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1.
International Journal of Nursing Studies ; JOUR: 104389,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105099

ABSTRACT

Background The devastating effects of COVID-19 sparked debates among professionals in the fields of health, law, and bioethics regarding policies on mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers. Suboptimal vaccine uptake among healthcare workers had been implicated in the increased risk of nosocomial spread of COVID infection, absenteeism among healthcare workers, impacting the quality of patient care. However, mandatory vaccine policies were also seen to encroach on the autonomy of healthcare workers. Aims and objectives To synthesise the arguments for and against mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) and its long-term impact on the healthcare workforce, through an analysis of texts and opinions of professionals from different fields of study. Methods This is a systematic review of opinions published in peer-reviewed journals. After initial search in Cochrane and JBI systematic review databases to ensure no previous review had been done, five databases were searched (PsychInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline and Scopus). Inclusion criteria were: 1) focused on COVID-19;2) healthcare workers specific;3) specific to mandatory vaccination;4) opinion piece with an identified author;5) in English. Exclusion: 1) focus on other vaccine preventable diseases, not COVID-19;2) discussion on mandatory vaccination not-specific to healthcare workers. The Joanna Briggs Critical Appraisal tool for Text and Opinions was used to assess quality. Data synthesised in summary table. Results The review included 28 opinion and viewpoint articles. Of these, 12 (43%) adopted a pro-mandatory vaccination stance, 13 (46%) were neutral or had presented arguments from both sides of the debate and only three (11%) were against. The overall arguments among those who were pro-, neutral and anti- mandatory COVID-19 vaccination were underpinned by ethical, moral and legal principles of such a mandate on a vulnerable healthcare workforce. This review highlighted the polarised opinions concerning choices, human rights, professional responsibilities and personal risks (i.e. health risks, losing a job) with the introduction of vaccination mandate. However, the articles found in this review discussed mandatory vaccination of healthcare workers in the USA, Europe and Australia only. Conclusion The review underscores the need to balance the rights of the public to safe and quality care with the rights and moral obligations of healthcare workers during a public health emergency. This can be achieved when policies and mandates are guided by reliable scientific evidence which are flexible in considering legal and ethical dilemmas. Tweetable To mandate or not to mandate COVID-19 vaccination for healthcare workers: A synthesis of published opinions in health, law, and bioethics.

2.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100698

ABSTRACT

Every country had to make several difficult decisions in the initial phase of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic to allocate resources for COVID testing. Decisions on who should be tested for COVID-19 testing are extremely vital for pandemic preparedness. In this article, we highlight the need for prioritization of testing resources including direct-to-consumer testing methods, ethical dilemmas involved in obligatory testing, and testing of refugees and immigrants.

3.
Philosophies ; JOUR(5), 7.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099720

ABSTRACT

Part of the rationale behind public health measures is protecting the vulnerable. One of the groups most vulnerable to COVID-19 are the elderly and, consequently, many countries adopted public health measures that aimed to keep the elderly safe. The effectiveness and the consequences of those measures, however, leaves a lot to be desired. In my article, I will look at the steps that the Nordic countries took to protect their elderly and assess their success. I will further analyze those in the light of standard ethical theories. Public health crises often call for choices between two evils. Selecting patients for intensive care is one such choice, and again, it seems that for the elderly, the outcome was less than favorable. Overall, from the point of view of ethics, many countries failed miserably when it came to the treatment of the elderly. I will end my paper by discussing the lessons we can learn from the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests measures we need to take to offer genuine respect for the rights of the elderly.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 901788, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099163

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 health emergency, telemedicine was an essential asset through which health systems strengthened their response during the critical phase of the pandemic. According to the post-pandemic economic reform plans of many countries, telemedicine will not be limited to a tool for responding to an emergency condition but it will become a structural resource that will contribute to the reorganization of Healthcare Systems and enable the transfer of part of health care from the hospital to the home-based care. However, scientific evidences have shown that health care delivered through telemedicine can be burdened by numerous ethical and legal issues. Although there is an emerging discussion on patient safety issues related to the use of telemedicine, there is a lack of reseraches specifically designed to investigate patient safety. On the contrary, it would be necessary to determine standards and specific application rules in order to ensure safety. This paper examines the telemedicine-risk profiles and proposes a position statement for clinical risk management to support continuous improvement in the safety of health care delivered through telemedicine.

5.
BMC Nurs ; 21(1): 293, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increased demand for nurses worldwide, discussion of nurses' duty to care is lacking. This study aimed to examine nurses' duty to care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify the influencing factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive research study that used a structured online questionnaire. Registered Korean nurses answered a demographic questionnaire and the Nash Duty to Care Scale. RESULTS: Age and employment at tertiary hospitals increased nurses' duty to care. Male sex, a highly educated status, and employment at tertiary hospitals increased the perceived risk. Male sex and employment at tertiary or general hospitals increased confidence in the employer, while a high level of education and a longer total clinical career decreased the same. Age and a higher monthly wage increased perceived obligation. Age, lack of religious beliefs, and clinical experience of 3-7 years increased professional preparedness. CONCLUSION: Without enough nursing manpower, the disaster response system could prove to be inefficient. Considering that adequate nurse staffing is essential in disaster management, it is crucial to ensure that nurses have a will to provide care in the case of disaster. In the future, a more active discussion on nurses' duty to care and additional research on factors that may hinder and facilitate the same are needed.

6.
Journal of Marketing Management ; JOUR(11-12):1043-1071, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2096967
7.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 62: 102684, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite being the most prevalent physical therapy practice setting in the United States, no literature to date has examined the professional and ethical issues faced by outpatient physical therapists during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore professional and ethical issues experienced by outpatient physical therapists in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: An explorative semi-structured interview study using reflexive thematic analysis METHODS: Virtual semi-structured interviews explored physical therapists' experiences during COVID-19 in the OP setting. Data was analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis as described by Braun and Clarke. RESULTS: Respondents worked predominantly with patients with orthopaedic impairments. Six primary themes and associated subthemes were identified: 1) Disruption of routine professional and personal life. 2) Negative impacts on health and wellbeing (physical, mental, and social). 3) Barriers to relationships, communication, and providing quality care. 4) Telehealth as a safe option to increase access with opportunities and challenges. 5) Discomfort practicing in an environment of misinformation, mistrust, and divisiveness. 6) New & pre-existing ethical issues in the COVID-19 context. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate that physical therapists in the outpatient setting wrestled with critical questions regarding outpatient physical therapy practice during the COVID-19 pandemic: the role of touch in professional identity, challenges to the therapeutic alliance, effect of productivity and fiscal expectations and whether outpatient physical therapy is essential during public emergencies.

8.
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services ; JOUR:103171, 70.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083075

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown pushed people to buy more online. With the increase in online shopping, there was also an increase in ethical issues with electronic retailers resulting from problems with products, misleading price practices, lack of customers’ personal and financial data protection, non-delivery of goods, and misleading advertising. This study aimed to determine whether consumers’ perceptions of e-retailers’ ethics influence online customer experience and satisfaction when purchasing products and services. A research model was developed based on the literature on ethics in e-commerce. To fulfill the objective, a research model on consumer perceptions of ethics in online retailing was tested based on answers of 501 Brazilian online shoppers. Data were gathered through an online questionnaire and analyzed using structural equation modeling with an estimation of minimum least squares. The results indicated significant relations between the e-retailer’s ethics, the online experience, and customer satisfaction with the mediation of ethical beliefs, suggesting that the e-retailer’s ethics can potentially stimulate a good online consumer experience and satisfaction when purchasing on the internet and may contribute to the relationship between the consumer and the e-retailer. Furthermore, ethical beliefs can mediate these relations, collaborating with the effect of e-retailers’ ethics on the consumer’s experience and satisfaction. These results represent an advance in the study of new ethical dimensions in electronic retail, which currently are reduced to security and privacy issues. In practice, this study resulted in new knowledge about ethical practices that can guide electronic retailers in the adoption of new customer prospecting strategies. It also highlights the importance of improving regulations that prevent certain behaviors from happening.

9.
Sages-Femmes ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082436

ABSTRACT

L’arrivée brutale de la pandémie de Covid-19 a ébranlé notre système de santé et menacé notre capacité à être bientraitants. La mise en place d’une relation de soins nécessite du temps et une recherche de sens. En périnatalité, la situation a exposé les familles à un stress provoqué par l’isolement, tant dans la relation de soins que vis-à-vis des proches. Ces répercussions ont fait l’objet d’études dont les résultats interrogent la responsabilité des professionnels de santé. Une réflexion globale et le développement d’un dialogue interorganisationnel semblent indispensables pour protéger les femmes enceintes et leurs nouveau-nés en temps de crise. Caring in times of health crisis The sudden arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic has shaken our health care system, threatening our ability to be caring. Establishing a caring relationship requires time and a search for meaning. In the perinatal setting, the situation has exposed families to stress caused by isolation, both in the care relationship and from relatives. These repercussions have been the subject of studies whose results question the responsibility of health professionals. A global reflection and the development of an inter-organizational dialogue seem indispensable to limit the consequences of the health crisis on pregnant women and their newborns.

10.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082601
11.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 87, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080770

ABSTRACT

Lack of transparency in vaccine pricing practices is a problem that has been under discussion for a long time. To tackle this, the World Health Assembly adopted the resolution Improving the transparency of markets for medicines, vaccines, and other health products in 2019. However, despite the appalling effects of the current pandemic and the unequal global distribution of vaccines, the 2019 resolution has not been included as a fundamental pillar in the global health response to COVID-19. Governments and public health agencies have provided public funding to pharmaceutical companies for research and development of new vaccines. Yet, information on pricing strategies and methodologies is still inaccessible. Furthermore, these companies are profiting from publicly funded research and development. But secrecy and opacity prevails in the pharmaceutical industry, affecting low and middle income countries. Situating the demand for transparency, accountability and fair pricing of pharmaceutical products as a global health justice issue, I suggest an independent global observatory for accountability and transparency in the pharmaceutical global market should be created to help international organizations, governments and civil society in their quest for affordable and safe vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Costs and Cost Analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations
12.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(5&6): 461-471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080641

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic had a distinct impact on scientific research and Ethics Committees (ECs). We conducted a mixed-methods investigation to understand the issues faced and solutions identified by ECs during this pandemic in India. Methods: A quantitative online survey form (30 members) and qualitative in-depth interviews (10 members) from various ECs were conducted. Thematic content analysis for qualitative and proportion analysis for quantitative data was carried out. Results: During the online survey, an average difficulty score, which was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale, was 5.3 (SD 2.1). Pressure for expedited approvals was felt by EC members with a drastic increase in the number of submission of research projects. The scarcity of information on investigational products (IPs) and requisite consent process posed major hurdles. Ongoing non-COVID studies and post-graduate dissertations were badly hit due to the shift in attention towards COVID-related research. Non-familiarity with virtual technology and lack of face-to-face interactions were highlighted as demerits. However, a few of the EC members welcomed newer methods, being time-saving, convenient and reducing travel hassles. Site monitoring and severe adverse event-related analyses were also negatively impacted upon. Solutions included the alternate methods of consenting (virtual, abbreviated), a detailed explanation of the protocol and IPs and benefits versus risk assessment. Interpretation & conclusions: Despite various challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the ECs in India steered well through the hurdles. Moreover, adapting a hybrid mode, technical training and updating guidelines were perceived as urgent by EC members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ethics Committees, Research , Committee Membership , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Resusc Plus ; 12: 100322, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076681

ABSTRACT

Aim: Describe community consultation and surrogate consent rates for two Exception From Informed Consent (EFIC) trials for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) - before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The PEARL study (2016-2018) randomized OOHCA patients without ST-elevation to early cardiac catheterization or not. Community consultation included flyers, radio announcements, newspaper advertisements, mailings, and in-person surveys at basketball games and ED waiting rooms. The PROTECT trial (2021-present) randomizes OOHCA survivors to prophylactic ceftriaxone or placebo; the community consultation plan during the pandemic included city council presentations, social media posts, outpatient flyers, but no in-person encounters. Demographics for PROTECT community consultation were compared to PEARL and INTCAR registry data, with p-value < 0.05 considered significant. Results: PEARL surveyed 1,362 adults, including 64 % ≥60 years old, 96 % high school graduates or beyond; research acceptance rate was 92 % for the community and 76 % for personal level. PROTECT initially obtained 221 surveys from electronic media - including fewer males (28 % vs 72 %,p < 0.001) and those > 60 years old (14 % vs 53 %;p < 0.001) compared to INTCAR. These differences prompted a revised community consultation plan, targeting 79 adult in-patients with cardiac disease which better matched PEARL and INTCAR data: the majority were ≥ 60 years old (66 %) and male (54 %). Both PEARL and PROTECT enrolled more patients using surrogate consent vs EFIC (57 %, 61 %), including 71 % as remote electronic consents during PROTECT. Conclusions: Community consultation for EFIC studies changed with the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in different demographic patterns. We describe effective adaptations to community consultation and surrogate consent during the pandemic.

14.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 12-13, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074981

ABSTRACT

In a field that strives to care for patients and families together, what can palliative care clinicians do when patients' families are physically absent? The Covid-19 pandemic has put both literal and figurative walls between health care professionals and families. How health care workers respond to these disconnections might have a lasting impact on patients, on families, and on our practice. Recently, I saw this in the case of a patient our palliative care team was consulted to see. Mr. B was minimally responsive and dying from multisystem organ failure of unclear etiology. As in other cases during this pandemic, our team became a facilitator of interaction between the patient and the physically absent family, seeing an intimacy we normally would not, in this case, by being present while our intern held the phone to Mr. B's ear for an end-of-life call from his wife, son, and daughter. Such moments force us clinicians to be even more present for our families and patients, and they allow us to bear witness to the strength and sadness and love that we might otherwise miss.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family/psychology , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Palliative Care/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Ethics Consultation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(2): 2, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074979

ABSTRACT

In early March 2020, the March-April Hastings Center Report was very nearly assembled and contained nothing about Covid-19, which was still just beginning to make itself publicly known in the United States. Two weeks later, the editorial line-up was undergoing a remix, and essays that lay out sweeping agendas for the response to the worldwide crisis were in preparation. The central theme in the agenda that Lawrence O. Gostin and colleagues develop is that the pandemic requires a sharp break from usual ethical norms yet simultaneously demands a return to core ethical commitments. A similar theme is sounded by Mildred Z. Solomon and colleagues in a commentary calling for federal actions to keep the health care system functioning. Other essays in the issue take up an assortment of topical issues-including international patient dumping-that were simmering along prior to the pandemic, and the two articles take up foundational questions about the nature of moral reasoning.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
Brain Spine ; 2: 100925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075948

ABSTRACT

•Pandemic conditions imposed withholding or withdrawing neurosurgical treatment.•Variation exist in the management of intracranial haemorrhage or TBI during a pandemic.•Triaging guidelines for neurosurgical patients need to be established.

17.
Avicenna ; 2022(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072084

ABSTRACT

The pandemic situation generated by the novel coronavirus virus (COVID-19) created several moral and economic dilemmas. While trying to save many local and world economies, entrepreneurs, leaders, and policymakers faced the challenges of managing the resultant economic and financial disruptions and risks coupled with the moral obligation to observe business ethics. This research is based on a documental collection, revision, and analysis of relevant and emerging literature to catch the best practices and experiences adopted by various governments and businesses, especially in western countries, to protect the jobs and employment rights of workers. Among other things, this study urges social policymakers to adopt innovative mechanisms and programs to not only protect the rights of employees but also help maintain jobs during pandemic situations and economic crises The research suggests that adhering to business ethics will enhance the use of technology and boost the sense of innovation and creativity of both employees and their organizations. The importance of the collaboration between public Administrators, policymakers, entrepreneurs, and employees to maintain the fundamentals of business ethics and protect employees' rights is adjudged to be critical to a speedy recovery from the losses and disruptions caused by the pandemic.

18.
Open Philosophy ; 5(1):636-649, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070805

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 unemployed millions of Americans, many of whom already lacked the financial ability to withstand an economic crisis. Mid-quarantine, politicians began to grapple on what protections for renters would stay in place as the assistance bills came to an end. The COVID-19 rent crisis raised significant moral questions to the American populace - namely, that of the State's responsibility to care for its citizens. This article examines rent strikes in the context of care ethics. Care ethics contends that our actions have moral weight. What we do matters. Rent strikes sit at the intersection of political practice and care ethics. This article contends that rent strikes provided care when the State did not, and that this lack of care highlights the need for solidarity.

19.
CORONAVIRUS POLITICS: The Comparative Politics and Policy of COVID-19 ; : 541-559, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067975
20.
2021 World Engineering Education Forum/Global Engineering Deans Council (Weef/Gedc) ; : 369-374, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067910

ABSTRACT

We present an exploratory study that aims to diagnose the Engineering in Computational Technologies students' level of awareness with respect to the impact of the accelerated use of technology and the exponential growth that private socio-digital platforms have in everyday life because of the COVID-19 confinement. We research possible deterministic postures in the students' positions that could impede their ethical analysis of the social and environmental effects of the advance of data capitalism, among which racialization, algorithmic sexualization, and discrimination, as well as the erosion of the Commons on the Internet, stand out. The theoretical approach comes from a decolonial ethical framework, and the methodology of this study is qualitative. It consists of, in the first phase of the implementation, two focus groups with engineering students between the ages of 19 and 22 from different semesters and genders. In a second phase, we include eight in-depth interviews with professors from the School of Engineering and the School of Humanities who teach disciplinary and general education subjects in two campuses of a private university in Mexico.

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