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1.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

2.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy ; 11(2):74-86, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1924529

ABSTRACT

Brazil covers a large territory, and although only 15% of its population is distributed in rural areas (IBGE Educa 2015), rural dwellers take on the chief responsibility for conserving local biodiversity. This article uses empirical research with a qualitative approach to present four cases of consolidated communities working with Amazonian rubber, regenerative cotton, weaving and lacework. It shows how rural communities pursue solutions for sustainable livelihoods in their own place of origin through the production of raw materials and products for the fashion chain, ensuring food security, income generation, maintenance of local biomes and gender justice. Particularly, this study examines the role of women beyond their families in ensuring work equity and better income distribution. Design appears as a positive agent, transforming ancestral and artisanal culture and knowledge into product innovation with added value to ensure production viability as well as enhancing community wellbeing.

3.
Transp Res D Transp Environ ; 106: 103274, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882579

ABSTRACT

From an environmental equity perspective, the aim of this paper is twofold. First, we want to verify to what extent vulnerable population groups resided in areas exposed to high levels of aircraft noise before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2019 and 2020) in the Montréal census metropolitan area. Second, we want to identify whether the use of an aircraft noise indicator rather than another generates significant variations in the results and consequently in terms of affected areas and populations. With the IMPACT web-application, we model aircraft noise contours from three cumulative (Lden , Ldn , Laeq ,24h) and a single-event (LAmax ) metrics. The model's input data are retrieved by a website for flight tracking. Next, four variables are extracted from the 2016 Statistics Canada census at a fine scale level (dissemination areas): that is, the percentages of low-income individuals, visible minorities, children under 15 years old, and individuals aged 65 and over. The results show a significant drop in population exposed to aircraft noise in 2020 compared to 2019. In addition, the estimates of populations impacted by aircraft noise differ from one indicator to the next. The logistic regression models indicate that the inequities are inconsistent between cumulative and single-event metrics.

4.
Earth and Space Science ; 9(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863833

ABSTRACT

GeoHealth research both characterizes and predicts problems at the nexus of earth and human systems like climate change, pollution, and natural hazards. While GeoHealth excels in the area of integrated science, there is a need to improve coordinated and networked efforts to produce open science to enable environmental justice. There is a need to resource and empower frontline populations that are disproportionately marginalized by environmental injustice (i.e., the unequal protection from environmental harms and lack of access and meaningful engagement in decision making for a healthy environment;EPA, 2022, https://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice). GeoHealth practice has the opportunity to advance environmental justice or the “fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income” with respect to how research and collaboration of GeoHealth professionals supports the “development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies” that produce equal protection from environmental and health hazards and access to the decision making for a health environment (EPA, 2022, https://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice). Here we highlight barriers and opportunities to apply an equity‐centered ICON framework to the field of GeoHealth to advance environmental justice and health equity.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4694, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810156

ABSTRACT

During times of stress and social pressure, urban green space provides social, cultural, and economic resources that help individuals and communities cope. Green space accessibility is, therefore, an important indicator related to people’s health and welfare. However, green space accessibility is not even throughout urban areas, with some areas better served with green space than others. Green space patterning is, therefore, a major environmental justice challenge. This research uses GIS approaches to analyze and understand urban green space access of urban communities in the Australian metropolitan areas of Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane. We calculate indicators to describe green space access in relation to different green space patterns within different metropolitan zones, including the inner urban, suburban, and peri urban. We use the best available open data from the Australian census of 2017 to calculate green space accessibility. Our results describe the relationship between population density and green space distribution and patterning in the four metropolitan areas. We find that even cities which are generally thought of as liveable have considerable environmental justice challenges and inequity and must improve green space access to address environmental inequity. We also find that a range type of measures can be used to better understand green space accessibility. Accessibility varies greatly both within metropolitan areas and also from city to city. Through improving our understanding of the green space accessibility characteristics of Australian metropolitan areas, the result of this study supports the future planning of more just and equal green cities.

6.
Environmental Justice ; 15(1):39-57, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1684472

ABSTRACT

This research builds on and extends critical environmental justice research into carceral spaces. Here, the focus is on U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on the lessons provided by the Black Lives Matter social movement and critical race theory, this research draws connections between the institutionalized racism in the criminal justice system and immigration policies. The nativist and racist rationale for harsh immigration policies asserts that callous treatment of immigrants makes U.S. society safer. However, the blow back from these policies makes U.S. society less secure and degrades the civil and political rights for all. Informed by a riskscape framework, we pursue multiscalar and empirical research into this blow back. Riskscapes encompass different viewpoints on the threat of loss across space, time, individuals, and collectives. More tangibly, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, ICE detention facilities provided ideal conditions for the infection to spread among the people detained, visitors, and staff. The walls and fences surrounding ICE facilities did not prevent the spread of infection to nearby communities, counties, and regions. Heightened infection rates provide tangible (and tragic) evidence of the blow back from the callousness of U.S. immigration policies in general and of ICE facilities in specific. This synthesis of critical environmental justice and riskscapes literatures lays the foundation for a textured and multi-layered understanding of the unequal and institutional dimensions of risks in and around carceral facilities.

7.
Environmental Justice ; 15(1):25-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1684470

ABSTRACT

The weight of state-sanctioned racial violence sits heavily upon communities that have been harmed by decades of disinvestment. The inequities of which are only exacerbated in today's climate of brazen white supremacy, environmental racism, and COVID-19-related health disparities and food apartheid. Although protests have been a visual representation of a collective cry for racial justice, resistance has also been rising in urban growing spaces. However, there is little understanding of how radical growing spaces contribute to intersecting issues of justice and how this work can be supported and celebrated in the struggle for black liberation. Through a study of growing spaces in Camden, NJ, and Philadelphia, PA, I utilize Critical Environmental Justice (CEJ) to identify two important findings: (1) growers create space that confronts and rectifies the violence of antiblack racism and (2) redevelopment and white space act as a form of violence that undercuts the work of black liberation. By connecting Urban Agriculture and CEJ, this study elevates and celebrates the wisdom of radical growers, making the connection between movements for land, food, environmental, and racial justice to actively work for liberation.

8.
Environmental Justice ; 15(1):65-68, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1684469

ABSTRACT

The Saint Peter Saint Paul Community Council, Inc., began its grassroots organization with “ordinary people.” We had a common cause that was protecting our rural historic African American residential/farming community from a request for a land use or zoning action. Running a grassroots movement to protest a major industrial development, during the COVID-19 pandemic, was a huge challenge. And it involved educating ourselves on a technical subject matter, environmental racism, and environmental justice. In addition, as property-owners, we were responsible for submitting evidence to local government on both the beauty and fragility against industrial development of our beloved residential neighborhood. Some suggested best practice steps to consider are educate, organize, communicate, lawyer up, believe, challenge, collaborate, public relations, finance, and stay vigilant.

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