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1.
Applied Clinical Trials ; 30(1/2):4, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244567

ABSTRACT

More recent policies aim to offset years of underenrollment of minority groups by expanding enrollment criteria, including more research sites in minority communities, and engaging investigators with diverse backgrounds. FDA has also sought to promote research diversity through its Drug Trials Snapshots program, established in 2015 to increase the visibility of clinical trial enrollment by age, sex, ethnicity and race. According to a recent report on the program's impact, though, there still may be a ways to go for clinical trials to reflect the diversity of the US population.

2.
Applied Clinical Trials ; 29(4):12-13, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241726

ABSTRACT

In the short and long term, sponsors should think through: * Protocol modifications to incorporate remote patient and site assessments or other virtual elements. * Patient visit requirements and anticipated data collection challenges. * Effective resumption of activities when the pandemic situation improves. * Improvements to risk management planning.8 * Overall impact on clinical trial and clinical program timelines (including time to approval). [...]each passing day brings new information about the spread of COVID-19 globally. [...]to plan for the short and long term, sponsors should go back to the drawing board and reevaluate overall clinical study design, including patient eligibility, feasibility, enrollment, timelines, and budgets against the evolving global landscape. [...]alarming projections indicate that socialdistancing countermeasures may need to be in place well into 20219, which means that biopharmaceutical sponsors should make urgent decisions now to plan for continued clinical research in the coming months.

3.
ECNU Review of Education ; 6(2):280-293, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236942

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study compares doctor staffing level and the scale of medical education in China with those of other countries and proposes policy recommendations for future adjustments to the scale of China's medical education. Design/Approach/Methods This study employs a literature review and descriptive analysis. Findings China had 1.98 medical doctors per 1,000 people in 2018, ranking 85th out of the 193 member-states of the World Health Organization (WHO). In 2017, China had 1.99 practicing doctors per 1,000 people, only ranking above Turkey (1.88) in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. China had only 10.28 medical graduates per 100,000 people—placing in the bottom third of OECD countries. China's provision of 1.4 medical schools per 10 million people was also significantly lower than the global average (3.9). However, the average number of students enrolled in medical schools (509) in China was significantly higher than the global average (160). Originality/Value Although the scale of admission in undergraduate medical education must be expanded in China, this needs to be achieved while controlling the average number of medical students per school and reducing enrollment in low-quality medical schools. Furthermore, it is necessary to establish new medical schools while improving the operating level of existing ones.

4.
Quarterly Review of Distance Education ; 23(3):119-128,147-148, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2324183

ABSTRACT

Montclair State University (MSU) is New Jerseys second-largest public institution. As online education continues its rapid-paced growth, MBA programs have been some of the most common online degrees. In 2016, Montclairs Feliciano School of Business entered this crowded online MBA market. After a false start and sometimes rocky development, the online MBA was successfully launched in the fall of 2016. The program grew so fast that the leadership team needed to find innovative ways to handle the number of students. The lessons learned by the online MBA leadership team are detailed below.

5.
RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences ; 9(3):159-183, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2320658

ABSTRACT

Government pandemic provisions occurred alongside a safety net that excludes or dissuades Latina mothers from participation. These families are also disproportionately exposed to punitive immigration policies and rhetoric that may shape their views on such provisions and, in turn, influence their post-pandemic well-being. To understand these complexities, we draw on interviews before and after COVID-19 with thirty-eight Latina immigrant and citizen mothers, most of whom are undocumented (N = 29). We find that pre-pandemic distrust of public institutions and the safety net was common, increased after COVID-19, and negatively affected undocumented respondents' post-pandemic circumstances relative to that of citizen mothers. Findings suggest that safety net expansion on its own will not offset pandemic effects for these families without addressing exclusion from public benefits and alienation from and distrust of government.

6.
Social Work Education ; 42(3):436-455, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2315780

ABSTRACT

Competition to attract students for enrollment in American social work degree programs is intense. Program attributes (e.g. minimum grade point average, maximum transfer credits permitted, institutional tuition rate, and rankings) distinguish social work education programs in the United States. Determining which program attributes appeal to potential students could help increase a program's competitiveness in a crowded education marketplace. The COVID-19 pandemic is further intensifying recruitment of students to BSW programs. This research used a case study approach to compare admission attributes of 21 bachelor of social work programs (BSW) offered at 11 public and 10 private institutions located in one state that could be viewed as representative of American BSW programs. This paper compared attributes that differentiated these undergraduate social work programs, while exploring the potential impact of the pandemic on BSW student recruitment. Implications for social work education are discussed, including lessons learned that may be helpful to BSW faculty and staff responsible for student recruitment activities and related operations. Social work education program administrators and faculty could use this information to review recruitment and application processes and raise awareness of the burgeoning influence of reputational ranking services.

7.
Comparative Civilizations Review ; - (88):101-125, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2315392

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic created an indelible mark on K-12 education - specifically, high school students transitioning to college and career. The global scope of this pandemic presented an opportunity to compare how high school cultures across the world adapted to the emergency. Further, news reports highlighted how communities of color were more susceptible to the pandemic. To better understand how the Black student experience in middle America compared to that of other students from the global community in responding to pandemic-related educational disruption, I used Krippendorffs content analysis procedures (2018) and a phenomenological interview process to gather and analyze data from 17 Black American high school students and 35 teachers. The central research question was: What are the experiences of Black students in middle America regarding educational disruption when compared to the experiences of high school students in other countries? The findings revealed that globally both students and teachers were primarily concerned with educational quality, teacher preparedness and substandard Internet service. Findings from twelve other countries confirmed that diminished Internet access and teacher unpreparedness were essential problems. However, Finnish districts which relied on government support seamlessly progressed through the interruptions in March 2020.

8.
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice ; 23(7):1-13, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2314635

ABSTRACT

There is a crisis in higher education. One troublesome issue is the sharp drop in higher education enrollments as well as the decline in the number of colleges in the United States. There is evidence that some college degrees are not worth the time and the money, and students would have earned more had they joined the workforce immediately after graduating high school. The authors discuss some of the problems and posit that some higher education institutions in the United States have done a poor job of teaching crucial skills, including critical thinking, ethical thinking, collaboration skills, and character development. The most vital competency of all might be inculcating in students a passion for lifelong learning, which is necessary to develop the ability to adapt swiftly to changing business conditions. Without these skills, it should be no surprise that there has been a disconnect between higher education and employability.

9.
Economics & Sociology ; 16(1):106-120, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2304809

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the factors influencing unemployment and determine the role of stakeholders in reducing unemployment in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Data encompasses 35 regencies and municipalities of the Central Province from 2007 to 2020, with the total sample being 490. The employed sequential mixed method includes two analytical tools, namely panel data and vector regression with mactor software;the latter is used to examine the convergence among actors. Six main actors in reducing unemployment are identified, namely Regional Development Planning Agency (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah/Bappeda), Department of Labor, Department of Education, community leaders;job training center, and Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (Kamar Dagang dan Industri Indonesia/Kadin). The results of the first analysis show that the variables of economic growth, Human Development Index (HDI) and school enrollment have negative and significant effect on unemployment. The results of convergence analysis highlight the importance of the Department of Labor in linking the supply and demand sides of labor in Central Java.

10.
Multimodal Technologies and Interaction ; 7(4):41, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2298425

ABSTRACT

A new approach to learning is mobile learning (m-learning), which makes use of special features of mobile devices in the education sector. M-learning is becoming increasingly common in higher education institutions all around the world. The use of mobile devices for education and learning has also gained popularity in Jordan. Unlike studies about Jordan, there are many studies that thoroughly analyze the situation of m-learning in other countries. Thus, it is important to understand the current situation of m-learning at Jordanian universities, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. While there have been some studies conducted prior to COVID-19 and a few studies after COVID-19, there is a need for a comprehensive study that provides an in-depth exploration of the current situation, student adoption, benefits, disadvantages, and challenges, particularly following COVID-19. Therefore, this study utilizes a sequential exploratory mixed research method to investigate the current state of the art of m-learning in Jordanian higher education with a particular focus on student adoption, benefits, disadvantages, and challenges. Firstly, the study explores the existing literature on m-learning and conducts 15 interviews with educators and learners in three Jordanian universities to gain insights into their experiences with m-learning. The study then distributes a survey to students at four Jordanian universities, representing both public and private universities, to generalize the results from the qualitative study. Additionally, the study investigates the relationship between student enrollment in public/private universities and the adoption of m-learning. The study came to the conclusion that students have a positive opinion of m-learning and are also willing to use it. However, there are a number of disadvantages and challenges to its adoption. Additionally, there is a relationship between student enrolment in public/private universities and the adoption of m-learning. These findings have important implications for institutions that want to incorporate m-learning into their undergraduate and graduate degree programs, as they aid decision-makers in these universities in creating frameworks that may be able to meet the needs of m-learning.

11.
Education Sciences ; 13(4):382, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2297821

ABSTRACT

Information and communication, technology (ICT) has become a necessary tool in education post-COVID-19 pandemic. However, integrating ICT into teaching and learning has been a daunting challenge in many developing countries, such as Uganda. This qualitative case study investigated the challenges that primary school teachers face in implementing ICT in teaching science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects in Uganda. The study found various challenges divided into three categories: infrastructure and internet connectivity;individual factors and administrative support;and curriculum and learner support materials. A significant obstacle was the lack of computer access, internet connectivity, and ICT textbooks. Additionally, teachers lacked the ICT skills necessary to integrate technology into their teaching methods, and administrative support was insufficient. The identified challenges in this study will require a multi-pronged approach that includes increasing investment in infrastructure, providing training and support to teachers, and developing relevant and appropriate ICT curriculum materials. In conclusion, this study highlights the challenges that primary school teachers face in implementing ICT in teaching STEM subjects in Uganda. By addressing the identified challenges, policymakers and stakeholders can take steps towards improving ICT integration in primary school education and bridging the digital divide in Uganda and other developing countries.

12.
Education Research International ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2291949

ABSTRACT

A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) is described, both in its original, field-based and in-person design, as well as its adaptation to online delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. The CURE experience was centered around the topic of microbes attaching to ocean plastic debris, and included connecting nontraditional undergraduate students attending a primarily teaching institution to personnel of a research-intensive institution. The CURE was implemented in nonmajors and majors' general biology laboratory courses, as well as in an introductory microbiology lab course for health majors. Student perception of the CURE was assessed quantitatively through self-administered retrospective surveys, and qualitatively using open-ended survey questions and focus group interviews. Survey questions were grouped into four themes: (1) research at the research institution, (2) research at the teaching institution, (3) laboratory skills, and (4) interest in science. To assess impact of the CURE by modality, major and course level, theme scores were analyzed using ANOVAs (α = 0.05). Changes in student perception of learning were measured by comparing the "before” and "after” survey scores in each theme. The main source of variation in the model was time, followed by theme and major, while modality had a negligible effect. Overall, there were increases in student perception of learning across all themes across modality, major, and course level;however, not all were statistically significant. Highest gains were observed among nonmajors, while those of the majors' upper division courses were the lowest. On the other hand, majors' overall scores were the highest. Health majors' survey gains were mostly between those of nonmajors and majors. Qualitative data contextualized the quantitative results. The online adaptation was a valuable alternative, especially for nonmajors, as it expanded the range of students reached, with results similar to the in-person alternative. Preliminary data show a positive effect of the CURE in student success majoring in biology.

13.
Applied Economics Letters ; 30(7):932-936, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2263000

ABSTRACT

Higher education institutions (HEIs) had a public health decision to make in fall 2021, whether or not to mandate a Covid-19 vaccine for all students. The aim of this paper is to study the factors that influence the student vaccine mandate decision. We employ a logistic regression with the dependent variable equal 1 if a HEI has a student mandate;0 otherwise. We hypothesize that the student vaccine mandate decision is influenced by an institution's ranking, type, enrolment, competition, and political landscape. The results are consistent with expectations. Our significant finding is that top-ranked HEIs are more likely to have a vaccine mandate, with the probability of a vaccine mandate declining as the ranking declines. HEIs below those top-ranked are concerned about the financial implications of mandating vaccines, and this concern is heightened when students have alternatives. A national standard for a higher education vaccine mandate will internalize the positive externalities associated with a Covid-19 vaccine mandate, and overcome the reluctance of some HEIs to implement a vaccine mandate.

14.
Contemporary Economic Policy ; 41(2):262-281, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2262647

ABSTRACT

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) cases increased by 3.3 million between March and June 2020, their largest quarterly increase ever. During the pandemic, many states adopted a wide set of policies and procedures to facilitate program enrollment, retention, and eligibility. I track these policies and create a pandemic policy index measuring state generosity. States that adopted more generous policies experienced larger TANF and SNAP caseload growth, especially eligibility policies such as exempting TANF work requirements or SNAP P‐EBT availability. Analyzing the caseload relationship to labor markets, caseloads were less responsive to unemployment rate changes during the pandemic relative to the pre‐pandemic period.

15.
Advances in Global Health ; 1(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2275195

ABSTRACT

Globally, COVID-19 has had a negative impact on health systems and health outcomes, with evidence of differential gender impacts emerging. The COVID-19 timeline of events spanning from closures and restrictions to phased reopenings is well-documented in Kenya. This unique COVID-19 situation offered us the opportunity to study a natural experiment on pregnancy trends and outcomes in a cohort of Kenyan adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), enrolled in the KENya Single-dose HPV-vaccine Efficacy (KEN SHE) Study. The KEN SHE Study enrolled sexually active AGYW aged 15–20 years from central and western Kenya. Pregnancy testing was performed at enrollment and every 3 months. We determined pregnancy incidence trends pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown, pregnancy outcomes (delivery, spontaneous, or induced abortion), and postabortion and postpartum contraceptive uptake. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates of incidence rates were used to estimate the cumulative probability of pregnancy during the study period. Cox regression was used to investigate factors associated with pregnancy incidence. Of the 2,223 AGYW included in the analysis, median age was 18.6 IQR (17.6–20.3), >90% had at least secondary school education, 95% were single at the time of enrollment, and 82% had a steady/primary sexual partner. Pregnancy incidence peaked at 2.27 (95% CI [1.84, 2.81])/100 women-years of observation at the end of the first quarter of 2020, a period coinciding with the government-imposed lockdown. AGYW had 60% increased risk of being pregnant during the lockdown when compared to prelockdown period (HR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.25, 2.05]). Among the 514 pregnancies reported, 127 (25%) ended in abortion, of which 66 (52%) were induced abortions. Our findings demonstrate the adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures among AGYW. As services continue to be disrupted by the pandemic, there is an urgent need to strengthen and prioritize AGYW-centered SRH services, including contraception and safe abortion.

16.
The Journal of Applied Business and Economics ; 24(4):204-214, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2266918

ABSTRACT

Pandemic-related stress, depression, and anxiety might be important motivations for marijuana use. In this paper, we study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of marijuana among people aged 12 and older in the United States. We use data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and different econometric models to investigate this impact on national and state levels. We also consider the impact of the pandemic on the use of other illicit drugs such as heroin and methamphetamine. We find evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in marijuana use at both state and national levels.

17.
Journalism and Mass Communication Educator ; 78(1):69-83, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2255904

ABSTRACT

In contrast to 2018, the 2021 Survey of Journalism & Mass Communication Enrollments showed a decrease in undergraduate student enrollment in journalism and mass communication programs as well as decreases in the percentage of minority undergraduate and graduate students enrolled. In addition, it showed an increase in the percentage of programs reporting decreases in their operating budgets and increases in hiring freezes for faculty and staff. These findings, which undoubtedly were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, reflect overall trends in student enrollment and finances at colleges and universities nationwide. However, on a more positive note, the 2021 survey also showed increases in graduate student enrollment as well as continued growth in the percentage of programs offering online degrees and the percentage of students enrolled in journalism sequences. © AEJMC 2023.

18.
Laws ; 12(1):16, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2252251

ABSTRACT

All children have the right to education without discrimination, but half of refugee children are out of school, far worse than global averages. Obstacles to education for refugee and migrant children include poverty and overstretched resources in host countries, and humanitarian donors and agencies have important roles and should ensure the right to education. However, policy barriers to education are key drivers of the education crisis facing displaced children. These policy barriers are internationally unlawful, but the children affected often lack standing under domestic law to demand a remedy. Countries with laws enshrining migrant, asylum-seeking, and refugee children's rights to education and the European Union's response to Ukrainian refugee learners provide examples that advocates can use to help raise the global floor for displaced children's right to education. Advocates should press all countries to grant all children, including migrants and refugees, the enforceable right to education in domestic law.

19.
Interfaces ; 53(1):70, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2252006

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred extensive vaccine research worldwide. One crucial part of vaccine development is the phase III clinical trial that assesses the vaccine for safety and efficacy in the prevention of COVID-19. In this work, we enumerate the first successful implementation of using machine learning models to accelerate phase III vaccine trials, working with the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine to predictively select trial sites with naturally high incidence rates ("hotspots"). We develop DELPHI, a novel, accurate, policy-driven machine learning model that serves as the basis of our predictions. During the second half of 2020, the DELPHI-driven site selection identified hotspots with more than 90% accuracy, shortened trial duration by six to eight weeks (approximately 33%), and reduced enrollment by 15,000 (approximately 25%). In turn, this accelerated time to market enabled Janssen's vaccine to receive its emergency use authorization and realize its public health impact earlier than expected. Several geographies identified by DELPHI have since been the first areas to report variants of concern (e.g., Omicron in South Africa), and thus DELPHI's choice of these areas also produced early data on how the vaccine responds to new threats. Johnson & Johnson has also implemented a similar approach across its business including supporting trial site selection for other vaccine programs, modeling surgical procedure demand for its Medical Device unit, and providing guidance on return-to-work programs for its 130,000 employees. Continued application of this methodology can help shorten clinical development and change the economics of drug development by reducing the level of risk and cost associated with investing in novel therapies. This will allow Johnson & Johnson and others to enable more effective delivery of medicines to patients.

20.
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management ; 42(2):525-551, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2251842

ABSTRACT

Master's degree enrollment and debt have increased substantially in recent years, raising important questions about the labor market value of these credentials. Using a field experiment featuring 9,480 job applications submitted during the early months of the COVID‐19 pandemic, I examine employers' responses to job candidates with a Master of Business Administration (MBA), which represents one‐quarter of all master's degrees in the United States. I focus on MBAs from three types of less‐selective institutions that collectively enroll the vast majority of master's students: for‐profit, online, and regional universities. Despite the substantial time and expense required for these degrees, job candidates with MBAs from all three types of institutions received positive responses from employers at the same rate as candidates who only had a bachelor's degree—even for positions that listed a preference for a master's degree. Additionally, applicants with names suggesting they were Black men received 30 percent fewer positive responses than otherwise equivalent applicants whose names suggested they were White men or women, providing further evidence of racial discrimination in hiring practices.

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