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1.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 23(11):6217-6240, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238090

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented lockdown of human activities during the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly influenced social life in China. However, understanding the impact of this unique event on the emissions of different species is still insufficient, prohibiting the proper assessment of the environmental impacts of COVID-19 restrictions. Here we developed a multi-air-pollutant inversion system to simultaneously estimate the emissions of NOx, SO2, CO, PM2.5 and PM10 in China during COVID-19 restrictions with high temporal (daily) and horizontal (15 km) resolutions. Subsequently, contributions of emission changes versus meteorological variations during the COVID-19 lockdown were separated and quantified. The results demonstrated that the inversion system effectively reproduced the actual emission variations in multi-air pollutants in China during different periods of COVID-19 lockdown, which indicate that the lockdown is largely a nationwide road traffic control measure with NOx emissions decreasing substantially by ∼40 %. However, emissions of other air pollutants were found to only decrease by∼10% because power generation and heavy industrial processes were not halted during lockdown, and residential activities may actually have increased due to the stay-at-home orders. Consequently, although obvious reductions of PM2.5 concentrations occurred over the North China Plain (NCP) during the lockdown period, the emission change only accounted for 8.6 % of PM2.5 reductions and even led to substantial increases in O3. The meteorological variation instead dominated the changes in PM2.5 concentrations over the NCP, which contributed 90 % of the PM2.5 reductions over most parts of the NCP region. Meanwhile, our results suggest that the local stagnant meteorological conditions, together with inefficient reductions of PM2.5 emissions, were the main drivers of the unexpected PM2.5 pollution in Beijing during the lockdown period. These results highlighted that traffic control as a separate pollution control measure has limited effects on the coordinated control of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations under current complex air pollution conditions in China. More comprehensive and balanced regulations for multiple precursors from different sectors are required to address O3 and PM2.5 pollution in China.

2.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8668, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20237934

ABSTRACT

This study aims to make an investigation on the relationship between ecotourism motivation (EM), satisfaction (SA), place attachment (PA), and environmentally responsible behavior intention (ER) based on the analysis of camping tourism andstudy the mediating roles of SA and PA in the relationship between EM and ER. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 400 camping tourists who visited the Yunnan Province of China within the last year. The distribution of survey questionnaires range from 12 February 2023–24 February 2023. The results reveal that EM positively influences SA, PA, and ER, whereas, although SA positively impacts PA, it does not significantly affect ER. In contrast, PA positively affects ER. Furthermore, PA has a positive mediating impact on the relationship between EM and ER, whereas, SA does not significantly mediate this relationship. Finally, SA and PA act as chain mediators between EM and ER. The findings contribute to the tourism literature by shedding light on the complex relationships between EM, SA, PA, and ER in the context of camping tourism, thereby, enhancing tourist satisfaction and promoting environmentally responsible behavior, thus, contributing to the growth of a sustainable camping industry.

3.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8958, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236829

ABSTRACT

Total waste from human activities, including waste plastics, is huge in Hong Kong. In particular, as a result of the prevention and control measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic, take-away meals increased tremendously in Hong Kong, generating disposable plastic tableware (DPT). Although Hong Kong has a charging scheme for plastic bags, it does not have a scheme for plastic tableware. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the attitudes and behavior of people in Hong Kong toward DPT. Our study focused on undergraduate students in Hong Kong, given that they will play a significant role in the future of environmental sustainability. The attitudes and behavior of Hong Kong undergraduate students toward DPT were examined through an online survey with 385 respondents. A multiple stepwise regression was conducted to investigate whether cognitive attitude formation factors could explain the sustainable attitudes formed by undergraduate students in Hong Kong. The survey results revealed that most undergraduates considered DPT to be one of the major causes of environmental damage in Hong Kong;however, many of them, particularly those who strongly agreed with this statement, said that the problem of DPT did not affect their quality of life. The regression analysis showed that imposing a DPT charge would be the most significant driver to reduce its use. The research findings identified gaps between attitudes and behavior regarding the use of DPT and the factors influencing sustainable DPT consumption.

4.
Sustainability ; 15(11):9090, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236122

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes in consumer behavior and has created new opportunities and challenges for the provisioning of green products in emerging economies. The objective of this study was to identify how perceptions on COVID-19 affected the variables of planned behavior and responsible purchase intention during the pandemic in Colombia. A total of 320 consumers participated in an online survey, and the responses were analyzed using a structural equation model (SEM) and AMOS 24 statistical software. The results were positive regarding the development of better environmental awareness, indicating that COVID-19 (COV) influenced the attitude (ATT) of individuals and contributed to subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioral control (PBC), and that SNs and ATT influence eco-friendly purchase intention (EFPI). However, PBC does not contribute to EFPI. Colombian consumers have become aware of the importance to society of buying eco-friendly products, and planned behavior is an opportunity for organizations to formulate new portfolios relevant to the needs of the market. This is an important opportunity to sensitize consumers to the purchase of environmentally friendly products and for the identification of commercial strategies by companies that bet on the formulation and commercialization of eco-friendly portfolios that generate value for society.

5.
Competitiveness Review ; 32(2):250-275, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20235459

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to measure the supply chain competitiveness of the e-commerce industry in Indonesia.Design/methodology/approachThe study used a multi-criteria decision-making model based on the analytic hierarchy process. Four main criteria are used to measure the supply chain competitiveness, i.e. cost, differentiation, sustainability and infrastructure.FindingsThe findings of this study show that cost is the most important criterion with a degree of importance of 33.19%, followed by infrastructure of 29.40%, differentiation of 27.96% and sustainability of 9.45%. It shows that the internally controlled strategy contributes about 70% of supply chain competitiveness. The internal infrastructure criterion that consists of software and hardware contributes 65.92% to the whole infrastructure criterion. The internal infrastructure then contributes 19.38% to supply chain competitiveness. Therefore, the internally controlled strategies and internal infrastructure contribute up to 90.08% to the supply chain competitiveness of e-commerce in Indonesia. This result implies that to attain the supply chain competitiveness, the company must carry out strategies focusing on the performance such as cost, differentiation, sustainability as well as on the internal infrastructure such as software and hardware.Research limitations/implicationsIn this paper, the authors limited their study to the business to business (B2B) and business to consumer (B2C) players because these two platforms have been experiencing a very rapid growth. While e-commerce business can take many platforms besides B2B and B2C, the future research should include other platform such as consumer to consumer as well. Because the focus in this study is more the information and material flows, it will be of great interest if the future research covers the platform of mobile payment as well that guarantee the ease of cashflows within supply chains. Also, with the occurrence of the Covid-19 pandemic when this paper was written, in the near future, it is then of great interest to incorporate the pandemic context into the proposed model used in this study. The further study should analyze long-term changes happened as the result of pandemic such as behavioral changes of online shopping from customer side or shift in e-commerce supply chain infrastructure and inventory practice.Practical implicationsWith this study, it is expected that it can be determined which criteria contribute the most to the supply chain competitiveness of the e-commerce industry in Indonesia that will be useful for industry player.Originality/valueE-commerce development in Indonesia is still facing serious challenges. The multi-criteria decision making approach used in this research lays a foundation of how supply chain competitiveness is determined based on the judgment of experts coming from major companies within the supply chain.

6.
Cadernos de Saude Publica ; 39(4) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234673
7.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8502, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20234454

ABSTRACT

The large consumption of fast fashion brings many negative environmental impacts. Filipino consumers love and buy fast fashion because it is relatively cheap but trendy, and there are lots of fashionable designs to choose from. Despite the shortage in water supply and disposal issues of fast fashion, people still continue to purchase. The lack of awareness of consumers on sustainable fashion consumption led the researchers to conduct a study that aims to identify factors affecting Filipino consumers' buying decisions on fast fashion using the combined theory of planned behavior, elaboration likelihood model, and hedonic motivation. A total of 407 participants were gathered through a convenience sampling approach, and the data collected were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The result shows that attitude towards fast fashion is the highest contributing factor to purchase intention. While social media positively affects purchase intention, sustainability advocacy negatively impacts the consumers' intention to buy fast fashion. The awareness of sustainability leads to consumption reduction of fast fashion garments. Surprisingly, perceived product price and quality do not show a significant influence on purchase intention. Incorporating sustainability advocacy on social media may be a great strategy to encourage the sustainable consumption of fashion garments. The findings of this study could be a great tool to influence fashion companies and government institutions to promote sustainability awareness and transition marketing strategies to the sustainable consumption of fashion.

8.
33rd Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS 2022 ; 9:6651-6663, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20233745

ABSTRACT

The Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change has sounded its alarm through its special report on the impact of global warming of 1.5oC and called for a strengthened global response to the threat of climate change. Despite that the COVID-19 pandemic has left a devastating effect on the aviation industry, this is forecasted to bounce back and recover within a few years. It is therefore important now to revisit opportunities for a better balance between social, environmental and economic impact of the sector. The European Union has been leading the way in limiting the environmental impacts of aviation. Despite that most of the R&D effort has been focused on the airborne phase, the European Union is legislating so that all aircraft movements on the ground are set to be emission-free by 2050. The paper focuses on engineless aircraft taxiing with the aim to reduce emissions on the ground. We demonstrate that upon landing, an aircraft has enough kinetic energy, which if recovered could power a 5-minute engineless taxiing process. When scaled to a large fleet such as low-cost carriers, this emissions problem can be turned on its head and becomes an opportunity for fuel savings and a reduction in emissions on the ground. The paper also demonstrates that the cost to retrofit such technology can be recovered in a short timeframe and therefore there is an economic incentive to the airline. © 2022 ICAS. All Rights Reserved.

9.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management ; 30(6):2400-2419, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20231811

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis research presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the barriers to incorporating indoor environmental quality (IEQ) principles into building designs. The aim was to identify these barriers in the literature and subsume them under broad categories for the development of a framework showing the interrelationships among the barriers.Design/methodology/approachThe research design used a systematic desktop review which comprised of three levels of screening. The first level allowed for a broad selection of papers;the second level of screening was done to limit the results to papers within the construction industry, and the third level of screening limited the documents strictly to the publication period of 2000–2021.FindingsTwenty-four (24) barriers were identified in the literature, including lack of integrated design teams, which ranked the highest in appearance, high initial costs, poor market for IEQ buildings and higher design charges among others. The identified barriers were classified into six (6) categories namely capacity barriers, economic barriers, process-related barriers, cultural barriers, client-related barriers and steering barriers.Practical implicationsThe findings of this study would enable practitioners and policymakers to better understand what is preventing the widespread adoption of IEQ designs in the built environment and devise actionable strategies to overcome them. It adds to the body of knowledge on IEQ research by categorizing the various barriers that prevent the delivery of IEQ projects.Social implicationsThe developed barriers in this research can serve as a useful checklist to future researchers who may want to validate the barriers to IEQ designs in empirical studies and in different settings.Originality/valueThe interconnectivity revealed by the web-like framework allows for an appreciation of the various barriers of IEQ adoption which would help in expanding the current knowledge on IEQ beyond the narrow scope of isolated barriers. The fact that the papers selected in this study are not limited geographically, underscores the wide applicability of the findings in the global construction industry.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(31): 77453-77468, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237864

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has mandated people to use medical masks to protect the public. However the improper management of disposable mask waste has led to the increase of marine pollution, in terms of water quality, and the decline in aquatic microorganisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of disposable mask waste on fresh water and microalgae biomass quality. Disposable masks (untreated or treated with Enterococcus faecalis) were placed in 10-L glass reactors containing fresh water or water containing algal Chlorella sp. and its growth supplements (Chlorella medium) (four 10-L reactors in total) and kept in controlled conditions for 3 months. Water and biomass yield quality were evaluated using water quality analysis, spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and proximate lipid and protein analysis. Disposable masks, incubated in either fresh water or Chlorella medium, affected several water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH. Microplastic identification revealed that some fibers were present in the water following a 100-day treatment process. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was used to determine the change in important, organic functional groups and highlighted the disappearance of a peak at 1530 cm-1 corresponding to the primary protein (C-N) and the appearance of new peaks at 1651 cm-1 and 1270 cm-1 corresponding to methyl alcohol (CH2OH) and ketone (C = O), respectively. This indicated the detrimental effect of disposable mask fragmentation on the biomass quality. The SEM investigation has shown a damage to the surface membrane of Chlorella sp. cells. Altogether, disposable masks decreased the water quality and damaged microalgae by inhibiting their growth. Therefore, the disposable mask contaminated by various microbes, after being used by a human, may be one of the most dangerous hazards to the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorella , Microalgae , Humans , Plastics , Microplastics , Pandemics
11.
NPJ Clim Atmos Sci ; 6(1): 52, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237316

ABSTRACT

Various shipping emissions controls have recently been implemented at both local and national scales. However, it is difficult to track the effect of these on PM2.5 levels, owing to the non-linear relationship that exists between changes in precursor emissions and PM components. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) identifies that a switch to cleaner fuels since January 2020 results in considerable reductions in shipping-source-related PM2.5, especially sulphate aerosols and metals (V and Ni), not only at a port site but also at an urban background site. CMAQ sensitivity analysis reveals that the reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) further extends to inland areas downwind from ports. In addition, mitigation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in coastal urban areas can be anticipated either from the results of receptor modelling or from CMAQ simulations. The results in this study show the possibility of obtaining human health benefits in coastal cities through shipping emission controls.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 892: 164803, 2023 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236896

ABSTRACT

With the upsurge in the use of disposable masks during the coronavirus disease pandemic, improper disposal of discarded masks and their negative impact on the environment have emerged as major issues. Improperly disposed of masks release various pollutants, particularly microplastic (MP) fibers, which can harm both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by interfering with the nutrient cycling, plant growth, and the health and reproductive success of organisms. This study assesses the environmental distribution of polypropylene (PP)-containing MPs, generated from disposable masks, using material flow analysis (MFA). The system flowchart is designed based on the processing efficiency of various compartments in the MFA model. The highest amount of MPs (99.7 %) is found in the landfill and soil compartments. A scenario analysis reveals that waste incineration significantly reduces the amount of MP transferred to landfills. Therefore, considering cogeneration and gradually increasing the incineration treatment rate are crucial to manage the processing load of waste incineration plants and minimize the negative impact of MPs on the environment. The findings provide insights into the potential environmental exposure associated with the improper disposal of waste masks and indicate strategies for sustainable mask disposal and management.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Masks , Microplastics , Plastics , Polypropylenes
13.
Surg Endosc ; 37(7): 5696-5702, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care accounts for almost 10% of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for a loss of 470,000 disability-adjusted life years based on the health effects of climate change. Telemedicine has the potential to decrease health care's carbon footprint by reducing patient travel and clinic-related emissions. At our institution, telemedicine visits for evaluation of benign foregut disease were implemented for patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to estimate the environmental impact of telemedicine usage for these clinic encounters. METHODS: We used life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for an in-person and a telemedicine visit. For in-person visits, travel distances to clinic were retrospectively assessed from 2020 visits as a representative sample, and prospective data were gathered on materials and processes related to in-person clinic visits. Prospective data on the length of telemedicine encounters were collected and environmental impact was calculated for equipment and internet usage. Upper and lower bounds scenarios for emissions were generated for each type of visit. RESULTS: For in-person visits, 145 patient travel distances were recorded with a median [IQR] distance travel distance of 29.5 [13.7, 85.1] miles resulting in 38.22-39.61 carbon dioxide equivalents (kgCO2-eq) emitted. For telemedicine visits, the mean (SD) visit time was 40.6 (17.1) min. Telemedicine GHG emissions ranged from 2.26 to 2.99 kgCO2-eq depending on the device used. An in-person visit resulted in 25 times more GHG emissions compared to a telemedicine visit (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine has the potential to decrease health care's carbon footprint. Policy changes to facilitate telemedicine use are needed, as well as increased awareness of potential disparities of and barriers to telemedicine use. Moving toward telemedicine preoperative evaluations in appropriate surgical populations is a purposeful step toward actively addressing our role in health care's large carbon footprint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Gases , Telemedicine , Humans , United States , Animals , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Carbon Footprint , Life Cycle Stages
14.
Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran) ; : 1-16, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237633

ABSTRACT

Amid COVID-19, world has gone under environmental reformation in terms of clean rivers and blue skies, whereas, generation of biomedical waste management has emerged as a big threat for the whole world, especially in the developing nations. Appropriate biomedical waste management has become a prime concern worldwide in the pandemic era of COVID-19 as it may affect environment and living organisms up to a great extent. The problem has been increased many folds because of unexpected generations of hazardous biomedical waste which needs extraordinary attentions. In this paper, the impacts and future challenges of solid waste management especially the biomedical waste management on environment and human beings have been discussed amid COVID-19 pandemic. The paper also recommends some guidelines to manage the bulk of medical wastes for the protection of human health and environment. The paper summarizes better management practices for the wastes including optimizing the decision process, infrastructure, upgrading treatment methods and other activities related with the biological disasters like COVID-19. As achieved in the past for viral disinfection, use of UV- rays with proper precautions can also be explored for COVID-19 disinfection. For biomedical waste management, thermal treatment of waste can be an alternative, as it can generate energy along with reducing waste volume by 80-95%. The Asian Development Bank observed that additional biomedical waste was generated ranged from 154 to 280 tons/day during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic in Asian megacities such as Manila, Jakarta, Wuhan, Bangkok, Hanoi, Kuala Lumpur.

15.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ; 182:113346, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2328295

ABSTRACT

Plastic waste pollution has grown exponentially since the 1950s. This situation was exacerbated when the volume of personal protective equipment (PPE)-based plastic waste surged after the COVID-19 pandemic. Plastic waste management such as landfills and incineration have adverse effects on the environment and human health due to the leaching of hazardous chemicals and the emission of toxic gases. Modern solutions such as biodegradable plastics and green brick technology are expensive and not well developed to valorize the current accumulation of plastic waste. This has led to the emergence of thermal degradation processes, which is faster and more realistic to solve the PPE-based plastic waste buildup. Pyrolysis and gasification systems to valorize plastic waste into hydrocarbons and fuels are discussed and compared with examples respectively. Scoping review approach is employed to conduct this study. To further increase the value of the final product of plastic waste management, the integrated pyrolysis system to upcycle plastic waste to carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and the factors affecting the production of non-condensable gases are critically reviewed. The importance of feedstock composition, catalyst type, pyrolysis operating condition (including gas condition and temperature profiles) based on various studies is discussed. The potential and limitation of an integrated pyrolysis system are assessed from kinetic analysis, economic analysis and life-cycle assessment. This review is expected to contribute to the industrial-scale development of sustainable upcycling of plastic waste and enhance the production of desirable gas components for CNM synthesis for environmental sustainability.

16.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 15(3):231-248, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2321998

ABSTRACT

PurposeIn the context of heightened awareness and understanding of responsible tourism, it has become increasingly imperative for luxury hotels to introspect on the impact of their operations on environmental and social sustainability. This study aims at examining the prevalence and growth of sustainability practices in the Indian luxury hotel segment as it increasingly competes on a global platform.Design/methodology/approachThe research approach adopted in this paper is qualitative and emic. Primary data is gathered for the study through semi-structured interviews with select luxury hotel general managers from four hotel chains of Indian origin – ITC Luxury Hotels, Oberoi Hotels and Resorts, Taj Hotels and Palaces and The Leela – to gain an insight into sustainability initiatives adopted in the Indian hospitality industry. Secondary research data regarding the eco-friendly, green measures implemented in these hotels is collected primarily from the websites of the respective hotel chains and supplemented by review of academic literature, media articles, industry reports and company press releases.FindingsThe findings of the study reveal that Indian luxury hotel brands are increasingly adopting green products and integrating innovative sustainability practices in their day-to-day operations. However, several of these initiatives are in the non-customer-facing domains such as the engineering and back-of-the-house operations. Very few Indian hotel chains are building these sustainability initiatives into their core philosophy and embedding it in the front-line customer service experience at their properties to reinforce the green image of the hotels.Originality/valueThe paper also proposes the 6Cs Framework of Sustainability that can be utilised to categorise the green sustainable practices adopted in responsible hotels in a simplistic manner under six broad verticals. Practitioners, researchers and educationists in the hospitality industry would find the implications of this study useful in the context of a post-pandemic world where sustainability is influencing consumer choices across industries in today's eco-conscious and enlightened business and marketing environment.

17.
Calitatea ; 22(184):171-178, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2327094

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine the effect of environmental strategy on dynamic capabilities based on digital literacy and the performance of marketing innovations for micro, small and medium enterprises. Digital literacy-based dynamic capabilities consist of two important components, namely marketing competencies and research and development competencies. The nature of this research is explanatory where the number of research samples is micro, small and medium enterprises that have used information technology with a total number of respondents as many as 200 micro, small and medium enterprises which are divided proportionally to seven regions in Indonesia with the sampling method using accidental sampling method. The data analysis technique used SEM analysis with the help of AMOS software. The results showed that environmental strategy had no significant effect on marketing competence. Environmental strategy has a significant effect on the direction of a positive relationship to research and development competencies and has a significant effect on the direction of a positive relationship on the marketing innovation performance of micro, small and medium enterprises. Marketing competence and research and development competence have a significant effect with a positive direction of relationship to the marketing innovation performance of micro, small and medium enterprises. Research and development competence has a significant effect on the direction of a positive relationship to the marketing performance of micro, small and medium enterprises.

18.
Sustainability ; 15(9):7381, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2320934

ABSTRACT

The transportation industry is characterized as a capital-intensive industry that plays a crucial role in economic and social development, and the rapid expansion of this industry has led to serious environmental problems, which makes the eco-efficiency analysis of the transportation industry an important issue. Previous research paid little attention to the regulatory scenarios and suffered from the incomparability problem, hence this paper aims to reasonably estimate the eco-efficiency and identify its evolutionary characteristics. We measure the eco-efficiency and the corresponding global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index using a modified model of the data envelopment analysis framework, in which different regulatory constraints are incorporated. Based on the empirical study on the transportation industry of thirty provinces in China, we find that the eco-efficiency of Chinese transportation industry experienced a slight increase during 2015–2016, a sharp decline during 2016–2017, and a continuous rise since year 2017. The Middle Yangtze River area was the best performer among the eight regions in terms of eco-efficiency, while the Southwest area was placed last. The global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index showed an earlier increase and later decrease trend, which was quite consistent with the reality of the variation of inputs and outputs and the emergence of COVID-19. Moreover, the best practice gap change was found to be the main driven force of productivity. The empirical results verify the practicability of our measurement models and the conclusions can be adopted in guiding the formulation of corresponding policies and regulations.

19.
Sustainability ; 15(9):7349, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2320801

ABSTRACT

The preparation of sustainability reports, which a negligible number of organisations had been doing until recently, will soon be the new reality for many more organisations. This research aims to present changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in the ecosystem of sustainability reporting pronouncements, especially those used by organisations. In our research, we compare important information about two different periods and the content demands in reporting on sustainability. Changes in the ecosystem are fundamental and unique. Based on the analysis of events and documents, the current research shows the changes in the ecosystem and the future dynamics in the ecosystem, including the principle standard setters (i.e., International Sustainability Standards Board and European Financial Reporting Advisory Group, EFRAG). The research shows that although the changes occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, they did not significantly impact the ecosystem's development or slow down or stop their development. The COVID-19 pandemic did not affect the speed or dynamics of changes. In the last few years, EFRAG and the European Union established their position and gained a significant influence in sustainability reporting, with EFRAG at the forefront. The European Sustainability Reporting Standards will be mandatory for organisations doing business in the European Union. At the same time, we do not expect that the IFRS Sustainability Disclosure Standards will be directly endorsed for use in the European Union. The paper presents a new perspective on examining sustainability via developing organisations' reporting demands within the framework of the uncertain environment caused by COVID-19. In this context, our research also contributes to the literature. The study also has a potential practical impact on organisations and management since it illuminates a wide range of selected sustainability viewpoints and their reporting.

20.
Nihon Seitai Gakkaishi = Japanese Journal of Ecology ; 72(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2319739

ABSTRACT

At this stage of the Great Acceleration of the Anthropocene, humanity is experiencing the global issues of worsening climate change impacts, devastating damage from more frequent and severe natural disasters and the COVID-19 pandemic, all of which are attributable to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. The global community recognises that these issues pose severe societal and economic risks. “Nature-based solutions” have been posited as a means to address these threats. Nature-based solutions utilise natural terrestrial ecosystem functions to provide environmental, social and economic benefits at low cost. The growing social demand for nature-based solutions constitutes an opportunity for the field of ecology to expand beyond the conventional focus on biodiversity and conservation and shift to presenting biodiversity and ecosystem functions as the basis of human well-being and social sustainability. We sought to identify a trajectory for ecological research that is aimed at contributing to the effective implementation of nature-based solutions. First, we summarise current social needs related to terrestrial ecosystem utilisation. Next, we provide an overview of existing literature and knowledge regarding biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystem function, which are critical to nature-based solutions. Finally, we identify outstanding ecological hurdles to the implementation of these strategies and propose a way forward based on our findings. We explain that any basic presentation of ecological processes requires addressing the impacts of climate change and the interrelatedness of biodiversity, climate and social systems. Enhanced ecological process models are critical for linking biodiversity and ecosystems with climate and social systems. It is crucial to establish a framework that embeds monitoring systems, data infrastructure and delivery systems within society to mobilise terrestrial ecosystem and biodiversity data and results. Furthermore, the implementation of nature-based solutions must include acknowledging trade-offs in objectives and transdisciplinary research with other fields and stakeholders with the shared goal of transformative change. Ecological research must demonstrate more clearly how terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems are linked to human health and well-being, as well as how they are affected by production and consumption systems. In the age of climate change, the knowledge and tools of the ecologist form the foundation of nature-based solutions and provide an indispensable theoretical basis for this approach.Alternate :æŠ„éŒ²äººæ–°ä¸–ã®å¤§åŠ é€Ÿã¨ã‚‚å‘¼ã°ã‚Œã‚‹æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•ã®æ™‚ä»£ã«ãŠã„ã¦ã€æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•å½±éŸ¿ã®é¡•åœ¨åŒ–ã€è‡ªç„¶ç½å®³ã®æ¿€ç”šåŒ–ãƒ»é »ç™ºåŒ–ã€COVID-19の世界的流行などの地球規模の問題が増大している。国際社会では、ã"ã‚Œã‚‰ã®å•é¡Œã¯ç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»ã®åŠ£åŒ–ã‚„ç”Ÿç‰©å¤šæ§˜æ€§ã®æå¤±ãŒè¦å› ã§ã‚ã‚‹ã"と、そして社会経済にも多大な損害ã‚'与える大きなリスクであるã"とが共通の認識となりつつある。そのような状況ã‚'åæ˜ ã—ã€é™¸åŸŸç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»ã®å¤šé¢çš„ãªæ©Ÿèƒ½ã‚'活用するã"とで、低いコストでç'°å¢ƒãƒ»ç¤¾ä¼šãƒ»çµŒæ¸ˆã«ä¾¿ç›Šã‚'もたらし、社会が抱える複数の課題の解決に貢献する「自然ã‚'基盤とした解決策」という新しい概念に大きな期待が寄せられている。ã"の解決策への社会的なニーズの高まりは、生態学が長年取り組ã‚"できた生物多様性や生態系の保全に関する課題ã‚'超えて、生態学が生物多様性や生態系が豊かな人é–"社会ã‚'継続し発展させる知的基盤となるã"とや、生態学の社会的有用性ã‚'示す機会である。そã"で本稿では、気候変動時代における「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®å®Ÿè·µã«å‘ã‘ãŸç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ç ”ç©¶ã®æ–¹å‘ã¥ã‘ã‚'目的とし、陸域生態系の活用に対する社会的なニーズの現状ã‚'概観する。その上で、「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®éµã¨ãªã‚‹é™¸åŸŸç”Ÿæ ‹ç³»ã®ç”Ÿç‰©å¤šæ§˜æ€§ã‚„ç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»æ©Ÿèƒ½ã«é–¢ã™ã‚‹çŸ¥è¦‹ã‚'整理して課題ã‚'抽出し、ã"れらã‚'è¸ã¾ãˆã¦ä»Šå¾Œã®ç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ç ”ç©¶ã®æ–¹å‘æ€§ã‚'å…·ä½"的に示す。まず、現象の基礎的な理解という観点からは、生物多様性ã‚'含む陸域生態系と気候システムや社会システムとの相äº'関係性ã‚'含めた包括的な気候変動影響のメカニズムの解明と、予測・評価のためのプロセスモデルの高度化ã‚'進めるã"と、そして同時に、陸域生態系と生物多様性の変化ã‚'ç¤ºã™ãŸã‚ã®åŠ¹æžœçš„ãªãƒ¢ãƒ‹ã‚¿ãƒªãƒ³ã‚°ã¨æƒ…å ±åŸºç›¤ã®å¼·åŒ–ã‚'行い、データや分析結果ã‚'社会に還元するフレームワークã‚'構築するã"ã¨ãŒå„ªå…ˆäº‹é …ã§ã‚ã‚‹ã€‚ã‚ˆã‚Šå®Ÿè·µçš„ãªè¦³ç‚¹ã‹ã‚‰ã¯ã€ã€Œè‡ªç„¶ã‚'基盤とした解決策」の実装や社会変革などにおいて共通の目標ã‚'ã‚‚ã¤ä»–åˆ†é‡Žã¨ã®å­¦éš›ç ”ç©¶ã‚'積極的に行うã"とにより、実装における目的é–"のトレードオフã‚'示すã"と、健康・福祉の課題や生産・消費システムの中での陸域生態系や生物多様性への影響や役割ã‚'示すã"ã¨ãªã©ãŒå„ªå…ˆäº‹é …ã¨ãªã‚‹ã€‚æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•ã«ä»£è¡¨ã•ã‚Œã‚‹ä¸ç¢ºå®Ÿæ€§ã®é«˜ã„ç'°å¢ƒä¸‹ã§ã€åŠ¹æžœçš„な「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®å®Ÿæ–½ãŸã‚ã«ã¯ã€ãã®ç§‘å­¦çš„åŸºç›¤ã¨ãªã‚‹ç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ã®çŸ¥è¦‹ã¨ãƒ„ãƒ¼ãƒ«ã¯ä¸å¯æ¬ ã§ã‚ã‚Šã€ã¾ãŸãã®å®Ÿè£…ã‚'通じた社会変革へのé"筋においても生態学の貢献が期待されている。

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