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1.
Water ; 14(19):3100, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066637

ABSTRACT

While Rwanda is aiming at environmental pollution resilience and green growth, some industries are still discharging untreated effluent into the environment. This study gives a general overview of the compliance level of industrial effluent discharge in Rwanda and the linked negative environmental impacts. It comprises qualitative and quantitative analyses of data obtained from wastewater samples collected from five selected industries in Rwanda. The selected industries had previously been audited and monitored by the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA), due to complains from neighboring residents. The study found that the effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for all concerned industries failed to comply with (i) oil and grease (O&G) national and international tolerable parameter limits or the (ii) fecal coliforms national standard. In addition, a compliance level of 66.7% was observed for key water quality monitoring parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and heavy metals (i.e., lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)). Following these study findings, one industry was closed by the REMA for deliberately discharging untreated effluent into an adjacent river. This study recommends the adoption of the best available technology for effluent treatment, installation or renovation of existing WWTPs, and the relocation to industrial zones of industries adjacent to fragile environments.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11890, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066376

ABSTRACT

The role of entrepreneurship has transformed to include issues beyond economic growth. This has twisted attention toward the drivers of entrepreneurial intentions across entrepreneurship types, particularly in sustainable entrepreneurship. Sustainable entrepreneurship is essential and a protagonist tool in protecting the environment, economy and society. This ensures employment opportunities, solves environmental problems and facilitates social and economic development. Keeping into consideration, the present study attempts to investigate sustainable entrepreneurial intention through Attitudes toward Sustainability (ATS), Perceived Desirability (PED), Perceived Feasibility (PEF) and Opportunity Recognition (OR) among Saudi Arabia’s university students. We employed the quantitative approach and used a survey questionnaire to obtain the responses from the respondents. We targeted the students of different public sector universities in Saudi Arabia using a random sampling technique. Finally, we utilized 292 valid samples to infer the results. Utilizing the Structural Equation Model (SEM) through analysis of moment structures (AMOS), we found a positive and significant effect of Attitudes towards Sustainability (ATS), Perceived Desirability (PED) and Perceived Feasibility (PEF) on Sustainable Entrepreneurial Intentions (SEI) and Opportunity Recognition (OR). This study provides valuable insights into the entrepreneurship domain and offers guidelines for policymakers and planners in shaping the policies that promote entrepreneurial sustainability and employment in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the OR factor also significantly and positively affects SEI. Finally, the study’s findings would contribute to the literature review by adding another empirical confirmation from Saudi Arabian students’ viewpoint.

3.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials ; 45(9):S18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063018

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2021 American Radium Society (ARS) Annual Meeting transitioned to a virtual, online conference. As medical conferences around the world have transitioned to virtual formats, numerous benefits have been uncovered;however, the environmental effect of reduced travel on carbon emissions remains largely unknown. Today, it is estimated that conference attendance accounts for 35% of a scientist's total carbon footprint [1]. Given that the climate crisis is a growing threat to human health and oncology outcomes [2], it is imperative to begin to quantify, understand, and promote sustainable practices. Objective(s): We aim to highlight the reduced travel-related greenhouse emissions associated with the transition of ARS's 2021 Annual Meeting to a virtual platform in comparison to the 2019 in-person conference in Monarch Beach, California. Method(s): Data from the attendees of the ARS Annual Meeting was collected from 2019 and 2021 (the conference was cancelled in 2020). The distance traveled per attendee to the 2019 location (Dana Point, CA) and the 2021 intended conference location (Lahaina, HI) was estimated using the location of the attendees' home institutions. The mode of transportation was hypothesized based on distance traveled (automobiles < 300 miles;airline >= 300 miles). Approximate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were calculated using the Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Tools [3,4]. For the 2021 virtual conference, it was assumed that no travel took place. Alternatively, the associated CO2 emissions were estimated based on assumed internet usage (8 hours/day for the 3-day conference period) and food delivery (5 miles) for one meal which was sent free to each attendee. Additionally, the distance that would have been traveled by attendees to Hawaii was estimated. Result(s): A total of 591 conference attendees were identified, 253 in 2019 and 338 in 2021. For the 2019 in-person conference, the total carbon footprint for all assumed methods of transportation was determined to be 187,935.9 lbs of CO2 emissions, with an average of 820.7 lbs of CO2 emissions per attendee. Total emissions were equivalent to the emissions of 18.5 passenger vehicles for one year. Alternatively, the CO2 emissions spared during the 2021 virtual conference was estimated to be 519,153.5 lbs, the equivalent of 51 passenger vehicles for one year. However, emissions related to teleconference internet streaming and food delivery accounted for a total of 2,693.0 and 1535.8 lbs of CO2. Conclusion(s): Incorporating options for virtual attendance at academic conferences has the potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions. However, many believe that virtual networking cannot replace in-person interactions particularly for early-career attendees. Regardless, our professional societies have an obligation to investigate and promote greater sustainability of our annual meetings.

4.
Green Energy and Technology ; : 181-194, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059703

ABSTRACT

In view of the uncontrolled cities urbanization, climate change and, last but not least, the pandemic crisis from COVID-19, there is the need to implement intervention practices at the territorial scale by an integrated sustainable approach. This to consolidate the different aspects of the design system made by interacting elements in the respect of the environmental, social and economic dimension. To this, the ecosystem services are of international interest with regard to the functional link between the environment and sustainable development, so as to identify methodological and operational issues at the basis of the most current research in the economic evaluation field. With this contribution it is intended to provide an evaluation framework to support public–private decision-makers in establishing the most significant initiatives of sustainable urban development, taking into account the impacts that they would generate on the reference urban context in terms of ecosystem services supply. The proposed framework is developed in a win–win logic capable of merging the different interests of the stakeholders, as well as the purpose of supporting the ecological transition and environmental protection of urban ecosystems according to an integrated-multidimensional pathway. The proposed evaluation process took note of the theoretical, methodological, and operational issues underlying the economic valuation of urban ecosystem services and their addition into policy-making processes. The economic policy implications by the proposed framework will be emphasized in the concluding section along with research perspectives. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

5.
European Energy and Environmental Law Review ; 31(4):241-257, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046752

ABSTRACT

Effective from 1 January 2020, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has brought down the permissible sulphur emission from vessels to 0.50% m/m from the earlier set 3.5% m/m Sulphur emission limit. The maritime stakeholders stepping away from Heavy Sulphur Fuel Oil (HSFO) and looking towards Very Low Sulphur Fuel Oil, Liquefied Natural Gas, Marine Gas Oil, (VLSFO, LNG, MGO), for compliance or use of Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (EGCS) with HSFO. These modes of compliance however are not completely failsafe as they present economical and regulatory challenges. The article presents a study of IMO and Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) regulations, guidance, and guidelines for the implementation of low Sulphur limit. The nations member to International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MAR-POL) are subject to new Sulphur limit and they have devices their own set of policies for compliance causing a lack of uniformity. MARPOL has left the decision of sanctions on the Member State thus the set standards also vary and there exist certain nations with sanction policies in case of violation. The research has addressed the national policies of major maritime contributing nations having varied geographical proximity. Greece, UK, Panama, USA, Australia, China, India, and Nigeria are considered for the study. The study has shown that open-loop EGCS have been prohibited in various nations due to environmental concerns. Further, many states have not formed sanction policies reflecting the allocation of responsibility in case of non-compliance consequently have established a threat of criminal action against the captain and the crew of the ship. The article concludes that the IMO can issue reservations for national implementation or formulate modal law for national policy-making so that uniformity is achieved. Furthermore, the economic challenges prevalent have occurred due to the high cost of alternative fuel and installation of EGCS which has consequently impacted the opting of compliance mechanism by the shipping industry. The newly built ships preinstalled with EGCS are preferred. The study has suggested that for old vessels EGCS might be the adequate option as the cost of fuel is expected to increase in the post COVID-19 era. © 2022, Kluwer Law International. All rights reserved.

6.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046214

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is a global public health concern and has led to millions of premature deaths worldwide. In overpopulated cities, particulate matter such PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in the troposphere have deleterious effects on human health leading to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The students in two undergraduate courses (Principles of Biology for Honors students and Ecology) and one graduate course (Teaching STEM at the K-12 schools) at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore;and summer-exchange undergraduate engineering interns learnt about the positive and negative effects of Covid-19 pandemic on air quality for some of the selected overpopulated cities in the world that witnessed lockdowns from March 2020 through spring 2021. The STEM students as well as the interns had the opportunity to learn how to analyze the real-time and historical air quality data from the Environmental Protection's Agency's centralized data system, AirNow, as well as from the Air Quality Open Data Platform (https://aqicn.org/data-platform/covid19) Worldwide Covid-19 dataset. For the above-mentioned courses, the materials pertaining to Covid-19 and air quality were taught in the form of modules (two for each course) with lectures;discussions and class debates;video materials;simulations with real-time data;and a project centering on that theme. The engineering students who worked as summer interns worked on analyzing data from five of the major cities in the world. Besides analyzing the effects of the pandemic on PM2.5, NO2, and O3 in the selected populated cities, the students also studied whether any correlations existed among the air quality parameters or not. The students' learning outcomes included honing content knowledge in atmospheric chemistry and physics of particulate matter;environmental sciences and engineering;public health and policies;research skills with respect to data analysis and problem-solving;as well as presentation and writing skills. The students and interns in the courses and internships also addressed and debated on the various issues of sustainability, which encompasses social, environmental, economic considerations along with policies. The crisis of the pandemic on climate change is dependent on the policies of the governments towards which directions the economies need to head. When the governments prioritize to shift from fossil fuels to cleaner energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, biofuels, then the mitigation efforts of climate change could come to fruition. It is anticipated that with more ongoing collaborations across disciplines, the authors will be able to permanently integrate these diverse components in other STEM courses such as Statistics for Engineers, Big Data Analytics, and enhance multidisciplinary learning for all majors. This integration of research findings in STEM courses is a reflection of the KDB (Know, Do, Be) framework, as the interns and the students honed their skills not only in content knowledge through inquiry, but felt responsible in taking action towards mitigation efforts of climate change. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022

7.
Quaestus ; - (21):7-12, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034195

ABSTRACT

The paper aims to make an analysis of the taxation system for authorized persons in Romania in the current context. The last 5 years have seriously marked the entire economy because of the pandemic situation caused by COVID 19 and more now, because of the war in Ukraine and the energy crisis, a period in which small producers, traders and all the entrepreneurs of the liberal professions (especially those in tourism) tried to resist and maintain their businesses. The measures taken by them in the first part were to reduce their direct and then indirect expenses and to pay lower taxes to the state. In this paper we will focus on the taxation of individuals, and we will present the taxation system in the real system and the taxation at the income norm.

8.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033649

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 67 articles that discuss fish ecology and biology, aquaculture, capture fisheries, marine conservation, management, biology, debris, ecology, bioprospecting, biotechnology, and postharvest.

9.
2nd International Conference on Medical Imaging and Additive Manufacturing, ICMIAM 2022 ; 12179, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029448

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic nanobiosensors have an enormous application range. It has the capacity to detect a wide variety of substances including metal, protein and even nucleic acids due to the superiority of SPR and LSPR. Plasmonic biosensors have been widely applied in the field of disease diagnosis, environmental conservation and food safety, eliminating barriers of traditional diagnosis methods and providing sensitive, quick and label-free devices. The applications of plasmonic biosensors in detection of many concerned diseases like cancer and SARS-CoV-2 are making an improvement on our medical condition. In the field of environmental protection, plasmonic-based biosensors also show great potential. They can efficiently detect two main types of contaminants, inorganic heavy metals involving Pb, Cd, As and Hg, and organic pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Plasmonic biosensors could also overcome challenges on food allergen detection. This paper mainly focusses on SPR and LSPR-based nanobiosensors' application in environmental protection, food safety and health-care. © 2022 SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

10.
Cactus the Tourism Journal for Research, Education, Culture and Soul ; 4(1):42-53, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026314

ABSTRACT

Tourism is considered as one of the most relevant economic sectors at international level due to the multiple roles it holds, namely: economic, social role, cultural, educational and political. The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant damage globally and has expanded very quickly across the world by affecting almost all the industries due to the restrictions, lockdowns and quarantines. As a result of the pandemic crisis, the tourism sector was severely affected. Therefore, this paper aim is to reflect the negative and positive effects of the pandemic with SARS-COV-2 virus on tourism, and also to highlight the relevance and sensitivity of this sector during crisis events. The study focuses on the negative effects suffered by this sector during the pandemic, but also represents an effective opportunity to reconsider how that tourism interacts with our societies, thus, certain positive effects and strategies that were identified both on short and long- term, in order to try to minimize the shocks created by the pandemic. The economic crisis caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus has also encouraged inclining tourism towards upskilling, increasing the process of digitization of the ecosystem and protecting the environment.

11.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(17):11203-11215, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025099

ABSTRACT

We use satellite methane observations from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), for May 2018 to February 2020, to quantify methane emissions from individual oil and natural gas (O/G) basins in the US and Canada using a high-resolution (∼25 km) atmospheric inverse analysis. Our satellite-derived emission estimates show good consistency with in situ field measurements (R=0.96) in 14 O/G basins distributed across the US and Canada. Aggregating our results to the national scale, we obtain O/G-related methane emission estimates of12.6±2.1 Tg a-1 for the US and 2.2±0.6 Tg a-1 for Canada, 80 % and 40 %, respectively, higher than the national inventories reported to the United Nations. About 70 % of the discrepancy in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inventory can be attributed to five O/G basins, the Permian, Haynesville, Anadarko, Eagle Ford, and Barnett basins, which in total account for 40 % of US emissions. We show more generally that our TROPOMI inversion framework can quantify methane emissions exceeding 0.2–0.5 Tg a-1 from individual O/G basins, thus providing an effective tool for monitoring methane emissions from large O/G basins globally.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10917, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024210

ABSTRACT

Rice is the staple food for 2.5 billion people worldwide and most farmers depend solely on rice for their livelihood. This study estimates how paddy ecosystem elasticity and external human activity affect paddy ecosystem sustainable food supply. In particular, we analyzed how sustainable food supply is affected by three key domains of external factors—ecological factors, including the proportion of paddy Area (Are), per capita cultivated land area (Lan), and annual wastewater discharge per capita (Was);economic factors, including the agricultural economy level (Inv) and urbanization rate (Urb);and social factors, including the education of farmers (Edu) and rural medical level (Med). We use ANEV, or net paddy ecosystem services value per unit area, to assess the sustainable food supply, which not only represents the food supply quantity and quality, but also the sustainability of the food supply. Results from our panel and threshold regressions suggest that Lan and Urb have a threshold effect on paddy ANEV;Are, Was, Inv, and Edu have a linear negative correlation with ANEV;and Med has a positive linear correlation with ANEV. Based on our findings, we lay out a series of recommendations that may guide future formulation of policies on paddy ecosystem protection and sustainable food supply.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10606, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024184

ABSTRACT

In the post-pandemic era, companies are facing challenges in their business development and may pay fewer attention to their sustainable development performance, whereas the investors are looking for better corporate sustainable development. Using a sample of Chinese listed companies during 2010–2018, this paper empirically examines the relation between corporate sustainable development performance, investor sentiment, and managerial overconfidence with econometric tools such as panel data regression and S-GMM estimation. Three kinds of corporate sustainable development activities as measured by Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) indexes, including consumer rights, employee benefits, and environmental protection, are proved to have a positive impact on investor sentiment. Compared to the SME and GEM Board, investor sentiment in the Main Board is less affected by corporate sustainable development. Furthermore, investor’s high sentiment leads to high managerial confidence in the SME and GEM Board, and managerial overconfidence is self-correcting over time. This paper illustrates why maintaining good corporate sustainable development performance is beneficial for listed companies from a new perspective.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10442, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024167

ABSTRACT

By combining agency theory and the resource- and capabilities-based view, this paper aims to unveil the influence of family firm heterogeneity on environmental performance. Previous results are inconsistent about how the specific features of this type of business contribute to better environmental protection performance. We analyse a number of variables related to the management, ownership and corporate governance characteristics of the family business and their individual influence on environmental performance. We test our hypotheses using a database of 748 family firms in the Spanish tourism sector. This economic sector, which is mostly composed of family businesses, puts great pressure on the environment. As such, family firms must take an active role in the resolution of the environmental problems that afflict society. We find that the effects of a family-controlled ownership and management structure on environmental performance are negative. Family-founder firms with a high degree of family control also are shown to have a negative relationship with environmental performance. However, the existence of a formal management mechanism, such as a management committee, emerges as the most powerful structural factor in facilitating the achievement of environmental objectives. The conclusions drawn from this study allow us to outline future lines of research as well as recommendations for practitioners. Our study responds to the call made in the literature to delve deeper into the heterogeneity of the family business, and specifically to determine which of its characteristic features allow this type of business to achieve better environmental performance.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(16):9889, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024116

ABSTRACT

As China attaches increasing importance to its ecological environment, ecology-related industries have become essential to China’s national economy. However, in the current national economic accounting practice, the ecological industry (eco-industry) is not independent, and the ecological service value ecology creates is currently not within the scope of national economic accounting. To clarify the impact of the development of the eco-industry on the whole regional economy, this paper takes Beijing as the study area. For the first time, the input–output analysis method is adopted to differentiate the eco-industry as an independent sector. Moreover, the ecosystem services value is integrated into the eco-industry, and each coefficient is quantitatively analyzed from an industrial-chain perspective. The results show that the eco-industry exerts a good pulling effect on the regional economy. The inputs and outputs of the eco-industry clearly tend to focus on eco-environmental and public-service-related industries, followed by industries for which ecological development can create value. Judging from the entire regional economy, ecological investment significantly impacts both the education and financial industries. Ecological investment can promote socio-economic development, achieving a 1.318 increase in regional GDP per unit of eco-investment. The results imply that the development of the eco-industry in China should be boosted further and social capital investment should be attracted. Finally, this paper provides a scientific basis for policymakers to better understand the overall situation of both the eco-industry and industry linkages and guide them to develop relevant ecological investment strategies.

16.
Energies ; 15(17):6471, 2022.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023316

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors assessed the road emissions of several passenger cars using specialised instrumentation, of the PEMS type, to measure particle number emissions in real traffic conditions. The tests were performed on a RDE test route developed and compliant with EU guidelines. The results of the tests were discussed in terms of the direct (created in the internal combustion engine) emission of particulate matter in various road conditions. Additionally, an index was determined that characterizes the number of particles according to their diameter in relation to the content of particles in the air. A characteristic of combustion engines (gasoline, diesel) is that during a cold start of the engine, the concentration of the number of particles with diameters around 100 nm increases more than 200 times (for hybrids—300 times). On this basis, it can be concluded that particle emissions with diameters smaller than 23 nm are significant in motor vehicles powered by combustion engines, regardless of whether they are conventional or hybrid vehicles. The share of particles with diameters less than 5 nm is 66% (for diesel engines) and 40% (for gasoline engines) of all the particles.

17.
Catalysts ; 12(8):837, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023198

ABSTRACT

Zeolites belong to aluminosilicate microporous solids, with strong and diverse catalytic activity, which makes them applicable in almost every kind of industrial process, particularly thanks to their eco-friendly profile. Another crucial characteristic of zeolites is their tremendous adsorption capability. Therefore, it is self-evident that the widespread use of zeolites is in environmental protection, based primarily on the adsorption capacity of substances potentially harmful to the environment, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, or other industry pollutants. On the other hand, zeolites are also recognized as drug delivery systems (DDS) carriers for numerous pharmacologically active agents. The enhanced bioactive ability of DDS zeolite as a drug carrying nanoplatform is confirmed, making this system more specific and efficient, compared to the drug itself. These two applications of zeolite, in fact, illustrate the importance of (ir)reversibility of the adsorption process. This review gives deep insight into the balance and dynamics that are established during that process, i.e., the interaction between zeolites and pharmaceuticals, helping scientists to expand their knowledge necessarily for a more effective application of the adsorption phenomenon of zeolites.

18.
Atmosphere ; 13(8):1231, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023116

ABSTRACT

Brick kilns add enormous quantities of organic pollutants to the air that can cause serious health issues, especially in developing countries;poor air quality is associated with community health problems, yet receives no attention in Northern Pakistan. The present study, therefore, assessed the chemical composition and investigated the impacts of air pollution from brick kilns on public health. A field-based investigation of air pollutants, i.e., PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, H2S, and NH3 using mobile scientific instruments was conducted in selected study area locations. Social surveys were conducted to investigate the impacts of air pollution on community health. The results reveal the highest concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10, i.e., 3377, 2305, and 3567.67 µg/m3, respectively, in specific locations. Particulate matter concentrations in sampling points exceeded the permissible limits of the Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standard and, therefore, may risk the local population’s health. The highest mean value of CO2 was 529 mg/L, and other parameters, such as CO, NO, NO2, H2S, and NH3 were within the normal range. The social survey’s findings reveal that particulate matter was directly associated with respiratory diseases such as asthma, which was reported in all age groups selected for sampling. The study concluded by implementing air pollution reduction measures in brick kiln industries to protect the environment and community health. In addition, the region’s environmental protection agency needs to play an active role in proper checking and integrated management to improve air quality and protect the community from air hazards.

19.
Applied Sciences ; 12(16):8315, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023102

ABSTRACT

Featured ApplicationPotential application in innovations and management sciences, strategy for sustainable development.Combating chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats with novel solutions reduces disasters and accident risks and, at the same time, aids sustainability. This research aims to identify the innovations in combating CBRN threats and verify how they fall within the scope of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The study relies on mixed-method research, including bibliometrics and text-mining used to identify clusters, most frequent words, and codes. The material for the research was 156 publications from the Scopus database from 2017 to April 2022. From the analytical process, textual data served as the indicators of the innovations’ directions driven by SDGs. The research results indicated that innovations for combating CBRN threats support sustainability mainly in health and environmental areas, specifically in: SDG 3: Good Health and Well-being;SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation;SDG 14: Life Below Water;SDG 15: Life On Land. The research contributes to the landscape of innovations serving sustainable development. Further studies may focus on narrower perspectives, such as environmental protection and health innovations. There can also be concerns about the dark side of CBRN innovations and technologies of dual use.

20.
Agriculture ; 12(8):1159, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023051

ABSTRACT

How to protect the ecological environment is an important international issue for achieving the sustainable development goals. Using survey data of 2628 farmers in 52 administrative villages in 13 prefecture-level cities of the China Land Economic Survey in 2020, probit and multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore the influence of social capital on farmers’ willingness, behavior and the transformation between willingness and behavior. The results show that: (1) The consistency between farmers’ willingness and behavior is low;90.25% of farmers had the willingness to separate waste, but only 48.49% of farmers had actually classified waste, and only 48.22% of farmers had transformed willingness into behavior. (2) Among the three dimensions of social capital, social network, social norm and social trust, all had positive and significant effects on farmers’ willingness and behavior to separate waste. (3) Social network and social norm had a positive and significant impact on the transformation of farmers’ willingness to separate waste into behavior, but social trust was not significant. The research results confirm that the contradiction between farmers’ intention and behavior of waste separation were generally inconsistent in rural areas. At the same time, the results showed that social capital can promote farmers’ willingness and behavior of waste separation and the transformation from a willingness to behavior, which can provide decision-making reference for how to improve farmers’ high willingness and behavior.

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