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1.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology ; 129(5 Supplement):S135-S136, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2209747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Autosomal recessive interferon alpha/beta receptor 1 (IFNAR1) deficiency increases susceptibility to live-attenuated vaccines and wild-type viruses. Currently 16 cases, half with Polynesian ancestry have been reported since the discovery in 2019. Most cases present with severe MMR or yellow fever vaccine-related disease. Some cases report severe SARS-CoV-2, herpes simplex, and enterovirus. Varicella vaccine-related disease has been hypothesized but not previously reported. Case Description: A pediatric Samoan girl with congenital cardiac anomaly, otherwise healthy until receiving Varicella and MMR vaccines at 12 months. Two weeks later with presumed incomplete Kawasaki Disease with 10-day fever, red lips, and maculopapular rash, given IVIG and infliximab;also, positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR and IgG that admission. Developed diffuse vesicular rash 3 weeks after vaccination requiring re-admission for disseminated varicella. At 14 months, admitted again for acute respiratory failure with viral pericarditis, positive for rhinovirus/enterovirus on respiratory viral panel and varicella serum PCR. Samoan parents are first-degree cousins and her stillborn sister had significant homozygosity on genetic evaluation. Normal lymphocyte subsets, normal mitogen proliferation, absent antigen proliferation in vitro, and normal NK function. Intact humoral immunity. Primary immunodeficiency disease panel identified homozygous pathogenic variant in IFNAR1. Future live viral vaccines contraindicated. Managed with acyclovir with return to baseline. Discussion(s): This case demonstrates a novel finding of homozygous IFNAR1 deficiency predisposing to disseminated varicella after vaccination. TNF inhibition may have also contributed. IFNAR1 deficiency should be considered in patients with severe varicella or other severe viral illnesses, especially after live-attenuated viral vaccines in those of Polynesian ancestry. Copyright © 2022

2.
Der Nervenarzt ; : 1-7, 2022.
Article in German | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2174003

ABSTRACT

Hintergrund: Im Rahmen der COVID-19(„coronavirus disease 2019")-Pandemie wurden zur Eindämmung von Infektionen durch SARS-CoV‑2 („severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2") zahlreiche Hygienemaßnahmen implementiert, was auch die Häufigkeit anderer respiratorischer Infektionen deutlich reduziert hat. Darüber hinaus kam es interessanterweise auch zu einer Abnahme verschiedener Infektionskrankheiten des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS).Diese Übersichtsarbeit zeigt die Entwicklung wichtiger ZNS-Infektionen in Deutschland während der COVID-19-Pandemie.Die Übersichtsarbeit basiert auf relevanten Publikationen zur Epidemiologie von ZNS-Infektionen während der Pandemie bis Herbst 2022.Die Häufigkeit bakterieller Meningitiden durch Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis und Haemophilus influenzae hat während der Pandemie signifikant abgenommen. Ebenfalls abgenommen hat die Häufigkeit viraler Meningitiden (insbesondere der Enterovirus-Meningitis). Dahingegen hat die Anzahl der an Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis (FSME) erkrankten Patienten im ersten Jahr der Pandemie zugenommen.Während der Pandemie kam es in Deutschland zu einer Abnahme bakterieller und viraler Meningitiden, am ehesten in Folge der allgemeinen Hygienemaßnahmen und der Kontakteinschränkungen. Die Zunahme zeckenvermittelter Infektionen könnte Folge eines veränderten Freizeitverhaltens während der Pandemie sein.Fragestellung: Im Rahmen der COVID-19(„coronavirus disease 2019")-Pandemie wurden zur Eindämmung von Infektionen durch SARS-CoV‑2 („severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2") zahlreiche Hygienemaßnahmen implementiert, was auch die Häufigkeit anderer respiratorischer Infektionen deutlich reduziert hat. Darüber hinaus kam es interessanterweise auch zu einer Abnahme verschiedener Infektionskrankheiten des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS).Diese Übersichtsarbeit zeigt die Entwicklung wichtiger ZNS-Infektionen in Deutschland während der COVID-19-Pandemie.Die Übersichtsarbeit basiert auf relevanten Publikationen zur Epidemiologie von ZNS-Infektionen während der Pandemie bis Herbst 2022.Die Häufigkeit bakterieller Meningitiden durch Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis und Haemophilus influenzae hat während der Pandemie signifikant abgenommen. Ebenfalls abgenommen hat die Häufigkeit viraler Meningitiden (insbesondere der Enterovirus-Meningitis). Dahingegen hat die Anzahl der an Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis (FSME) erkrankten Patienten im ersten Jahr der Pandemie zugenommen.Während der Pandemie kam es in Deutschland zu einer Abnahme bakterieller und viraler Meningitiden, am ehesten in Folge der allgemeinen Hygienemaßnahmen und der Kontakteinschränkungen. Die Zunahme zeckenvermittelter Infektionen könnte Folge eines veränderten Freizeitverhaltens während der Pandemie sein.Material und Methode: Im Rahmen der COVID-19(„coronavirus disease 2019")-Pandemie wurden zur Eindämmung von Infektionen durch SARS-CoV‑2 („severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2") zahlreiche Hygienemaßnahmen implementiert, was auch die Häufigkeit anderer respiratorischer Infektionen deutlich reduziert hat. Darüber hinaus kam es interessanterweise auch zu einer Abnahme verschiedener Infektionskrankheiten des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS).Diese Übersichtsarbeit zeigt die Entwicklung wichtiger ZNS-Infektionen in Deutschland während der COVID-19-Pandemie.Die Übersichtsarbeit basiert auf relevanten Publikationen zur Epidemiologie von ZNS-Infektionen während der Pandemie bis Herbst 2022.Die Häufigkeit bakterieller Meningitiden durch Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis und Haemophilus influenzae hat während der Pandemie signifikant abgenommen. Ebenfalls abgenommen hat die Häufigkeit viraler Meningitiden (insbesondere der Enterovirus-Meningitis). Dahingegen hat die Anzahl der an Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis (FSME) erkrankten Pat enten im er ten Jahr der Pandemie zugenommen.Während der Pandemie kam es in Deutschland zu einer Abnahme bakterieller und viraler Meningitiden, am ehesten in Folge der allgemeinen Hygienemaßnahmen und der Kontakteinschränkungen. Die Zunahme zeckenvermittelter Infektionen könnte Folge eines veränderten Freizeitverhaltens während der Pandemie sein.Ergebnisse: Im Rahmen der COVID-19(„coronavirus disease 2019")-Pandemie wurden zur Eindämmung von Infektionen durch SARS-CoV‑2 („severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2") zahlreiche Hygienemaßnahmen implementiert, was auch die Häufigkeit anderer respiratorischer Infektionen deutlich reduziert hat. Darüber hinaus kam es interessanterweise auch zu einer Abnahme verschiedener Infektionskrankheiten des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS).Diese Übersichtsarbeit zeigt die Entwicklung wichtiger ZNS-Infektionen in Deutschland während der COVID-19-Pandemie.Die Übersichtsarbeit basiert auf relevanten Publikationen zur Epidemiologie von ZNS-Infektionen während der Pandemie bis Herbst 2022.Die Häufigkeit bakterieller Meningitiden durch Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis und Haemophilus influenzae hat während der Pandemie signifikant abgenommen. Ebenfalls abgenommen hat die Häufigkeit viraler Meningitiden (insbesondere der Enterovirus-Meningitis). Dahingegen hat die Anzahl der an Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis (FSME) erkrankten Patienten im ersten Jahr der Pandemie zugenommen.Während der Pandemie kam es in Deutschland zu einer Abnahme bakterieller und viraler Meningitiden, am ehesten in Folge der allgemeinen Hygienemaßnahmen und der Kontakteinschränkungen. Die Zunahme zeckenvermittelter Infektionen könnte Folge eines veränderten Freizeitverhaltens während der Pandemie sein.Diskussion: Im Rahmen der COVID-19(„coronavirus disease 2019")-Pandemie wurden zur Eindämmung von Infektionen durch SARS-CoV‑2 („severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2") zahlreiche Hygienemaßnahmen implementiert, was auch die Häufigkeit anderer respiratorischer Infektionen deutlich reduziert hat. Darüber hinaus kam es interessanterweise auch zu einer Abnahme verschiedener Infektionskrankheiten des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS).Diese Übersichtsarbeit zeigt die Entwicklung wichtiger ZNS-Infektionen in Deutschland während der COVID-19-Pandemie.Die Übersichtsarbeit basiert auf relevanten Publikationen zur Epidemiologie von ZNS-Infektionen während der Pandemie bis Herbst 2022.Die Häufigkeit bakterieller Meningitiden durch Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis und Haemophilus influenzae hat während der Pandemie signifikant abgenommen. Ebenfalls abgenommen hat die Häufigkeit viraler Meningitiden (insbesondere der Enterovirus-Meningitis). Dahingegen hat die Anzahl der an Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis (FSME) erkrankten Patienten im ersten Jahr der Pandemie zugenommen.Während der Pandemie kam es in Deutschland zu einer Abnahme bakterieller und viraler Meningitiden, am ehesten in Folge der allgemeinen Hygienemaßnahmen und der Kontakteinschränkungen. Die Zunahme zeckenvermittelter Infektionen könnte Folge eines veränderten Freizeitverhaltens während der Pandemie sein. (German) [ FROM AUTHOR]

3.
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 58 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2197579

ABSTRACT

The announcement by the WHO of the characterization of the new Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic, entails an adaptation by the community pharmacy in carrying out its care activity in general, with particular emphasis on "Minor Ailments Service" in particular. The measures taken by the different health administrations in which patient telephone care by primary care offices is prioritized have left more consultations on symptoms in the community pharmacist health-related problems as pharmacies are the closest health facilities to the patient. The similarity between the symptomatology caused by the new Coronavirus with that of some Enteroviruses that cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal tables (dry cough, fever, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhoea, etc.) makes community pharmacies highly capable places for contagion detection and prevention. A model of protocolized intervention is needed to facilitate the pharmacist's work in discriminating during the indication between minor symptoms and symptoms of referral for possible cases of COVID-19 so that in conjunction with the rest of the staff we help control the disease and make better use of primary care consultations. Copyright © 2022, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Biblioteca). All rights reserved.

4.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Conference: 11th Congress of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, WFPICCS ; 23(11 Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory illness in young children, mostly caused by Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV);PICU admission for respiratory support is required in some cases. The recent Covid-19 pandemic has altered dynamics of viral transmission in the community. We aim to describe if there has been a modification in the number and characteristics of patients admitted to Italian PICUs between the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic period. METHOD(S): Multicenter retrospective observational study based on the national electronic web-based national registry of the Italian Network of PICU Study Group (TIPNet). PICU admissions due to bronchiolitis were compared from 2017 to 2022, considering the seasonal peak periods (October, 1st to April, 30th). RESULT(S): 918 patients have been admitted due to bronchiolitis to Italian PICUs in the above mentioned years. Cumulative yearly admissions are reported in Figure 1. The winter season of 2020-2021 reported a significantly lower number of admissions. RSV was consistently the reported cause in most cases throughout the years except in season 2020-2021, when it was never reported. In the 2020-2021 season, enterovirus was reported in 23% of cases. Covid-19 as cause of bronchiolitis was reported in one case in 2020- 21 and 2 cases in 2021-22. CONCLUSION(S): Covid-19 pandemic, due to possibly multiple factors, has changed the panorama of PICU admissions due to bronchiolitis in Italy. Although research is still ongoing, it seems that Covid itself is not a cause of severe bronchiolitis requiring respiratory support. (Figure Presented).

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S898-S899, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190030

ABSTRACT

Background. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine is varies with circulating strain concordance and timing of influenza spread in a community. The Pragmatic Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the DoD (PAIVED) study is a multiyear, randomized clinical trial of three FDA-licensed vaccine types (egg-based, cellbased, and recombinant), designed to determine which influenza vaccine platform is most effective among adults in a military setting. Methods. Participants in the fourth year of PAIVED (2021-22 influenza season) were enrolled from September 2021 through January 2022 at 9 military facilities. Participants were asked each week about influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms. If the participants reported ILI symptoms, research staff scheduled an acute and convalescent ILI visit. Additional details about the study are included in Figure 1. Results. In year 4, 4,688 participants were enrolled, among whom 63.8% were male, 56.5% were white, and the average age was 34 years (Tables 1 and 2). As of early April, 1,297 ILIs had been reported. Most participants reported a single ILI (987 (87%)), while 140 participants reported two ILIs and 10 reported three ILIs. The mean duration of the reported ILIs was 11 days, with a mean 5 days of limited activity. Three participants were hospitalized. Among the samples processed to date, influenza has been identified in four participants. Themost common pathogens in year 4 were SARS-CoV-2 and rhino/enterovirus (Figure 2). During all four years of PAIVED, we enrolled 15,449 participants, among whom 188 episodes of influenza have been identified so far (1.2%). Conclusion. The fourth year of PAIVED was characterized by early (preenrollment) spread of influenza in some areas, as well the nationwide spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in December. As the swabs are processed and participants? military health records are reviewed, we expect to identify more influenza cases;however, transmission patterns were far lower than historical averages due to pandemic precautions, making this surveillance data from identified strains more valuable. Comparative influenza vaccine effectiveness calculations will be performed to inform future vaccine purchasing decisions and we will compare serological response to the different vaccines. (Figure Presented).

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S892-S893, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190023

ABSTRACT

Background. Adenovirus (AdV) is a common cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI). Multiple respiratory AdV types have been identified in humans, but it remains unclear which are the most common in U.S. children with ARI. Methods. We conducted a multicenter, prospective viral surveillance study at seven U.S. children's hospitals, the New Vaccine Surveillance Network, during 12/1/ 16-11/30/19, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Children < 18 years of age seen in the emergency department or hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were enrolled, and mid-turbinate nasal +/- throat swabs were tested using multiplex respiratory pathogen assays or real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for AdV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV), influenza, parainfluenza viruses, and endemic coronaviruses. AdV-positive specimens were subsequently typed using single-plex qPCR assays targeting sequences in the hexon gene specific for types 1-7, 11, 14, 16 and 21. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between AdV types. Results. Of 29,381 enrolled children, 2,106 (7.2%) tested positive for AdV. The distribution of types among the 1,330 (63.2%) successfully typed specimens were as follows: 31.7% AdV-2, 28.9% AdV-1, 15.3% AdV-3, 7.9% AdV-5, 5.9% AdV-7, 1.4% AdV-4, 1.2% AdV-6, 0.5% AdV-14, 0.2% AdV-21, 0.1% AdV-11, and 7.0% >=1 AdV type. Most children with AdV-1 or AdV-2 detection were < 5 years of age (Figure 1a). Demographic and clinical characteristics varied by AdV types, including age, race/ethnicity, smoke exposure, daycare/school attendance, and hospitalization (Table 1). Co-detection with other viruses was common among all AdV types, with RV and RSV being the most frequently co-detected (Figure 1b). Fever and cough were the most common symptoms for all AdV types (Figure 2). Children with AdV-7 detected as single pathogen had higher odds of hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio 6.34 [95% CI: 3.10, 12.95], p= 0.027). Conclusion. AdV-2 and AdV-1 were the most frequently detected AdV types among children over the 3-year study period. Notable clinical heterogeneity of the AdV types warrants further surveillance studies to identify AdV types that could be targeted for pediatric vaccine development. (Figure Presented).

7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S892, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190022

ABSTRACT

Background. Data regarding respiratory pathogen epidemiology in the tropical country of Ecuador are limited. Here, we describe the temporal patterns and etiologies of medically attended acute respiratory infections among Ecuadorean children during the 20-month period preceding the onset of the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods. Children < 5 years old presenting to a designated outpatient clinic with at least 2 new symptoms consistent with an acute respiratory infection are eligible for enrollment. Informed consent is obtained. Demographic and clinical details are collected. A nasopharyngeal sample is collected for diagnostic testing of 22 target pathogen groups using Biofire's Respiratory Panel v1.7 multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Results. Of the 820 subjects enrolled between July 15, 2018 and March 15, 2020, 655 (80%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. The detection of pathogens was more likely from samples collected from children enrolled in Quito (85%) compared to Machala (76%) (p < 0.05). The most frequently detected pathogen groups were rhinovirus/ enterovirus (46%), parainfluenza virus (14%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (12%), and influenza virus (10%). Two or more pathogen groups were codetected in 174 (27%) of the respiratory samples. Pathogen specific seasonal patterns were not observed for rhinovirus/enterovirus, adenovirus, or atypical bacteria at either site. Samples collected in Quito were positive for the detection of RSV spanning a 32-week period between November and June. In contrast, detection of RSV from samples collected in Machala spanned only a 17- week period between February and May. In Quito, influenza viruses were detected between August and February, with influenza A activity preceding that of influenza B. In Machala, the detection of influenza B virus coincided with the dry season, while detection of influenza A virus was clustered in the rainy period between January and March. Conclusion. The specific etiologies and seasonality of acute respiratory tract infections among Ecuadorean children < 5 years of age differ by site of enrollment. Such differences in regional data can be used to optimize regional implementation of existing and soon-to-be available public health prevention measures.

8.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S200-S201, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189620

ABSTRACT

Background. Coinfections, both bacterial and viral, occur with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but prevalence, risk factors, and associated clinical outcomes are not fully understood. Methods. We used the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance platform to investigate the occurrence of viral and bacterial coinfections among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during March 2020 and February 2022. Patients receiving additional standard of care (SOC) molecular testing for viral pathogens (14 days prior to admission or 7 days after), including respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV), influenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and endemic coronaviruses, were included. SOC testing for clinically relevant bacterial pathogens (7 days before admission or 7 days after) from sputum, deep respiratory, and sterile sites were included. The demographic and clinical features of those with and without bacterial infections were compared. Results. Among 2,654 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 and tested for all 7 virus groups, another virus was identified in 3.1% of patients. RV/EV (1.2%) and influenza (0.4%) were the most commonly detected viruses. Half (17,842/35,528, 50.2%) of hospitalized adults with COVID-19 had bacterial cultures taken within 7 days of admission, and 1,092 (6.1%) of these had a clinically relevant bacterial pathogen. A higher percentage of those with a positive culture died compared to those with negative cultures (32.3% vs 13.3%, p< 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate overall;Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the second most common respiratory isolate This figure includes 1,408 bacterial cultures from 1,066 individuals. Deep respiratory sites include endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bronchial washings, pleural fluid, and lung tissue. Commensal organisms were excluded. Conclusion. Consistent with previous studies, a relatively low proportion of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 had concomitantly identified viral or bacterial infections. Identification of a bacterial infection within 7 days of admission is associated with increasedmortality among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Conclusions about the clinical relevance of bacterial infections is limited by the retrospective nature of this study.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S43, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189511

ABSTRACT

Background. Return of infections caused by common respiratory viruses (RV)may be expected with the relaxation and/or removal of infection preventionmeasures instituted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we examined respiratory virus detection (RVD) rates in Wisconsin during the COVID-19 period, and whether ambulatory antibiotic prescribing for respiratory complaints has increased with return of typical RVs. Methods. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene's Viral Surveillance program collects RVD data from >130 laboratories across the state for influenza (FLU), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), seasonal coronaviruses (sCOR), parainfluenza virus (PARA), enteroviruses/rhinoviruses (E/R), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Data were collected from 1/1/2015 to 4/30/2022. Antibiotic prescribing for ambulatory care patients presenting with respiratory complaints was collected from our EHR, which utilizes a required order form for all ambulatory antibiotic prescriptions. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney Rank Sum and Spearman's rank correlation. Results. In the first year after COVID-19 onset, E/R and sCOR were detected at low levels while other RVs were essentially nil. After 4/2021, when infection prevention measures (i.e. mask mandates) were significantly relaxed or removed, RVDs increased for all viruses. At present, RVDs have returned to typical rates (except of FLU, Fig. 1) and seasonality variation (except of RSV, Fig. 1). Antibiotic prescribing for respiratory complaints has increased 57% in this period (3.5 to 5.5 prescriptions/1000 encounters, Fig. 2) and continues to trend up with RV activity. Prescribing rates are strongly correlated with RVD rates, but most strongly correlated with non-FLU, non-RSV RVD rates (Spearman correlation 0.71). Conclusion. In general, RVs have returned to pre-pandemic rates with seasonality. Interestingly, this return was associated with the relaxation/removal of infection prevention measures in the second year post-COVID-19 onset, and does not appear to be impacted by ongoing COVID-19 waves. Antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory care continues to be highly associated with RV activity, indicating this should remain a high priority of ambulatory stewardship education and intervention. (Figure Presented).

10.
Human Gene Therapy Methods ; 33(23-24):A211, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188085

ABSTRACT

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222/Vaxzervia) adapted from the chimpanzee adenovirus Y25 (ChAd-Y25) has been critical in combatting the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, as part of the largest vaccination campaign in history, a potentially lifethreatening clotting disorder, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, resembling heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), has been observed in a minority of AZD1222 patients following the first but not the second dose. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is characterised by development of thromboses at uncommon sites such as the cerebral venous sinuses and the splanchnic veins, with concomitant thrombocytopaenia. Therefore, to determine how ChAdOx1 may contribute to this novel disorder, it is critical to investigate the vector-host interactions of ChAdOx1. Structural and in vitro analysis of the fiber knob responsible for the primary virus-cell interaction suggests that coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary ChAdOx1 receptor. However, ChAdOx1 infection of CAR(-) human vascular endothelial cells has been demonstrated in vitro, suggesting ChAdOx1 may be using additional receptors. Dual tropism has been demonstrated in other human adenoviruses, with HAdV-D26 and HAdV-D37 both using sialic acid and CAR for transduction. Furthermore, coagulation factor X (FX), a factor demonstrated to bind to the hexon and facilitate human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-C5) transduction via a CARindependent pathway does not increase ChAdOx1 infection, with amino acid alignment between the hexon proteins suggesting ChAdOx1 is unable to bind FX. Taken together, these findings suggest ChAdOx1 uses additional as yet unknown mechanisms for transduction, which may further contribute to the pathogenesis of VITT.

11.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine ; 11(1):e4, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2184788
12.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 21(6):786-788, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2156444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human rhinovirus outbreak in a college in Guangzhou, and provide a better evidence for the prevention and control of human rhinovirus outbreaks. Method: Epidemiological investigation was carded out for the influenza-like illness outbreak epidemic in the a college in Guangzhou city on 3rd November, 2020, and the progress of the cases were followed up, and samples were tested for SAILS-COV-2, influenza virus, and respiratory poly-pathogens.

13.
VacciMonitor ; 31(3):103-108, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2147033
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3829-3839, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127821

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are often caused by enteroviruses (EVs). The aim of this study was to identify whether certain types of EV were more likely to cause severe illness in 2016, when an increasing spread of upper respiratory infections was observed in Gothenburg, Sweden. The EV strain in 137 of 1341 nasopharyngeal samples reactive for EV by polymerase chain reaction could be typed by sequencing the viral 5'-untranslated region and VP1 regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed. Patient records were reviewed. Hospital care was needed for 46 of 74 patients with available medical records. The majority of the patients (83) were infected with the rhinovirus (RV). The remaining 54 were infected with EV A, B, C, and D strains of 13 different types, with EV-D68 and CV-A10 being the most common (17 vs. 14). Significantly more patients with EV-D68 presented with dyspnea, both when compared with other EV types (p = 0.003) and compared to all other EV and RV infections (p = 0.04). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed the spread of both Asian and European CV-A10 strains and 12 different RV C types. This study showed an abundance of different EV types spreading during a year with increased upper respiratory increased infections. EV-D68 infections were associated with more severe disease manifestation. Other EV and RV types were more evenly distributed between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients. The EV type CV-A10 was also found in infected patients, which warrants further studies and surveillance, as this pathogen could cause more severe disease and outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus/genetics , Humans , Infant , Phylogeny , Rhinovirus/genetics
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143212

ABSTRACT

Coxsackieviruses, a genus of enteroviruses in the small RNA virus family, cause fatal infectious diseases in humans. Thus far, there are no approved drugs to prevent these diseases. Human milk contains various biologically active components against pathogens. Currently, the potential activity of breast milk components against the coxsackievirus remains unclear. In our study, the inhibitory effect of 16 major human milk components was tested on coxsackievirus class A type 9 isolate (CV-A9), BUCT01; 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) was identified to be effective. Time-of-addition, attachment internalisation assays, and the addition of 2'-FL at different time points were applied to investigate its specific role in the viral life cycle. Molecular docking was used to predict 2'-FL's specific cellular targets. The initial screening revealed a significant inhibitory effect (99.97%) against CV-A9 with 10 mg/mL 2'-FL, with no cytotoxicity observed. Compared with the control group, 2'-FL blocked virus entry (85%) as well as inhibited viral attachment (48.4%) and internalisation (51.3%), minimising its infection in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. The cell pre-incubation with 2'-FL exhibited significant inhibition (73.2-99.9%). Extended incubation between cells with 2'-FL reduced CV-A9 infection (93.9%), suggesting that 2'-FL predominantly targets cells to block infection. Molecular docking results revealed that 2'-FL interacted with the attachment receptor αvß6 and the internalisation receptor FCGRT and ß2M with an affinity of -2.14, -1.87, and -5.43 kcal/mol, respectively. This study lays the foundation for using 2'-FL as a food additive against CV-A9 infections.


Subject(s)
Coxsackievirus Infections , Enterovirus , Humans , Virus Attachment , Molecular Docking Simulation
16.
Pathogens ; 11(11)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115992

ABSTRACT

Many severe epidemics are caused by enteroviruses (EVs) and coronaviruses (CoVs), including feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats, epidemic diarrhea disease virus (PEDV) in pigs, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens, and EV71 in human. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are used to prevent and treat the infection of EVs and CoVs, but the effectiveness is affected due to rapidly changing RNA viruses. Many plant extracts have been proven to have antiviral properties despite the continuous mutations of viruses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) has high phenolic content and has been used as healthy food materials, livestock feed, biofuels, and more. This study tested the antiviral properties of P. purpureum extract against FCoV, PEDV, IBV, and EV71 by in vitro cytotoxicity assay, TCID50 virus infection assay, and chicken embryo infection assay. The findings showed that P. purpureum extract has the potential of being disinfectant to limit the spread of CoVs and EVs because the extract can inhibit the infection of EV71, FCoV, and PEDV in cells, and significantly reduce the severity of symptoms caused by IBV in chicken embryos.

17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt B): 114342, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119988

ABSTRACT

To assess the exposure of beachgoers to viruses, a study on seawater, sand, and beach-stranded material was carried out, searching for human viruses, fecal indicator organisms, and total fungi. Moreover, for the first time, the genome persistence and infectivity of two model viruses was studied in laboratory-spiked sand and seawater samples during a one-week experiment. Viral genome was detected in 13.6 % of the environmental samples, but it was not infectious (Human Adenovirus - HAdV, and enterovirus). Norovirus and SARS-CoV-2 were not detected. The most contaminated samples were from sand and close to riverine discharges. In lab-scale experiments, the infectivity of HAdV5 decreased by ~1.5-Log10 in a week, the one of Human Coronavirus-229E disappeared in <3 h in sand. The genome of both viruses persisted throughout the experiment. Our results confirm viral contamination of the beach and suggest HAdV as an index pathogen for beach monitoring and quantitative risk assessment.

18.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116199

ABSTRACT

Fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) is a subtype of type 1 diabetes (T1D) that is characterized by the rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis against the background of rapid and almost complete pancreatic islet destruction. The HbA1c level at FT1D onset remains normal or slightly elevated despite marked hyperglycemia, reflecting the rapid clinical course of the disease, and is an important marker for diagnosis. FT1D often appears following flu-like symptoms, and there are many reports of its onset being linked to viral infections. In addition, disease-susceptibility genes have been identified in FT1D, suggesting the involvement of host factors in disease development. In most cases, islet-related autoantibodies are not detected, and histology of pancreatic tissue reveals macrophage and T cell infiltration of the islets in the early stages of FT1D, suggesting that islet destruction occurs via an immune response different from that occurring in autoimmune type 1 diabetes. From 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread worldwide and became a serious problem. Reports on the association between SARS-CoV-2 and T1D are mixed, with some suggesting an increase in T1D incidence due to the COVID-19 pandemic. When discussing the association between COVID-19 and T1D, it is also necessary to focus on FT1D. However, it is not easy to diagnose this subtype without understanding the concept. Therefore, authors hereby review the concept and the latest findings of FT1D, hoping that the association between COVID-19 and T1D will be adequately evaluated in the future.

19.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29380, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090851

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious sequela of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is unclear whether the co-occurrence of other viral respiratory illnesses, such as the human rhino-enterovirus (HRV/ENT), prolongs hospitalization or affects the clinical phenotype of patients with MIS-C. We report the hospital course of a three-year-old with MIS-C and HRV/ENT infection, who tested positive for HRV/ENT infection a few days prior to re-presenting for six days of fever, one day of emesis, bilateral conjunctivitis, and shortness of breath, all consistent with MIS-C. Due to worsening hypotension, he was admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary center, where he received vasoactive support, intravenous immunoglobulin, and high-dose intravenous steroids. Because of his worsening respiratory status, he was also started on anakinra with resultant gradual improvement. He was hospitalized for a total of 15 days. Concurrence of other viral infections may prolong hospitalization for patients with MIS-C.

20.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 51: 102482, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pilgrims travelling to Saudi Arabia are commonly infected with respiratory viruses. Since the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, patients with acute respiratory symptoms returning from an endemic area can be suspected to be infected by this virus. METHODS: 98 patients suspected to have MERS-CoV infection from 2014 to 2019 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Upper and lower respiratory tract samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR for the detection of MERS-CoV and other respiratory viruses. Routine microbiological analyses were also performed. Patient data were retrieved from laboratory and hospital databases retrospectively. RESULTS: All patients with suspected MERS-CoV infection travelled before their hospitalization. Most frequent symptoms were cough (94.4%) and fever (69.4%). 98 specimens were tested for MERS-CoV RNA and none of them was positive. Most frequently detected viruses were Enterovirus/Rhinovirus (40/83; 48.2%), Influenzavirus A (34/90; 37.8%) and B (11/90; 12.2%), H-CoV (229E and OC43 10/83; 12% and 7/83; 8.4%, respectively). CONCLUSION: From 2014 to 2019, none of 98 patients returning from endemic areas was MERS-CoV infected. However, infections with other respiratory viruses were frequent, especially with Enterovirus/Rhinoviruses and Influenzaviruses.

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