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1.
Viruses ; 14(5), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822448

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a worldwide outbreak, with significant molecular evolution over time. Large-scale phylodynamic studies allow to map the virus spread and inform preventive strategies. Aim: This study investigates the extent of binational dispersal and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineages between seven border provinces of the adjacent countries of Poland and Germany to reconstruct SARS-CoV-2 transmission networks. Methods: Following three pandemic waves from March 2020 to the end of May 2021, we analysed a dataset of 19,994 sequences divided into B.1.1.7;Alpha and non-Alpha lineage groups. We performed phylogeographic analyses using the discrete diffusion models to identify the pathways of virus spread. Results: Based on population dynamics inferences, in total, 673 lineage introductions (95% HPD interval 641–712) for non-Alpha and 618 (95% HPD interval 599–639) for B.1.1.7;Alpha were identified in the area. For non-Alpha lineages, 5.05% binational, 86.63% exclusively German, and 8.32% Polish clusters were found, with a higher frequency of international clustering observed for B.1.1.7;Alpha (13.11% for binational, 68.44% German and 18.45% Polish, p < 0.001). We identified key transmission hubs for the analysed lineages, namely Saxony, West Pomerania and Lower Silesia. Conclusions: Clustering patterns between Poland and Germany reflect the viral variant transmission dynamics at the international level in the borderline area. Tracing the spread of the virus between two adjacent large European countries may provide a basis for future intervention policies in cross-border cooperation efforts against the spread of the pandemics.

2.
Journal of Water and Health ; : 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822324

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to compare statistical techniques estimating the association between SARS-CoV-2 RNA in untreated wastewater and sludge and reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations (copies/mL) were measured from 24-h composite samples of wastewater in Massachusetts (MA) (daily;8/19/2020-1/19/2021) and Maine (ME) (weekly;9/1/2020-3/2/2021) and sludge samples in Connecticut (CT) (daily;3/1/2020-6/1/2020). We fit linear, generalized additive with a cubic regression spline (GAM), Poisson, and negative binomial models to estimate the association between SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration and reported COVID-19 cases. Results: The models that fit the data best were linear [adjusted R-2=0.85 (MA), 0.16 (CT) 0.63 (ME);root-mean-square error (RMSE)=0.41 (MA), 1.14 (CT), 0.99 (ME)), GAM (adjusted R-2=0.86 (MA), 0.16 (CT) 0.65 (ME);RMSE=0.39 (MA), 1.14 (CT), 0.97 (ME)], and Poisson [pseudo R-2=0.84 (MA), 0.21 (CT), 0.52 (ME);RMSE=0.39 (MA), 0.67 (CT), 0.79 (ME)]. Conclusions: Linear, GAM, and Poisson models outperformed negative binomial models when relating SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater or sludge to reported COVID-19 cases.

3.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14937, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically changed the recommended activities and environment for patients worldwide. Our aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on pediatric hospitalizations in Kitami, Japan. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on hospitalized patients aged 0-14 years at the Japanese Red Cross Kitami Hospital. We compared the incidence of pediatric patients hospitalized in 2020 with those in 2017-2019. RESULTS: The number of pediatric hospitalized patients dropped significantly in 2020 compared to that in 2017-2019 (median 43.0 vs 78.5 per month, P < 0.001). The patients were significantly older in 2020 (4.3 vs 3.4 years, P < 0.001). Hospitalization from respiratory (8.5 vs 30.5, P < 0.001) and gastrointestinal infections (3.0 vs 6.0, P = 0.004) significantly decreased. Admission due to respiratory syncytial virus (0.0 vs 4.0, P < 0.001), human metapneumovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.005), influenza (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.009), adenovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.003), and rotavirus infection (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.025) also decreased significantly. The <1-5 age groups significantly decreased (<1 year old, 6.5 vs 12.5, P < 0.001; 1-3 years old, 13.0 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; 4-5 years old, 5.5 vs 11.5, P < 0.001). Hospitalization due to foreign body ingestions increased significantly in 2020 (1.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 control measures inadvertently reduced the number of hospitalized pediatric patients, especially younger children with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 155767, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821477

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged in South Africa in November 2021, and has later been identified worldwide, raising serious concerns. A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed for the rapid screening of the Omicron variant, targeting characteristic mutations of the spike gene. The assay was used to test 737 sewage samples collected throughout Italy (19/21 Regions) between 11 November and 25 December 2021, with the aim of assessing the spread of the Omicron variant in the country. Positive samples were also tested with a real-time RT-PCR developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), and through nested RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, 115 samples tested positive for Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. The first occurrence was detected on 7 December, in Veneto, North Italy. Later on, the variant spread extremely fast in three weeks, with prevalence of positive wastewater samples rising from 1.0% (1/104 samples) in the week 5–11 December, to 17.5% (25/143 samples) in the week 12–18, to 65.9% (89/135 samples) in the week 19–25, in line with the increase in cases of infection with the Omicron variant observed during December in Italy. Similarly, the number of Regions/Autonomous Provinces in which the variant was detected increased from one in the first week, to 11 in the second, and to 17 in the last one. The presence of the Omicron variant was confirmed by the JRC real-time RT-PCR in 79.1% (91/115) of the positive samples, and by Sanger sequencing in 66% (64/97) of PCR amplicons. In conclusion, we designed an RT-qPCR assay capable to detect the Omicron variant, which can be successfully used for the purpose of wastewater-based epidemiology. We also described the history of the introduction and diffusion of the Omicron variant in the Italian population and territory, confirming the effectiveness of sewage monitoring as a powerful surveillance tool.

6.
Mathematical Biosciences ; : 108824, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821409

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic continues to rage in many parts of the world. In the UK alone, an array of mathematical models have played a prominent role in guiding policymaking. Whilst considerable pedagogical material exists for understanding the basics of transmission dynamics modelling, there is a substantial gap between the relatively simple models used for exposition of the theory and those used in practice to model the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. Understanding these models requires considerable prerequisite knowledge and presents challenges to those new to the field of epidemiological modelling. In this paper, we introduce an open-source R package, comomodels, which can be used to understand the complexities of modelling the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 through a series of differential equation models. Alongside the base package, we describe a host of learning resources, including detailed tutorials and an interactive web-based interface allowing dynamic investigation of the model properties. We then use comomodels to illustrate three key lessons in the transmission of COVID-19 within R Markdown vignettes.

7.
Current Tropical Medicine Reports ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821070

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system due to Cryptococcus gattii species complex is a serious mycosis with worldwide distribution but of great importance in the tropics. This article aims to review the progress made in these regions in the knowledge of this disease and its etiological agent. Recent Findings: They can be summarized in the presence in apparently immunocompetent patients of autoantibodies against granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is a hidden risk factor for acquiring C. gattii infection;this finding strengthens the concept that C. gattii is an opportunistic pathogen. A greater knowledge of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of C. gattii infection and of the different environmental niches of this fungus in the tropics. The discovery of a new lineage of C. gattii, VGV, in environmental samples from Africa. Until now, the COVID-19 pandemic has not meant an increase in cryptococcosis cases. Summary: Advances have been made in the identification of risk factors for cryptococcosis due to C. gattii as well as in the knowledge of its etiological agent and its relationship with the environment. Remarkably, there have been no significant achievements in diagnosis and treatment notwithstanding the documented importance.

8.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):ZC13-ZC17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820493

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The currently prevalent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has amounted to various co-morbid conditions amongst patients and mucormycosis has been one among them. A globally emerging disease, this requires aggressive surgical treatment that necessitates due prosthetic rehabilitation. Aim: To assess the impact of prosthodontic intervention on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) through Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire in post COVID-19 mucormycosis affected individuals. Materials and Methods: The following study was a questionnaire-based prospective interventional study. The study population included post COVID-19 mucormycosis affected individuals who sought prosthodontic therapy for rehabilitation from the month of April 2021 to October 2021. The study instituted the questionnaire amongst 48 consenting participants. The OHIP-14 questionnaire was validated in their native languages and data was collected before and one month after prosthodontic intervention. Data was statistically analysed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: For all the individual questions, OHRQoL impact showed a significant decrease following prosthetic intervention (p-value <0.05). Total OHIP score also showed a significant decrease post-treatment (p-value=0.001). Conclusion: Percentage improvement of OHRQoL ranging from 34.79% to 59.86% post prosthodontic intervention was observed. Thus, the impact of prosthodontic therapy among post COVID-19 mucormycosis affected individuals on the OHRQoL of the patient is positively significant.

9.
Review of Behavioral Economics ; 9(1):45-63, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820132

ABSTRACT

Early evidence during the first phase of the COVID-19 outbreak shows that individuals facing the risk of infection increased their levels of physical distancing even before relevant measures were imposed. Not taking individual behaviour into account can lead policy makers to overestimate the infection risks in absence of physical distancing measures and underestimate the effectiveness of measures. This paper proposes a behavioural-compartmental-epidemiological model with heterogenous agents who take physical distancing measures to reduce the risk of becoming infected. The level of these measures depends on the government's regulations and the daily new cases and is influenced by the individual perception of the infection risk. This approach can account for two important factors: (i) the limited information about the exact infection risks and (ii) the heterogeneity across individuals with regards to physical distancing decisions. We find that the intensity of measures required to reduce infections is directly related to the public perception of the risk of infection, and that harsher late measures are in general less effective than milder ones imposed earlier. The model demonstrates that the feedback effects between contagion dynamics and individual decisions make the extrapolation of out-of-sample forecasts from past data dangerous, in particular in a context with high uncertainty.

10.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819905

ABSTRACT

The impact of strengthening preventive measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the prevalence of respiratory viruses in children was examined. After the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the rate of multiple virus detection among hospitalized children decreased. Immediately after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses were rarely detected and subsequently reemerged. Human metapneumovirus and influenza virus were not consistently detected. Non-enveloped viruses (bocavirus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus) were detected to some extent even after the pandemic. Epidemic-suppressed infectious diseases may reemerge as susceptibility accumulates in the population and should continue to be monitored.

11.
Water Research ; : 118541, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819628

ABSTRACT

Monitoring wastewater for the traces of viruses allows effective surveillance of entire communities, including symptomatic and asymptomatic infected individuals, providing information on whether a specific pathogen is circulating in a population. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, 261 wastewater samples from six communities of the province of Córdoba, Argentina were analyzed. From mid-May 2020 to the end of August 2021, raw sewage samples were collected from the central network pipe that enters into the Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) in Córdoba city and five communities in the Punilla Valley. SARS-CoV-2 was concentrated by using the polyethylene glycol-6000 precipitation method. Viral genomes were extracted from concentrated samples, and N- and E-SARS-CoV-2 genes were detected by using real time RT-PCR. Wastewater samples that resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 genome detection were subjected to viral variants of concern (VOCs) identification by real time RT-PCR. Overall, just by using the identification of the N gene or E gene, the rates of viral genome detection were 43.4% (86/198) and 51.5% (102/198) respectively, and by using both methodologies (positivity criterion: detection of N and / or E gene), the detection rate was 71.2% (141/198). Thereby, the optimal strategy to study the SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater would be the use of the combined detection of both genes. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater reflected their circulation in the community, showing no VOCs detection in the first COVID-19 wave and their co-circulation with Gamma, Alpha and Delta VOCs during 2021. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Based Epidemiology (WBE) described the introduction, permanence and/or the co-circulation of viral variants in the community. In geographical areas with a stable population, SARS-CoV-2 WBE could be used as an early warning sign of new COVID-19 cases, whereas in localities with a low number of inhabitants and high tourist influx, WBE may only be useful to reflect the circulation of the virus in the community. Overall, the monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater can become a silent sentinel of the trend of viral circulation in the community, providing supplementary information for clinical surveillance to support public health measures.

12.
Water Research ; : 118535, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819627

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) has been widely used as a public health tool to monitor the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Coincident with the global vaccination efforts, the world is also enduring new waves of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Reinfections and vaccine breakthroughs suggest an endemic future where SARS-CoV-2 continues to persist in the general population. In this treatise, we aim to explore the future roles of wastewater surveillance. Practically, WBS serves as a relatively affordable and non-invasive tool for mass surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection while minimizing privacy concerns, attributes that make it extremely suited for its long-term usage. In an endemic future, the utility of WBS will include 1) monitoring the trend of viral loads of targets in wastewater for quantitative estimate of changes in disease incidence;2) sampling upstream for pinpointing infections in neighborhoods and at the building level;3) integrating wastewater and clinical surveillance for cost-efficient population surveillance;and 4) genome sequencing wastewater samples to track circulating and emerging variants in the population. We further discuss the challenges and future developments of WBS to reduce inconsistencies in wastewater data worldwide, improve its epidemiological inference, and advance viral tracking and discovery as a preparation for the next viral pandemic.

13.
The Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819536

ABSTRACT

Background : During the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, there were substantial changes in United States (U.S.) emergency department (ED) volumes and acuity of patient presentation compared to more recent years. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence of specific lower extremity (LE) injuries presenting to U.S. EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze trends across age groups and rates of hospital admission compared to years prior. Methods : The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried to identify patients who presented to U.S. EDs for a LE orthopaedic injury between 2016 and 2020. Results : These queries returned 252,656 cases, representing a total estimate of 9,740,514 injuries presenting to EDs across the U.S. The mean incidence of LE orthopaedic injuries was 596.8 injuries per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 594.9 – 598.7), with the greatest annual decrease in incidence occurring between 2019 and 2020 (24.96%). The largest number of estimated hospital admissions occurred in 2020, with a total 181,671 admissions (95% CI, 178,032 – 185,311), a 25.74% increase from the average number of admissions between 2016 and 2019. Conclusion : The COVID-19 pandemic has placed immense stress on both emergency medical services and hospital systems around the United States. While there were decreased rates of emergency department utilization for LE orthopaedic complaints during the first year of the pandemic, there was a concomitant increase in both the number and proportion of these injuries admitted to the hospital from the emergency department. This places an additional burden on already stressed emergency medicine services and overall hospital systems that could slow down the management of medical emergencies.

14.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; : 103001, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819504

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the unprecedented death tolls resulting from epidemics and natural disasters made everyone interested, from the general public to country heads, to know about the mortality rates. The coronavirus issue is the most recent example all over the media, and everyone is talking about corona-induced mortality. The study aimed to estimate the disaster-induced mortality rates at the global level for two hundred and ten countries for fifteen years (2001–2015). Using a retrospective study design, we extracted datasets from two data sources, EM-DAT and UNFPA, in October 2019. The cut-off time for the data download was midnight Central European Time, October 17, 2019. The most noticeably finding in this study is that, against the common prevailing notion, both developed and developing countries equally carry the brunt of disaster-induced mortality. This study proposes empirical confirmation of the direction and magnitude of any year-over-year correlation of disaster and mortality rates. Furthermore, the analysis of the trend in mortality rate over the past fifteen years concludes that the mortality rate is not linear. However, there are huge variations across the years and the countries. The study is of paramount importance to initiate a debate amongst the concerned policymakers and stakeholders to monitor the disaster-induced mortality rates regularly. So that effective interventions can be devised to decrease the disaster-induced mortality rate.

15.
Investigacion Clinica ; 62(Suplemento 2):43-57, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818975

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the coronavirus disease COVID-19 began in China. Since then, millions of infections and deaths from this cause have been reported worldwide, particularly among health workers who have suffered the harsh onslaught of the pandemic in the context of healthcare systems collapsed by demand. In this sense, the objective of this work was to determine the prevalence, sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 present in health workers of the "Instituto Aut..nomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes" in M..rida-Venezuela. An observational, retrospective, single-center, documentary study was carried out, where 297 clinical-epidemiological records corresponding to 285 health workers were analyzed, in a period between March 16 and November 30, 2020. The records were separated into two groups, front-line workers and support workers. The overall positivity of the RT-PCRs performed was 31.6%. The frequency of positive confirmatory results was highest among support workers at 33.9%. Nursing staff had the highest positivity (39.5%). A seroprevalence of 34.3% was found in immunological tests. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among health care workers was higher among support workers compared to front-line workers. Therefore, general and work-specific prevention strategies should be strengthened to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among staff to ensure that they perform safely and effectively.

16.
Journal of Isfahan Medical School ; 39(655), 2022.
Article in Persian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818971

ABSTRACT

Background: At the time of disease outbreaks, hospital staff's mental health may be affected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the level of health anxiety of employees in the corona referral hospital and non-referral hospital of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

17.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 15(2 Supplementary):31-37, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818937

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS COV-2 is the cause of the current outbreak of COVID-19. The infection of SARS COV-2 causes changes in the gutlung axis and the intestinal microbiota pro-inflammatory cytokines interaction which leads to the injury of the gastrointestinal tract. One of the symptoms of COVID-19 outside the respiratory system is a complaint in the GIT. Materials and Methods: We present a COVID-19 case report that begins with a complaint of abdominal pain.

18.
Journal of Community Health Research ; 11(1):36-44, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818882

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Yazd province is the center of Iran and the highway for travelers to other cities. This province is susceptible to disease transmission in Iran. This study aimed to spatial analysis of corona virus prevalence, predicting the spread and determination of hot spot areas in Yazd province, central part of Iran.

19.
IDB Working Paper Series - Inter-American Development Bank|2021. (IDB-WP-1270):39 pp. 42 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818858

ABSTRACT

In cities around the world, Covid-19 lockdowns have improved outdoor air quality, in some cases dramatically. Even if only temporary, these improvements could have longer-lasting effects on policy by making chronic air pollution more salient and boosting political pressure for change. To that end, it is important to develop objective estimates of both the air quality improvements associated with Covid-19 lockdowns and the benefits these improvements generate. We use panel data econometric models to estimate the effect of Bogot..s lockdown on fine particulate pollution, epidemiological models to simulate the effect of reductions in that pollution on long-term and short-term mortality, and benefit transfer methods to estimate the monetary value of the avoided mortality. We find that in its first year of implementation, on average, Bogot..s lockdown cut fine particulate pollution by more than one-fifth. However, the magnitude of that effect varied considerably over the course of the year and across the citys neighborhoods. Equivalent permanent reductions in fine particulate pollution would reduce long-term premature deaths by more than one-quarter each year, a benefit valued at $670 million per year. Finally, we estimate that in 2020-2021, the lockdown reduced short-term deaths by 31 percent, a benefit valued at $180 million.

20.
Biomedica ; 42(1):85-101, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818652

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Public health risk management in Colombia is led by the Instituto Nacional de Salud. In the face of the COVID-19 emergency, response actions centered on the implementation of risk analysis rooms and the strengthening of surveillance at points of entry into the country. Objective: To analyze the implementation and maintenance phases of the COVID-19 risk analysis rooms in four border departments of Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a qualitative study of public health risk analysis rooms for COVID-19. We reviewed the documentation and data generated from March to June, 2020, in the departments of Amazonas, Vichada, Guainia, and Putumayo. We did semi-structured interviews with key actors and analyzed the answers using the NVivo plus version 11 application in three cycles: open coding, identification of emerging categories, and modeling by analyzing the identified strengths and weaknesses. Results: We identified the components of the incident command structure and the relationships between the public health areas. Strengths were evidenced in the integration of the areas: the management of information in real time, the border surveillance and the capabilities of rapid response teams, while weaknesses appeared in planning, community surveillance, and risk communication processes. Conclusions: Risk analysis rooms constitute a joint effort at the national and local levels which has promoted the articulated participation of all actors in the analysis of information and the optimization of an organized response during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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