

ABSTRACT

This study identifies the benefits, difficulties, challenges, and prospects of using Moodle in writing classrooms among Saudi EFL tertiary students at Shaqra University. A sample of EFL instructors and students responded to a questionnaire of 29 five-point Likert Scale statements and 4 open-ended questions. The instructors and students viewed Moodle as an empowering tool in online writing. Moodle provided the students with feasible, accessible, and timely peer/group feedback. It created a flexible, comfortable, and student-centered learning atmosphere where the instructors and students were active in the online classroom. It also ensured interactive, smooth, and instant e-collaboration in online writing. Technical problems and Internet disconnection were the main obstacles hindering the students from sufficient interaction with their instructors and other students.

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