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1.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1111(1):012038, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2188003

ABSTRACT

Participatory budgets are an increasingly common form of co-decision of residents about the quality of life and development directions of urban space. In Poland, participatory budgets have been realized for a decade, and projects submitted to these budgets respond to needs such as e.g. leisure infrastructure, environmental conditions, recreation, health, and education. The study aims to analyze the phenomenon of civic participation and the use of participatory budgets as a tool of co-governance in the context of environmental issues and urban development. A desk research analysis of national and foreign literature data was performed, and the existing statistical data on participatory budgets in Poland were analyzed. In addition, the websites of selected cities in Poland were analyzed in the context of implemented projects and citizen's activity within the framework of participatory budgets. The results indicate that the initial enthusiasm of the citizen's implementation has decreased, but the COVID-19 pandemic has aroused renewed interest in the topic. The study's implication is recommendations, e.g.: creating a civic budget database featuring uniform categories or creating Green Civic Budgets in every city.

2.
Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental ; 16(1):1-15, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040619

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O artigo buscou analisar os impactos e reflexos da pandemia de COVID-19 na gestão dos resíduos plásticos. Referencial teórico: A preocupação com a COVID-19 resultou em diversas medidas protetivas, como a determinação do uso de EPIs e restrições de circulação nos centros urbanos. Essas mudanças também impactaram padrões de geração e gestão de resíduos sólidos, especialmente de resíduos plásticos, cujos reflexos negativos nos aspectos socioambientais podem emergir, dado seu descarte inadequado. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura, nas bases de dados Scopus, Sage e Web of Science, com utilização do Methodi Ordinatio. Ao total, 22 estudos foram selecionados, compondo o portfólio de pesquisa. Resultados e conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram uma maior concentração de estudos que relacionam os resíduos plásticos nas regiões costeiras, especialmente provenientes de EPIs, e a poluição por microplásticos. Além disso, há uma preocupação com a geração de resíduos de embalagens pela alteração nos padrões de consumo, com o aumento da procura por serviços de e-commerce e delivery. Além de uma preocupação ambiental, destaca-se um problema de ordem social à longo prazo, devido à quebra de padrões de comportamentos sustentáveis na utilização de plástico descartável. Implicações da pesquisa: Soluções são propostas no sentido de utilização de plásticos biodegradáveis, reutilização de EPIs e novas tecnologias de tratamento de resíduos, além da mudança no comportamento social. Originalidade/valor: De um modo geral, o estudo fornece insights e promove reflexões sobre os desafios enfrentados no gerenciamento de resíduos plásticos durante a pandemia de COVID-19.Alternate :Purpose: The article aims to analyze the impacts and reflections of the COVID-19 pandemic on plastic waste management. Theoretical Framework: The concern with COVID-19 resulted in several protective measures, such as the use of PPE and movement restrictions in urban centers. These changes also affected patterns of generation and management of solid waste, especially plastic waste, whose negative effects on socio-environmental aspects may emerge due to its inadequate disposal. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review in the databases Scopus, Sage and Web of Science, employing the Methodi Ordinatio. The review selected 22 studies to compose the research portfolio. Results and conclusion: The results showed a higher concentration of studies on plastic waste in coastal regions, especially from PPE and microplastic pollution. Moreover, there is a concern with the generation of packaging waste by shifting consumption patterns with the increased demand for e-commerce and delivery services. Besides an environmental concern, a long-term social problem stands out regarding the breaking of sustainable behavior patterns in using disposable plastic. Research implications: We propose solutions involving the use of biodegradable plastics, reuse of PPE, and new waste treatment technologies, besides changes in social behavior. Originality/Value: Overall, the study provides insights and promotes reflections on the challenges faced in managing plastic waste during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Applied Sciences ; 12(16):8120, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023098

ABSTRACT

Featured ApplicationThe use of these indices, which make it possible to compare the environmental efficiency between hospitals with similar characteristics, will facilitate the adoption of measures, the development of impact mitigation plans, and the implementation of good practices in environmental topics that will guide the health sector toward sustainability scenarios.In the past decades, the use of indices and indicators to report on the environmental performance of organisations has increased exponentially. However, the available studies did not address the topic of obtaining indicators that show the environmental behaviour of the health sector. The main objective of this research, therefore, was aimed at the calculation of environmental efficiency indices in the hospital sector, taking a regional hospital as a case study and considering the environmental aspects identified during the development of its healthcare activity in 2019. The results obtained provided information on the potential environmental impacts triggered by every aspect of the operation of a hospital in the course of its activities that focus on patient care. The results demonstrated that the aspects related to transportation of patients, workers, and materials had the greatest impact on the global environmental indices we calculated. For the environmental efficiency indices of hospital activities, the most significant environmental aspects were materials consumption and waste generation.

4.
Demohrafii︠a︡ ta Sot︠s︡ialʹna Ekonomika ; 45(3):53, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2002709

ABSTRACT

The following papers deals with self-preserving behaviour in the period of a global problem-COVID-19 pandemic. Positive self-preserving behaviour determines the level of health of an in-dividual and, consequently, of a society. In the period of the pandemic we have witnessed an in-creased interest toward self-preserving behaviour. Apart from observing private hygiene or hy-giene norms and social distancing, there were no other protective mechanisms during the process of the research,and vaccination has not yet begun. As a result of the urgency of the issue, the staff s of Institute Demography and Sociology Ilia State University under the guidance of professor A. Sulaberidze have conducted a sociological research in October 2020, "Awareness of the corona virus pandemic's impact on the social-economic situation of Georgian population and self-preservative behaviour", in four regions of Georgia. The regions were selected based on the level of the coronavirus's proliferation. Respondents were selected using the method of random sampling. We interviewed 500 respondents with the help of pre-composed questionnaires. The following research is one of the attempts in Georgia to study self-preserving behaviour under the circumstances of the pandemic and it shows us to what extent the population's self-preserving behaviour is directed toward defense against the coronavirus. One of the main func-tions of a state is to prevent the spread of diseases and protect its population from harmful in-fluence of environmental factors. In this regard, the state has implemented signifi cant measures;however, they are not sufficient as the joint eff orts of the state and each citizen determine the robustness of a country's population as well as the scope of a pandemic's proliferation. Our goal is to evaluate the efforts of the citizens, as for our objectives, we aim to ascertain the factors which seem auspicious and adverse for the mentioned efforts. The analysis of the research's results out-lined important diff erences between genders with regard to evaluating one's own health and self-preserving behaviour. The researchers had also shown that men value their health more highly and take care of it less. This tendency is immutable even when self-preserving behaviour significantly determines not only the possibility of one's own infection, but also of those surrounding us. Women respondents are more prone to observe every recommendation of epidemiologists than men. The level of population's awareness is high with respect to the symptoms of the infection as well as recommendations for self-protection and the existing infection situation in the country. The dissimilar levels of infection between various regions gave us varying indicators of aware-ness. The higher the infection rate, the higher the awareness rate. The respondents' health condi-tion signifi cantly determines the population's attitude toward the coronavirus infection. Self-assessment of one's health condition has an impact on the level of fear caused by the pandemic. The respondents with chronic ailments are more liable to express fear than those who evaluate their health highly. The perception of the risks associated with the coronavirus infection is diff erent in terms of sexes. Compared to men, women, on average, perceive the coronavirus threat and its subsequent problems more emotionally and give a lower assessment to their health condition. The population's fear of the pandemic is exacerbated by the fact that this viral infection has not been adequately studied yet and we are not aware of its future repercussions or complications. Therefore, those respondents who are fully healthy also express justifi able apprehension. There emerged a proportionate connection between the level of following the epidemiologists' recommendations and perception of the threat of the COVID infection. The more seriously people perceive the mentioned threat, the more eager they are to fulfill the epidemiologists' recommendations.Alternate :Стаття присвячена самозберРжувальній поведінці в період глобальної проблеми - пандемії COVID-19. Позитивна самозбережувальна поведінка визначає рівень здо-ров'я людини Ñ– суспільства. У період пандемії посилюється інтерес до самозбережу-вальної поведінки. Окрім дотримання особистої гігієни або гігієнічних норм Ñ– со-ціального дистанціювання в процесі дослідження не було ніяких інших захисних механізмів, вакци націю ще не було розпочато. У зв'язку з актуальністю питання спів-робітниками Інституту демографії та соціології Державного університету Ілії під ке-рівництвом професора А. Сулаберідзе в жовтні 2020 року було проведено соціоло-гічне дослідження «Поінформованість про вплив пандемії коронавірусу на соціально-економічне стано вище населення Грузії та самозбережувальну поведінку» в чотирьох регіонах Грузії. Ре гіони обрано зважаючи на рівень поширення коронавірусу. Респон-денти відбиралися методом випадкової вибірки. Було опитано 500 респондентів за допомогою заздалегідь складеної анкети. Це дослідження Ñ” однією зі спроб вивчити самозбережувальну поведінку в умовах пандемії в Грузії, що показує, як поведінка на-селення направлена на захист від коронавірусу. Одна з основних функцій держави - профілактика поширення хвороб Ñ– захист населення від шкідливого впливу факторів навколишнього середовища. У зв'язку з цим державою реалізовано протиепідемічні заходи;проте Ñ—Ñ… недостатньо, оскільки спільні зусилля держави Ñ– кожного громадянина визначають життєздат ність населення країни, а також масштаби поширення пан-демії. Наша мета - оці нити зусилля громадян, а завдання - виявитифактори, які сприяють Ñ– перешко джають цим зусиллям. Аналіз результатів дослідження виявив важливі відмінності між статями щодо оцінки власного здоров'я та самозбережуваль-ної поведінки. Дос лідження також показало, що чоловіки вище цінують своє здоров'я Ñ– менше про нього піклуються. Ця тенденція незмінна, навіть коли самозбережувальна поведінка значною мірою визначає можливість зараження не тільки людини, а й ото-чуючих. Жінки-рес понденти (на відміну від чоловіків) більш схильні дотримуватися всіх рекомендацій епідеміологів. Рівень поінформованості населення про симптоми інфекції, а також рекомендації з самозахисту Ñ– актуальну інфекційну ситуа †Ñ–ÑŽ в країні високий. Різні рівні інфікування в різних регіонах показали, що чим вище рівень за-раження, тим вище рівень обізнаності. Стан здоров'я респондентів багато в чому ви-значає ставлення населення до коронавірусної інфекції. Самооцінка стану здоров'я впливає на рівень страху, викликаного пандемією. Респонденти з хронічними захво-рюваннями більш схильні висловлювати страх, аніж Ñ‚Ñ–, хто високо оцінює своє здо-ров'я. Сприйняття ризиків, пов'язаних з коронавірусною інфекцією, Ñ” різним залежно від статі. На відміну від чоловіків жінки в середньому емоційніше сприймають за-грозу коронавірусу та пов'язані з ним проблеми Ñ– нижче оцінюють стан свого здо-ров'я. Страх населення перед пандемією посилюється тим фактом, що ця вірусна інфекція ще недостатньо вивчена, Ñ– ми не знаємо про Ñ—Ñ— наслідки або ускладнення в майбутньому. Тому обґрунтовані побоювання висловлюють Ñ– повністю здорові рес-понденти. Виявлено пропорційний зв'язок між рівнем дотримання рекомендацій епі-деміологів Ñ– сприйняттям загрози зараження COVID. Чим серйозніше люди сприйма-ÑŽÑ‚ÑŒ загрозу, тим більше вони виконують рекомендації епідеміологів.

5.
20th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP 2022 ; 2022-May, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948779

ABSTRACT

With the development of technologies and the decrease of prices, the number of end-users that decide to invest in distributed energy resources (DERs) continuously grows. Despite the improvement of financial and environmental aspects of the power system operation, a growing share of DERs can cause numerous technical challenges for distribution system operators (DSOs). Besides the integration of DERs, the novel COVID-19 disease created additional challenges for DSOs in 2020 and 2021. Due to a large number of single-phase loads and DERs, the increased consumption, the number of nonlinear loads, and power electronic devices in a distribution network, many challenges are related to power quality (PQ). In this paper, realistic case studies that consider anomalies caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and integration of DERs are presented. By using pandapower and its newly developed extension, different PQ indicators are calculated and the values of voltage magnitude, voltage unbalance factor (VUF), and total harmonic distortion (THD) are compared through different scenarios. In addition, the impact of a transformer's vector group on the PQ indicators' propagation through the observed distribution network is analyzed. In a conclusion, the optimal vector group, that successfully mitigates or at least decreases the values of PQ indicators and their propagation is proposed. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(13):8196, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934262

ABSTRACT

This article synthesizes the evidence on food value chains (FVCs) and regional food hubs (RFHs) through a systematic literature review and suggests future research directions based on the gaps identified in the review. The number of publications on FVCs and RFHs is increasing, indicating that these topics are gaining interest among scholars from different countries and disciplines. Bibliometric analysis and preferred reporting items for systematic review and a meta-analysis (PRISMA) flow chart are used to identify the data from Scopus. The results show that FVCs are an innovative solution to improve the skills and capacity of smallholder farmers through collaborative networks that can match the functions of RFHs. RFHs connect local producers and customers by operating a business based on social entrepreneurship and ecological approaches to increase local economic viability and the sustainability of agriculture products. FVCs and RFHs are designed to respond to supply chain insecurity with value-based approaches in order to achieve sustainable nutrition for the local community. Further research on FVCs and RFHs emphasizes that the business model of regional development in developing countries can improve food security sustainability based on social entrepreneurship, and emphasizes the environmental aspect that it can use to support the sustainability of developing countries local food.

7.
Ecological Indicators ; 141, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930846

ABSTRACT

In the efforts to ensure the health of the Australian population during the COVID pandemic, social, economic, and environmental aspects of people's life were impacted. In addressing the pandemic risks, a number of governments prioritized people's health and well-being over GDP growth. The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is used to account for factors that influence well-being. We used the GPI to assess the pandemic's impact on well-being and we examined our results in relation to the GDP. We estimated the GPI for the first 6 months of 2019 and the same period in 2020, during which the first stages of the COVID pandemic and the first nationwide lockdown in Australia took place. We examined two scenarios, in the first we found that in Q1 the GDP growth (1.4%) was accompanied by a significant GPI growth (5.3%), showing a positive relation to the GDP;but in Q2 the significant drop (-6.3%) in the GDP was not followed by the GPI, instead the GPI growth remained almost steady with even a relatively small increase (0.33%), indicating a negative relation to the GDP growth. Whereas in the second scenario, the GPI growths (7.12%) in Q1 and (-2.60%) Q2 were positively related to the GDP growths (4.6%) in Q1 and (−0.25%) Q2.We discuss the reasons for the divergence between the two indicators and one of the limitations of the GPI as a measure of well-being. Lastly, we discuss the behavioural and policy lessons of the lockdown and their relevance to what is proposed by degrowth economists. © 2022 The Author(s)

8.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1041(1):012030, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908704

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the sustainability of indigenous cattle production (Jabres Cattle) during the COVID 19 pandemic in Brebes Regency, Indonesia. The sustainability of Jabres cattle production is considered from the aspects of production, socio-economic, and environmental aspects. The study was conducted on 64 Jabres farmers in 5 sub-districts (Ketanggungan, Bantarkawung, Banjarharjo, Larangan, and Salem). Respondents were taken using a simple random sampling method and data was taken using online questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The indigenous cattle farmers in Brebes Regency have a long experience as beef cattle farmers (10.7 years on average) with an average ownership scale of 7 heads. During the pandemic, there was an increase of 54.7 percent of farmers who felt it was difficult to get cattle breeds compared to before the pandemic. The number of farmers who found it difficult to get forage also showed an increase of 36 percent compared to before the pandemic. Likewise, an increase in the number of farmers (75 percent) felt that it was increasingly difficult to sell beef cattle, which resulted in not making it easy for profits. However, the COVID 19 pandemic can encourage all farmers to pay more attention to the cleanliness of cowshed and the cage environment. Most of the indigenous cattle farmers (89 percent) remain committed to continuing their business despite difficulties in obtaining calves, feed, and selling cattle. Farmers still have confidence that the difficult situation will pass, and demand slaughter cattle will recover.

9.
Journal of Innovation Management ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1893606

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 transformed mobile payment services (MPS) diffusion pattern globally. Consequently, the need to examine factors contributing to the diffusion rate of MPS in this era is substantiated. Thus, this study employs Structural Equation Model (SEM) with social media administered survey data to estimate the nexus between MPS diffusion and technological factors, non-technological factors, and environmental factors. Results suggest that although MPS diffusion increased globally, mobile payment services have the highest diffusion rate. This is because of convenience, availability, and cost. Further, technological, non-technological, and environmental factors all contribute positively to the high rate of diffusion. Environmental factors like an escalation in the Covid-19 cases, recommendations from the center for disease control positively mediates the relationship between MPS diffusion and non-technological factors. Thus, to encourage mass diffusion and continual usage of MPS during and after the pandemic, cost of usage, convenience, accessibility, and mobile-based applications should be bundled for optimized user experience.

10.
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering ; 227:339-350, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844292

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic gives us a reason to once again draw attention to the problems of optimal functional and spatial organization of residential structures (traditional and mixed types of residential buildings and complexes) and of their basic elements—accommodation units. In the article the authors try to summarize the results of numerous progressive developments in architecture and construction in recent decades. The main problem of creating a comfortable living environment and its elements is that high-quality and proven architectural and planning solutions are often neglected for the sake of short-term economic benefits or considered outdated. The authors focus on optimizing the design solutions of residential cells (as the basic elements of residential structures) in terms of various functional scenarios of their use, as well as their comfort and environmental friendliness. The article provides examples of experimental design developments carried out under the guidance of the authors and awarded at International competitions. The novelty of the proposed recommendations is due to the construction of a system of principles, techniques and means of organizing housing adequate to the needs of society faced with a pandemic. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
Energies ; 15(9):3456, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837601

ABSTRACT

The optimal utilization of renewable energies is a crucial factor toward the realization of sustainability and zero carbon in a future energy system. Tidal currents, waves, and thermal and salinity gradients in the ocean are excellent renewable energy sources. Ocean tidal, osmotic, wave, and thermal energy sources have yearly potentials that exceed the global power demand of 22,848 TWh/y. This paper extensively reviews the technologies related to energy harvesting from waves, tidal, ocean thermals, and the salinity gradient. Moreover, the socio-economic, social, and environmental aspects of the above technologies are also discussed. This paper provides a better picture of where to invest in the future energy market and highlights research gaps and recommendations for future research initiatives. It is expected that a better insight into ocean energy and a deep understanding of various potential devices can lead to a broader adoption of ocean energy. It is also clear that further research into control strategies is needed. Policy makers should provide financial support for technologies in the demonstration stage and employ road mapping to accelerate the cost and risk reductions to overcome economic hurdles. To identify traditional and online sources on the topic, the authors used electronic databases and keyword searching approaches. Among them, the International Renewable Energy Agency data were the primary database utilized to locate sources.

12.
Sustainability ; 13(6):3254, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1792518

ABSTRACT

Retail companies operating in Lithuania are very important for the national economy. Domestic consumption has remained one of the most important drivers of Lithuania’s economic development. The objective of this article is to investigate the customer preferences and to identify selected factors of shopping centers in Vilnius, Lithuania. The study of Vilnius shopping centers is based on a complex model that integrates the following factors: shopping center goods and services, customer service, image factors, physical factors, situational factors and demographic characteristics of target consumers. Expert interviews aimed to determine the customer preference factors by perception of professional experts in relation to the phenomenon under study. The consumer survey questionnaire focuses on all the identified factors that determine the choice of a shopping center. This article identifies theoretical factors for the selection of retail shopping centers, reviews the market trends and peculiarities of Vilnius shopping centers, evaluates the factors for the selection and assess functional, emotional and communicational consumer preferences for the choice of Vilnius shopping centers.

13.
Desarrollo y Sociedad ; - (86):104-104–132, 2020.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1786366

ABSTRACT

Los efectos económicos y sociales que la pandemia del COVID-19 y las medidas asociadas para hacerle frente están teniendo en América Latina pueden derivar en serias consecuencias de largo plazo que repercutirían en el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS). En este artículo, resultado de la colaboración de economistas ambientales de ocho países de la región, discutimos los posibles efectos de la pandemia en la contaminación del aire, la deforestación y otros aspectos ambientales relevantes relacionados con los ODS. Además de presentar un recuento de algunos de los efectos iniciales de la crisis sanitaria en el medio ambiente, discutimos efectos potenciales en términos de regulaciones ambientales e intervenciones de política pública. Por último, presentamos una agenda sobre nuevos temas de investigación que surgen a raíz de la pandemia o que han cobrado mayor importancia como consecuencia de esta, incluyendo los impactos sobre el logro de los ODS.Alternate : The social and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to contain it in Latin America could lead to a series of long run consequences that could impact the region’s achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This article is the result of the collaboration of environmental economists from eight of the region’s countries and it discusses the possible pandemic effects on air pollution, deforestation, and other relevant environmental aspects related to the SDG. In addition to reviewing some of the initial effects of the sanitary crisis on the environment, we discuss its potential effects in terms of environmental regulations and public policy interventions. Finally, we discuss a new research agenda with topics derived from the pandemic as well as topics that have recently become more relevant because of it, including its impact on achieving the SDG.

14.
Energies ; 15(7):2690, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785590

ABSTRACT

A company’s productivity and success measure its effectiveness. This article presents the problem of economic efficiency and aspects related to environmental protection. The basic parameters analysed were the engine type and how it affects the environment. Over three months, the analysis was carried out and used the data envelopment analysis. As a result of the research carried out, the comparison of the amount of fuel used with the amount of transported goods should answer the following questions: What type of engine should be ordered for new trucks to show the best efficiency during operation? What is the efficiency of the currently used engines? How do they affect the environment? The method proposed in the article makes it possible to define the initial requirements for the definition of truck units, which is included in the conclusions of this paper.

15.
AQ: Australian Quarterly ; 93(2):24-30,40, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1772389

ABSTRACT

In 2019, it was estimated that brain-related disorders cost Australia over $74 billion per annum and constituted over 20% of the burden of disease in Australia.1 Yet despite an abundance of research talent and innovation, early and mid-career brain scientists are leaving the research sector at an alarming rate, primarily due to job insecurity.2 At a time where the health of the population and the economy are increasingly reliant on brain science discoveries and applications, it is critical that Australia retain early and mid-career brain scientists to address one of the biggest scientific problems: Because many brain science projects are multi- and interdisciplinary, with both medical and non-medical applications, researchers often fall foul between the rigid mandates of the Australian Research Council and National Health and Medical Research Council (including the Medical Research Future Funding they administer) schemes. Hannah is currently the President of the Australasian Cognitive Neuroscience Society and has previously been the Co-Chair of the EMCR Brain Science Network - https://emcrbrainsciencenetwork.com.au/ Dr Bernadette Fitzgibbon is a neuroscientist at Monash University working to better understand the relationship between neurobiology and chronic illnesses, and how this may be harnessed to advance prevention and intervention strategies. Sarah leads the Behavioural Genomic and Environmental Mechanisms Lab (@BehGems), where her team investigates how environmental factors influence genetic and epigenetic risk factors in psychological disorders within the individual and beyond, transmitted to future generations.

16.
Energies ; 15(5):1825, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736865

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by reducing energy consumption. Of course, this can be achieved in various ways, but inter alia, through the practical implementation of the assumptions contained in the CSR programs of individual companies, which include a component on environmental protection and counteracting global warming. The authors also describe a proposal to reduce CO2 emissions by using coke oven gas (if necessary) in exchange for natural gas. Currently, the largest sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels in power plants, transport—cars and planes, processes related to the production of industrial goods, and deforestation. In the preparation of the article, the analysis of the literature on the subject, analysis of documents, desk research, and two case studies were used. The main goal of the article is to present the possibilities of reducing CO2 emissions by implementing the assumptions of the CSR policy on the example of a selected company (models of such activities are also given). Therefore, the aim of the article is to present selected activities that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in enterprises;of course, this is specific each time and should be individually selected for each enterprise depending on financial, environmental, and any other conditions. This means that almost all enterprises, organizations, and all other institutions should be obliged to implement an individual environmental policy related to the possibility of reducing carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, and the effects of implementing the assumptions of this policy should be regularly, at least once a year, presented in the CSR reports of a given organization. However, each organization should provide its own examples of how it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. For this reason, this article presents an example of the Marcel CHP plant, which, due to its capabilities, also uses coke oven gas, the use of which results in lower emissions of carbon dioxide than natural gas. Additionally, the article presents a comparative analysis of the use of coke oven gas instead of natural gas. The obtained results show the significant and real possibilities of reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

17.
Internal Security ; 13(2):187-202, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1732410

ABSTRACT

Celem przeprowadzonego badania byÅ‚o okreÅ›lenie, jakie kwestie zwiÄ…zane z bezpieczeÅ„stwem sÄ… brane pod uwagÄ™ podczas dokony wania wyboru kierunku podróży turystycznych. Dane badawcze zostaÅ‚y zebrane w 2019 roku w Republice Czeskiej od respondentów z różnych grup wiekowych, przy użyciu kwestionariuszy internetowych i w tradycyjnej formie papierowej. LÄ…cznie, badanie objęło 2.065 osób. Po przeanalizowaniu udzielonych odpowiedzi, sformuÅ‚owano 84 indywidualne koncepty, które nastÄ™pnie zostaÅ‚y zebrane w postaci dziewiÄ™ciu kategorii tematycznych. SÄ… to: wysoki stopieÅ„ zagrożenia, paÅ„stwo, sytuacja ekonomiczna i polityczna kraju, charakterystyka Å›rodowiska naturalnego, zdrowie i higiena, uwarunkowania osobiste, religia, sytuacja spoÅ‚eczna w kraju oraz preferencje podróżnicze. Wyniki badania pokazujÄ… w jaki sposób postrzegane sÄ… miejsca docelo we podróży w kontekÅ›cie bezpieczeÅ„stwa oraz jakie kwestie zniechÄ™cajÄ… turystów do przyjazdu do danego kraju. Znajomość opinii osób na powyższe tematy jest w krÄ™gu zainteresowania wielu organów bezpieczeÅ„stwa, które zajmujÄ… siÄ™ zagrożeniami dla turystów, a także jest istotna dla instytucji odpowiedzialnych za promowanie bezpieczeÅ„stwa wÅ›ród turystów.Alternate :Ziel der Studie war es zu ermitteln, welche Sicherheitsaspekte bei der Wahl eines Reiseziels berücksichtigt werden. Die Forschungsdaten wurden 2019 in der Tschechischen Republik bei Befragten verschiedener Altersgruppen mithilfe von Onlinefragebögen und traditionellen Papierform erhoben. Insgesamt wurden 2065 Personen befragt. Nach der Analyse der Antworten wurden 84 Einzelbegriffe formuliert, die dann zu neun thematischen Kategorien zusammengefasst wurden. Diese sind: hohes Risiko, Land, wirtschaftliche und politische Situation im Land, Umweltmerkmale, Gesundheit und Hygiene, persönliche Umstände, Religion, soziale Situation im Land und Reisepräferenzen. Die Ergebnisse der Umfrage zeigen, wie Reiseziele in Bezug auf die Sicherheit wahrgenommen werden und welche Probleme Touristen davon abhalten, ein bestimmtes Land zu besuchen. Die Meinung der Menschen zu diesen Themen zu kennen, ist für viele Sicherheitsbehörden, die sich mit der Bedrohung von Touristen befassen, von Interesse, und auch für Institutionen, die für die Förderung der Sicherheit von Touristen zuständig sind, ist es wichtig.Alternate :Цель проведенного исследования - определить, какие вопросы безопасности учитываются при выборе туристами направления поездки. Данные исследования были проведены в 2019 году в Чешской Республике среди респондентов разных возрастных групп с использованием он-лайн и традиционных бумажных опросников. Ð’ целом, в опросе приняли участие2065 человек. После анализа ответов на вопросы формулировалось 84 отдельных понятий, которые затем были объединены в девять тематических категорий. К ним относятся: высокий риск, страна, экономическая и политическая ситуация в стране, экологические характеристики, здоровье и гигиена, личные условия, религия, социальная ситуация в стране и желания путешественника. Результаты опроса показывают, как определяются направления поездки с точки зрения безопасности и какие факторы являются причиной отказа туристов от посещения той или иной страны. Изучение мнения людей в этой области и ½Ñ‚ересует многие органы безопасности, которые занимаются вопросами угроз для туристов, а также является важным для учреждений, отвечающих за обеспечение безопасности среди туристов.Alternate :The study aimed to determine what security concerns are taken into account during the selection of a tourist destination. The research data were collected in 2019 from respondents belonging to various age groups (N = 2,065) in the Czech Republic, using online and paper questionnaires. The analysis of answers resulted in the formation of 84 individual concepts, which were subsequently summed into nine categories. They include acute threats, country, economic and political state of the country, environmental characteristics, health and hygiene, personal reasons, religion, social situation in the country and travelling preferences. The results provide an insight into people's perceptions of travel destinations in terms of security and show which issues deter visitors from entering a given country. Such opinions are important to many security agencies that deal with threats against tourists, as well as to those involved in promoting security among tourists.

18.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1686204

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic changed how civil engineers work, with increased virtual networking leading to greater collaboration and achievement of common goals – including sustainable development goals. This paper explores the importance of networking during the pandemic and the benefits it had in terms of inclusion, equality and sustainability. In particular networking appears to have enabled a greater focus on the social, environmental and economic aspects of civil engineering projects to ensure positive effects for society. The paper concludes that, in a post-pandemic environment, it is important for civil engineers to continue networking, both within the workplace and the wider profession. © 2022 ICE Publishing. All rights reserved.

19.
Buildings ; 12(1):50, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1631494

ABSTRACT

In New Zealand, housing is typically low density, with light timber framing being the dominant form of construction with more than 90% of the market. From 2020, as a result of the global pandemic, there was a shortage of timber in New Zealand, resulting in increased popularity for light steel framing, the main alternative to timber for housing. At the same time, the New Zealand government is committed to sustainability practises through legislation and frameworks, such as the reduction of whole-of-life carbon emissions for the building industry. New Zealand recently announced reducing its net greenhouse gas emissions by 50% within 2030. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects associated with a product over its life cycle. Despite the popularity of LCA in the construction industry of New Zealand, prior research results seem varied. There is no unified NZ context database to perform an LCA for buildings. Therefore, in this paper, a comprehensive study using LCA was conducted to quantify and compare the quantity of carbon emissions from two commonly designed houses in the Auckland region, one built from light timber and the other from light steel, both designed for a lifespan of 90 years. The cradle-to-cradle system boundary was used for the LCA. From the results of this study, it was found that the light steel house had 12.3% more carbon in total (including embodied and operational carbons) when compared to the light timber house, of which the manufacturing of two houses had a difference of 50.4% in terms of carbon emissions. However, when the end-of-life (EOL) analysis was included, it was found that the extra carbon could be offset due to the steel’s recyclability, reducing the amount of embodied carbon in the manufacturing process. Therefore, there was no significant difference in carbon emissions between the light steel and the light timber building, with the difference being only 12.3%.

20.
Ethics & International Affairs ; 35(4):583-586, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1574330

ABSTRACT

While the chapter emphasizes the role of socioeconomic, political, and environmental factors in the emergence of HIV/AIDS in Africa, it loses sight of another relevant point that would have connected to a crucial aspect of the book's overall argument;namely, that responses to health crises are significantly shaped by the prevailing political and socioeconomic context. The 1990s are symbolic of the emergence of strong social movements at the national, regional, and global levels, embedded in the redemocratization processes that occurred in many countries in the Global South after the Cold War and facilitated by the emergence of the Internet. [...]this public narrative shaped the real-world health responses to major outbreaks that occurred over the last twenty years, such as SARS in 2002–2003, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, and the 2014–2016 outbreak of Ebola in Western Africa. [...]it is not surprising that the global response to COVID-19 has been dominated by this old script.

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