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1.
Human Rights Quarterly ; 45(2):342-345, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2324851
2.
International Journal of Information Systems and Supply Chain Management ; 15(1):1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2325185

ABSTRACT

For the last few decades, the business practices have primarily been focusing on the green and sustainable practices that mainly focus on the preservation of the environment and correspond to corporate social responsibility. But the sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has left unprecedented effects on the business world. Against this backdrop, the current study entails investigation of the antecedents and consequences of green supply chain management in the post-COVID-19 era. The term black swan stands true for the event. The term could be believed to be accurate as all aspects of the supply chain have been observed to be influenced by the swan (customers with panic/regulated buying, suppliers with hoarding, inventories witnessing bullwhip effects). The current study, therefore, offers a novel explanation by linking various actors of green supply chain management and how the interplay of those actors can influence the supply chain and overall firm performance post COVID-19.

3.
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers ; 48(2):232-248, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2320007

ABSTRACT

This paper offers a detailed empirical account of how human–environment relations were reconfigured in the UK and Ireland during the 2020–2021 COVID‐19 lockdowns, a period which natural scientists defined as the COVID‐19 Anthropause. Bringing this scientific concept into conversation with geographical work, we consider anthropause as both a lived condition and an historical moment of space–time decompression. Our expanded conceptualisation of anthropause, centred on lived experience and everyday life, develops a more hopeful politics than those offered by the 'Great Acceleration' narrative, which suggests digital media and urbanisation separate humans from nature. In contrast, we identify affirmative and inclusive modes of 'anthropause environmentalism' and explore their potential for fostering convivial human–nature relations in a world that is increasingly urban, digital, and powered by vernacular expertise. To make this argument, we turn to the Self‐Isolating Bird Club, an online birdwatching community operating across several social media platforms which, at the pandemic's height, reached over 50,000 members. We trace three key changes to human–nature relations illustrated by this group which we use to structure our paper: connection, community and cultivation. The COVID‐19 Anthropause recalibrated the fabric and rhythms of everyday life, changing what counts as a meaningful human–nature relationship. This paper will be of interest to geographers exploring environmental change at the interface of more‐than‐human and digital geographies, as well as environmentalists and conservationists. To conclude, we offer suggestions as to how scholars and practitioners might harness the lessons of anthropause to respond to the 'anthropulse'. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Surgery Open Digestive Advance ; 7 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2304924

ABSTRACT

On Thursday, 28 July 2022, the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) declared access to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment constitutes as a universal human right. This motion prompts action from diverse stakeholders across the globe. The surgical community has already taken consequent steps towards social participation and environmental sustainability in the recent years. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the carbon footprint of surgical practice putting further impediments on the way towards a clean and healthy environment. Therefore, it is high time for surgeons to engage with the environment, mitigate the impact of the environmental crisis on surgical diseases and reduce the carbon footprint of surgical practice. Rethinking the use of energy - intensive technologies in the operating theater and collaborating with allied medical specialties and health professionals to decrease the ecological footprint of healthcare is pivotal.Copyright © 2022 The Author(s)

5.
Journal of Positive Psychology ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2289237

ABSTRACT

How infectious diseases shape individual minds and behaviors has been of interest to researchers. We conducted four studies to examine whether the threat perception of the COVID-19 pandemic was positively related to pro-environmentalism. Study 1 (N = 1,508) showed that individuals' threat perception of the pandemic was correlated with their pro-environmental behaviors. Study 2 (N = 241) clarified the causality by manipulating threat perception and found that individuals with high (vs. low) threat perception reported higher pro-environmental willingness. Study 3 (N = 406) revealed that awe for nature mediated this relationship. Study 4 (N = 405) replicated Study 3 more than two years after the outbreak and demonstrated the findings were robust regardless of decreases in infection fear. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic provides individuals with an opportunity to reconsider the way they treat nature. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

6.
Nationalities Papers ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2211816

ABSTRACT

This article uses the French Rassemblement National (RN) as a case study to examine how the populist radical right (PRR) prepares for a world after COVID-19 dominated by climate change concerns. Research suggests that certain measures introduced to contain the virus - such as the establishment of strict border and travel restrictions - may legitimize the PRR's protectionist and anti-immigration agendas, yet few have examined whether or how PRR parties have used COVID-19 to promote their environmental agenda. If anything, the expectation has been that the pandemic would hurt the PRR precisely because its effects, unlike climate change, cannot be dismissed as a "hoax." This view overlooks not only the "environmental turn" recently taken by several PRR parties but also the possibility that public awareness of the causal link between climate change and COVID-19 may work to their advantage. The analysis presented in this article highlights this possibility, showing that the RN used COVID-19 not only to capitalize on anti-immigrant sentiment but also to bolster its self-image as a champion of environmental protection.

7.
Journal of Muslim Philanthropy & Civil Society ; 6(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2147143

ABSTRACT

Muslim Philanthropy in Canada is a special issue of the Journal of Muslim Philanthropy and Civil Society (JMPCS) based on papers given at a symposium hosted in March 2021 (virtual due to the COVID lockdown) by the Centre for Religion and Its Contexts at Emmanuel College, of Victoria University in the University of Toronto. The symposium was jointly funded by JMPCS and Emmanuel College. A special issue and a symposium dedicated to the topic of Muslim philanthropy in Canada is pioneering in two ways. First, Canadian academia has not focused enough on charitable giving, despite it being a significant part of the Islamic tradition. Oral history testifies to its presence and importance in Canadian Muslim communities since the earliest Muslim settlements (Bullock, 2004, 2017;Hogben, 2021). Yet its academic study is negligible. Participants at a 2017 workshop in Ottawa studied a comprehensive bibliography about scholarly work on Muslims in Canada and identified that academia has focused on issues related to identity, integration, law, media, radicalization, and securitization (MUN). Arts, charitable work, business practices, economics, ethics, history, organizational behavior, and leadership are all important features of Muslim life in Canada that are barely studied. We hope the symposium and this special issue lay foundations for a new scholarly field that studies Muslim charitable life in Canada. Second, both the symposium and this issue bring together scholars and practitioners to illuminate the topic of Muslim philanthropy in Canada. Philanthropy is above all a field of action, so including practitioners’ voices is a crucial part of this pioneering issue on Muslim philanthropy in Canada. Mosque sermons remind congregations regularly that charity is part of faith, of the obligation of annual zakat, of the importance of serving the community and trying to alleviate poverty and suffering. Hundreds of Muslims in Canada heed this call and dedicate countless volunteer hours to charitable work, be it through formal associations or informal networks. It is only fitting that their voices be part of the symposium and this special issue. Pioneers have to tell foundational stories, so narrating the story of how we arrived at this special issue is an important part of understanding the topic itself. The account begins in 2017, when I volunteered with a multi-faith group to host a conference on faith and basic income at the University of St Michael’s College, Toronto. Although I had a cursory understanding of basic income, I knew how similar some of its concepts were to the Islamic institution of zakat and practices of the early Caliphs in distributing money from the public treasury to support the poor (Bullock & Daimee, 2021a). And yet, there were less than a handful of Muslims participating in basic income advocacy, and even fewer able to present Islamic perspectives on basic income at that conference. Moreover, as a comment by one of the (non-Muslim) participants demonstrated, there was very little understanding by attendees of the differences between Islamic concepts of charity and justice and that of secularists or other faith groups: she suggested that basic income was about justice, that is addressing the political and economic structures that lead to and support poverty, whereas religious groups tended to focus on charity, which is more about “mercy”—helping the poor—than justice. Even with my then perfunctory knowledge of a few scattered relevant Qur’anic verses and ahadith, I knew this did not describe the Islamic philanthropic tradition. There was the Qur’anic verse describing zakat as a “right” of the poor (70:24–25), and a hadith about the relationship between charity and justice that went like this: “Every joint of a person must perform a charity each day that the sun rises: to judge justly between two people is a charity. To help a man with his mount, lifting him onto it or hoisting up his belongings onto it, is a charity. And the good word is a charity. And every step that you take towards p ayer is a charity and removing a harmful object from the road is a charity” (Bahi, 2002, p.128). In addition to showing that “charity” in Islam goes beyond a standard Western definition of “voluntary donations of money or goods” (Kymlicka, 2001, pp. 87–88;also Goodin, 2017), this hadith relates charity to justice. Indeed, it makes justice a subset of charity. Clearly scholars need to pursue these topics more. With the aid of a volunteer research assistant, whose thorough scan of the literature about charity and justice from the Muslim point of view, or the study of Muslim charity in Canada, revealed next to nothing, we learned that much contemporary Muslim scholarship on zakat is mostly theoretical—how zakat could or should work as a normative tool for distributive justice (Ahmad & Hassan, 2000;Ahmad et al., 2006;Ahmad, 1991;Allheedan, 2016;Baidhawy, 2012;Siddiqui, 1988). Some work from the point of view of jurisprudence, covering the theoretical basics of what is zakat, how it should be calculated, who should pay it, and who should receive it (Dhar, 2013;Al-Qardawi, 1999). Others investigate its application in contemporary Muslim-majority societies (Davis & Robinson, 2006;Retsikas, 2014;Powell, 2009). Retsikas (2014) found that for Indonesia, zakat studies have been undertaken mostly by historians, geographers, and anthropologists (the latter focused mainly on the politics of international Islamic aid organizations) with “very little sustained attention” (p. 341) by ethnographers. Many scholars lament that zakat is currently overlooked as a potential tool for poverty alleviation, so their scholarship also advocates for zakat as a new (revived) policy instrument (Ahmad & Hassan, 2000, p. 169;Ahmad et al., 2006, p. 15;Al-Qardawi, 1999, p. 709;Chapra, 1992, p. 270). A few scholars conclude that where the state does administer zakat it is often marred by mismanagement, corruption, and dissension (Malik, 2016, p. 73;Powell, 2009, pp. 73–79). We also found that zakat in Western countries is understudied, locating only two papers on the topic (May, 2019;Ndiaye, 2007). In 2019 the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding, based in the USA, released a pioneering comparative study of Muslim, Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and non-affiliated Americans’ giving, measured in dollar amounts, investigating why they donate, and who they donate to, with an age, gender, and race breakdown. But they did not break the dollar amounts down into zakat money versus other monies (Mahmood, 2019). Studies of Muslim communities do highlight social service practices, such as soup kitchens or food banks;such analyses mention zakat in passing in a routine way as an aspect of Muslim charity (Azmi, 1997;Bolognani & Statham, 2013;Bramadat & Seljak, 2009;Fridolfsson & Elander, 2012;GhaneaBassiri, 2017;Nadir, 2013;Peucker, 2020;Peucker & Kayikci, 2020;Qasqas & Chowdhury, 2017). These kinds of community-based studies are empirically focused and are mostly descriptive. They might use substitute concepts such as social work, social services, or volunteerism for zakat (Borell & Gerdner, 2011). So we decided to begin this pioneering research ourselves by doing a qualitative study of Muslim charities in Canada. In the absence of secondary literature, we needed to start at the source and ask the people doing zakat work what that means in a Canadian context. This resulted in two papers published by the Yaqeen Institute (Bullock & Daimee, 2021a, 2021b). The Journal of Muslim Philanthropy and Civil Society grant opportunity arose during this time. Knowing from our literature review that there was little scholarship on this topic in Canada, I thought a symposium might be able to draw out hitherto unknown scholars working on the topic. An event would also serve as a networking and gathering moment for a fledgling field. Fortunately, Emmanuel College and JMPCS agreed. Yet the symposium itself revealed the innovative nature of studying Muslim charity in Canada: the first call for papers focused solely on zakat in Canada. ven though we knew that there were no scholars who had published on zakat in Canada, we hoped that scholars working in cognate areas might take up the topic, or that we would discover PhD students working on these topics. Titled “Muslim Charity in a Canadian Context,” we invited papers to consider the following questions: ● Why do Muslims give in the Canadian context? What causes do they give to? ● What kind of adaptations are necessary or observed in the fiqh of zakat in Canada? The definition of someone who is zakat eligible? The calculations of zakat-able goods and assets? The distribution, i.e., cash vs goods? Are there distinctions made between Muslims and non-Muslims for zakat distribution? ● What role does the regulatory environment of Canadian charity law play in zakat giving? In the foundation and development of zakat-focused organizations, especially post-9/11? ● What is the relationship between zakat and distributive justice in Canada? ● What role does zakat play in alleviating poverty? ● Do Muslims in Canada make a distinction between charity and justice? What relationships do zakat-focused organizations have with wider social justice and anti-poverty movements? ● The history and evolution of zakat-focused organizations in Canada ● The establishment of waqf institutions in Canada? Resounding silence led us to widen the scope of the symposium. JMPCS works from the expanded Islamic understanding of what counts as charity based on hadith, such as the one cited above. A revamped call for papers for the renamed “Muslim Philanthropy in a Canadian Context” invited submissions on the following topics: ● The history and evolution of charitable organizations in Canada ● Muslim involvement in refugeeresettlement in Canada ● Muslim volunteerism and civic engagement in Canada ● Muslim participation in wider anti-poverty and social justice movements ● Muslim social work and social services in Canada ● Muslim charitable giving in the Canadian context ● The establishment of waqf institutions in Canada ● The impact of the regulatory environment of Canadian charity law on Muslim charities in Canada, especially post-9/11 ● The adaptations in the fiqh of zakat in Canada We accepted papers from a mix of junior and senior scholars, and, recognizing the pioneering nature of the event, included practitioners, based on the understanding, as mentioned, that with regard to charitable work, knowledge is contained and conveyed by people in the field. Senior scholars moderated the sessions. As symposium participant Shaykh Rizvi, current Imam of the Jaffari Community Centre in Thornhill, Ontario, points out in his article, the Qur’an teaches us that “[they] will not attain righteousness till [they] spend in charity of the things [they] love” (3:82). Not only is charity more than justice, not only is it more than donating money or goods, but charity is also an act of worship for Muslims. Zakat is a spiritual practice with a secular element. That is why al-Qardawi (1999) called it a “tax-worship or a worship-tax” (p. 502). Our Yaqeen papers show that for those who work at or volunteer at Muslim charitable organizations, those who donate to them, and those who are clients, charity is a central element of being Muslim in Canada. Zakat, sadaqa, and waqf are all essential characteristics of Muslim communities in Canada. We must draw attention to them. Our Yaqeen studies, the symposium presentations, and this special issue show how traditional Muslim institutions adapt on migration to minority status in Western countries. They draw attention to Muslim civic engagement and integration into the fabric of Western societies. They serve as meeting points for interfaith dialogue on service to the poor and secular commitments to social justice. They take us beyond identity politics and security and radicalization studies. They are a corrective to stereotypes of Muslims as haters of Western society, self-imposed ghettoization, people who take but do not contribute, or Muslim women as oppressed and men s terrorists. They draw attention to the material struggles facing Muslims in these societies. They are an insight into ethical life for Muslims in Canada. Fortunately, the Journal of Muslim Philanthropy and Civil Society takes a leadership role by highlighting Muslim philanthropy in its publications. The issue opens with Sanaa Ali-Muhammad and Ruby Latif’s paper that examines where Canadian Muslim’s philanthropic dollars are spent—at least those that are captured through a data analysis of the top 50 Muslim charities. It is the perfect piece to inaugurate this special issue, as it provides an overview of the landscape of Muslim charities in Canada. The paper begins with a demographic profile of Muslim communities in Canada. The authors use Nimer’s (2014) eight-part typology of Muslim communities in North America to search publicly available data on the 50 largest Muslim-serving, Muslim-led, and Muslim-focused charities. They build on Qasqas and Chowdhury’s (2017) analysis of Islamic religious groups in Canada to ask the questions, how much money is being raised, and where is it being spent? They want to do this to assess the efficacy of Canadian Muslims’ charitable dollars. They make recommendations about this in their concluding section. Echoing Ali-Muhammad’s and Latif’s literature review that it is “challenging” to locate scholarly work on Canadian Muslim charities, the next paper by Memona Hossain contributes a pioneering study of the environmental behaviors of Muslims in Canada. She found no work on this topic. Her paper is part of her larger study of environmental activism focused on over 60 Muslim women globally. She used semi-structured interviews to talk to 10 Canadian Muslims, men and women, exploring their environmental activism. Her paper begins with a brief discussion of the meaning of environmental philanthropy and then introduces Islamic perspectives on four key concepts related to environmental philanthropy. A series of recommendations follow her data results. Hossain makes a perceptive insight that Muslim integration and identity is related to their involvement in environmental activism, which is a movement not always inclusive of marginalized communities. Next comes the three practitioner’s reports, which together capture a diverse snapshot of on the ground activism in different Muslim communities. Nuzhat Jafri charts the story of the Canadian Council of Muslim Women (CCMW). It was founded in 1982 in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Jafri recounts the struggles of managing a volunteer-run organization. She discusses their fundraising techniques and strategies. The Canadian Revenue Agency restricts an organization’s activities in order to be eligible for charitable status (which allows the organization to give tax-receipts). Jafri’s discussion of the internal debate among CCMW members as to whether or not go that route is germane to all Muslim nonprofit organizations in Canada. Sheikh Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi’s paper looks at Muslim charitable giving from the perspective of the Shī‘a Ithnā-‘Ashari Muslims in Canada. He outlines the theory of zakāt before turning to case studies of his organization, the Islamic Shi‘a Ithnā-‘Ashari Jamaat of Toronto (ISIJ). Noting Shī‘ī jurisprudential rules of zakāt do not include banknotes, he concludes that the “the scope of zakāt, especially for Shī‘as in the West, is limited.” Rizvi details how the obligation of khums (one-fifth or 20% of the annual profit or savings of a person) is important both to poverty alleviation and to the financial upkeep of their religious institutions, along with other kinds of donations and fundraising. He argues for the importance of charity toward non-Muslims. He discusses various fundraising models, including income generating activities. He details the pioneering social services of the Islamic Shi‘a Ithnā-‘Ashari Jamaat of Toronto. He finishes with a brief survey of notable donations and charitable services by local Shi‘a community members. The final practitioner report widens the lens to an international level. Mohammed Abu Asaker’s paper looks at the founding and development of the United Nations High Commission on Refugees Zakat Fund. Asaker discusses the rationale behind founding the dedicated fund, their activities, and disbursements. He highlights the fatawa received from scholars around the world supporting the fund as zakat eligible. He details the fund’s transparency and governance policies—a crucial aspect of due diligence for those entrusted with zakat distribution. He finishes with a look at Canadian Muslim contributions to the fund, noting that Canada is the ninth largest donor. Abu Asaker’s presentation in March 2021 was before the Ukraine crisis changed the face of worldwide refugees, but Muslims are, unfortunately, still among the top refugee producing countries (UNHCR). We hope readers are inspired to begin their own studies of Muslim philanthropy in Canada.

8.
Internationales Asien Forum International Quarterly for Asian Studies ; 53(3):327-336, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2125949
9.
Entangled Religions ; 12(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026762

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the religious practices and the public discourse of Jains in the U.S.A. and India. On the institutional level, I show how Jain organizations made extensive efforts to connect digitally with their community members when collective, in-person celebrations and temple visits were either reduced in number, limited in capacity, or cancelled because of the pandemic. Given the new importance of Jain online platforms, I address their potential role in both blurring sectarian boundaries and creating sacred spaces. On the individual level, I examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the everyday religious practices of Jains. I conducted eight semi-structured interviews over Zoom between November 2020 and January 2021. I argue that while there is a great diversity of individual Jain responses, a common feature appears to be a significant increase of Jains participating in scholarly religious activities. In terms of the ways in which some Jains talk, write, and reflect on the COVID- 19 pandemic, I identify and examine a Jain discourse on the COVID-19 pandemic that is characterized by environmental concerns and by the processes of scientization and universalization. Building on the work of Knut Aukland (2016) that examines the role of science in contemporary Jain discussions, I define scientization as the ongoing process where Jains underline the convergence of their religion with modern science. With the term universalization, I refer to the noticeable trend among Jains to argue for the need to teach Jainism beyond the Jain community by showing its contemporary relevance and applicability to overcome global problems, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 Center for Religious Studies. All right reserved.

10.
Ambiente & Sociedade ; 25, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1987236

ABSTRACT

Positive experiences with nature during childhood are a strong predictor of Connection with Nature (CWN) throughout life, which has a strong explanatory factor of integral well-being and pro-environmental behavior. The objective of this study was to verify the CWN level of adults and the frequency with which they promote contact with nature to the children in their care. The research protocol included two CWN scales, questions about contact with nature, and sociodemographic data. Thus, 58 parents and 150 teachers of basic education from public schools in Manaus-AM participated in the study. Results showed these adults’ education area, age group, and frequency of contact with green areas are significant to differentiate their CN levels. Area of education is also an important factor in determining how often parents and teachers take children to green areas.Alternate : Las experiencias positivas con la naturaleza durante la infancia son un fuerte predictor de la Conexión con la Naturaleza (CN) a lo largo de la vida, que tiene un fuerte factor explicativo de bienestar integral y comportamiento proambiental. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el nivel de CN de los adultos y la frecuencia con que promueven el contacto con la naturaleza a los niños a su cargo. El protocolo de investigación incluyó dos escalas CN, preguntas sobre el contacto con la naturaleza y datos sociodemográficos. El estudio incluyó a 58 padres/madres y 150 maestros de educación primaria de escuelas públicas en Manaus-AM. Los resultados mostraron que el área de formación, edad y frecuencia de contacto con áreas verdes de estos adultos son significativas para diferenciar sus niveles de CWN. El área de capacitación también es un factor importante para determinar la frecuencia con la que los padres/madres y maestros llevan a los niños a las áreas verdes.Alternate : As experiências positivas com a natureza durante a infância são um forte preditor da Conexão com a Natureza (CN) ao longo da vida, a qual tem forte fator explicativo de bem-estar integral e comportamento pró-ambiental. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o nível de CN de adultos e a frequência com que promovem o contato com a natureza às crianças sob seus cuidados. O protocolo de pesquisa incluiu duas escalas de CN, questões sobre contato com a natureza e dados sociodemográficos. Participaram do estudo 58 pais/mães e 150 docentes da educação básica de escolas públicas de Manaus-AM. Os resultados mostraram que a área de formação, a faixa etária e frequência de contato com áreas verdes desses adultos são significativos para diferenciar seus níveis de CN. A área de formação também é um fator importante para determinar a frequência com que os pais/mães e docentes levam as crianças a áreas verdes.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969268

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the Spanish energy transition's general situation and its increasing electricity prices in recent years from a free-market environmentalist (FME) approach. We hypothesize and argue that high taxes, high government subsidies, and government industrial access restrictions breach private property rights, hindering Spain's renewable energy (RE) development. Our paper discovers that Spain's state-interventionist policies have increased the cost of the energy and power industries, leading to electricity prices remaining relatively high before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. After reviewing the literature on the FME approach and Spain's case, a Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) model is used to clarify the economic performance of the Spanish electricity industry with a proposal for forecasting electricity prices. It is observed that Spain fails the EU and its national goal of providing an affordable energy price as a part of the green energy transition. Finally, free-market environmental solutions and policy reforms are proposed to facilitate Spain's energy transition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electricity , Humans , Industry , Spain
12.
The American Political Science Review ; 116(3):998-1011, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960169

ABSTRACT

Is authoritarian power ever legitimate? The contemporary political theory literature—which largely conceptualizes legitimacy in terms of democracy or basic rights—would seem to suggest not. I argue, however, that there exists another, overlooked aspect of legitimacy concerning a government’s ability to ensure safety and security. While, under normal conditions, maintaining democracy and rights is typically compatible with guaranteeing safety, in emergency situations, conflicts between these two aspects of legitimacy can and often do arise. A salient example of this is the COVID-19 pandemic, during which severe limitations on free movement and association have become legitimate techniques of government. Climate change poses an even graver threat to public safety. Consequently, I argue, legitimacy may require a similarly authoritarian approach. While unsettling, this suggests the political importance of climate action. For if we wish to avoid legitimating authoritarian power, we must act to prevent crises from arising that can only be resolved by such means.

13.
Religions ; 13(5):377, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871320

ABSTRACT

This paper identifies and examines a Jain narrative that frames Jain tenets as being in line with some of the most impactful COVID-19 measures. It demonstrates how during the early stages of the pandemic (i.e., mid-March 2020 to January 2021), some Jains drew parallels between various Jain principles and the WHO guidelines, finding agreement, for instance, between the muhpattī (“face cloth”) and the public face mask and the dig-vrata (a Jain vow of restraint) and social distancing. This paper shows how some also viewed several unintentional consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic (such as not being able to go shopping during the lockdown) as being in line with Jain practices (here the practice of aparigraha or non-possessiveness). By means of an analysis of two Jain writings on the WHO guidelines, I demonstrate how some Jains framed several COVID-19 measures within a distinctive Jain worldview. I argue that the equation of Jain practices with the WHO guidelines should be understood within the ongoing universalization and scientization of Jainism, processes that present Jainism as a universal and scientific solution to global disasters, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(46): 69555-69572, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844440

ABSTRACT

History records show that pandemics and threats have always given new directions to the thinking, working, and learning styles. This article attempts to thoroughly document the positive core of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on global social psychology, ecological stability, and development. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to test the hypotheses and comprehend the objectives of the study. The findings of the study reveals that the path coefficients for the variables health consciousness, naturalism, financial impact and self-development, sustainability, compassion, gregariousness, sympathy, and cooperation demonstrate that the factors have a positive and significant effect on COVID-19 prevention. Moreover, the content analysis was conducted on recently published reports, blog content, newspapers, and social media. The pieces of evidence from history have been cited to justify the perspective. Furthermore, to appraise the opinions of professionals of different walks of life, an online survey was conducted, and results were discussed with expert medical professionals. Outcomes establish that the pandemics give birth to creativity, instigate innovations, prompt inventions, establish human ties, and foster altruistic elements of compassion and emotionalism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Environ Psychol ; 79: 101751, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804526

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic claimed millions of lives and caused unprecedented disruptions. Despite these negative impacts, there is optimism the pandemic may shift public opinion on other global crises by fostering a sense of collective efficacy. Using propensity score matching to compare New Zealanders assessed before (n =12,304) and after (n = 12,370) nationwide lockdowns in 2020, we tested a preregistered mediation model with COVID-19 lockdown experience predicting increases in pro-environmental attitudes via enhanced socio-political efficacy. As hypothesized, socio-political efficacy increased after the successful nationwide lockdowns. In turn, socio-political efficacy amplified respondents' pro-environmental attitudes including climate beliefs and concern, as well as support for a government subsidy for public transport and opposition to government spending on new motorways. The pandemic also enhanced respondents' satisfaction with the quality of the natural environment, which was unmediated by socio-political efficacy. The crisis might offer an opportunity to foster collective pro-environmental actions.

16.
Amfiteatru Economic ; 24(59):5-7, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1716397

ABSTRACT

The article "Sustainable Transformation of Romanian Companies through Industry 4.0, Green Production and Environment Commitment' develops an econometric model that establishes the link between green performance, digitization, green production and environmental engagement, using structural equation modelling. [...]the article identifies key elements that help companies transform digitally and sustainably. The article "Digital Transformation, Financial Performance and Sustainability: Evidence for European Union Listed Companies" investigates the beneficial effects of digitalization on efficient use of natural resources, reduction of pollution, and looks at how motivated companies are to transformation into a sustainable company. [...]they looked at whether or not hotels have increased the rate of digitalization as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Regions and Cohesion ; 11(3):54-79, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1599806

ABSTRACT

This article addresses the category of ecological-distributive confl ict from The Global Environmental Justice Atlas project to explain the emergence of environmental justice movements as a response to a certain distribution of pollution burdens or access to environmental resources. The theoretical approach addresses environmentalism of the poor and adds a historical review to understand such an existing paradox. The empirical work was carried out in the Valle del Mezquital, where the discharge of wastewater generated in the Metropolitan Area of the Valle de Mexico presents a paradoxical situation: some farmers perceive the reception of contaminated water as positive. The analysis includes a refl ection on the criteria for evaluating confl ict since the emergence of COVID-19 © The Author(s)

18.
British Journal of Political Science ; 52(1):339-357, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1594414

ABSTRACT

As major global challenges intensify in the twenty-first century, which domestic institutions will best enable countries to take decisive and positive action? This article explores this question in the realm of environmental policy. Scholars and practitioners have long argued that ‘democracy’ yields the best environmental outcomes, but others now maintain that ‘eco-authoritarianism’ may be the best way forward. The author unpacks the theoretical mechanisms behind these debates, and adds important nuance in making three arguments. First, the link between elections and eco-policy depends on what citizens want. Secondly, the relationship between civil liberties protections and environmentalism depends on which actors within society hold power. Finally, political constraints make environmental policy change – be it environmentally friendly or damaging – more difficult. The study empirically tests these arguments and finds strong support for the expectations regarding elections and civil liberties. There is only limited evidence that constraints stymie eco-policy change.

19.
American Political Science Review ; : 14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1560476

ABSTRACT

Is authoritarian power ever legitimate? The contemporary political theory literature-which largely conceptualizes legitimacy in terms of democracy or basic rights-would seem to suggest not. I argue, however, that there exists another, overlooked aspect of legitimacy concerning a government's ability to ensure safety and security. While, under normal conditions, maintaining democracy and rights is typically compatible with guaranteeing safety, in emergency situations, conflicts between these two aspects of legitimacy can and often do arise. A salient example of this is the COVID-19 pandemic, during which severe limitations on free movement and association have become legitimate techniques of government. Climate change poses an even graver threat to public safety. Consequently, I argue, legitimacy may require a similarly authoritarian approach. While unsettling, this suggests the political importance of climate action. For if we wish to avoid legitimating authoritarian power, we must act to prevent crises from arising that can only be resolved by such means.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403591

ABSTRACT

While the majority of the American public believe climate change is occurring and are worried, few are engaged in climate change action. In this study, we assessed factors associated with the level of willingness to engage in climate change actions using an online, longitudinal US study of adults. Climate change action outcomes included the level of willingness to post materials online, take political actions, talk with peers about climate change, and donate to or help an organization. Predictors included climate change attitudes, environmental attitudes, political ideology, political party affiliation, and demographic variables. Most (72%) of the 644 respondents only talked about climate change with peers a few times a year or less, though 65% were very or extremely worried about climate change. Many respondents indicated a willingness to do somewhat or a lot more, from 38% willing to talk to peers to 25% for willing to take political actions. In multinomial regression models, the Climate Change Concern scale was strongly and consistently associated with willingness to engage in climate change action. These findings indicate a need to both identify those who are willing to act and finding activities that fit with their interests and availability.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Politics , Attitude , Organizations , United States
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