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1.
Siberian Historical Research-Sibirskie Istoricheskie Issledovaniya ; JOUR(2): 121-131,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100555

ABSTRACT

The authors approach COVID-19 as a perfect stress test for revealing integration connectivity within the European Union. The current crisis has challenged the resilience of regional integration, and reveals the economic connectivity within the integration blocks and their consolidating power. The goal of the research paper is to analyze the collective behaviour of the integrating countries during the external epidemiological crisis and their capability to respond to the manifestations of the crisis as 'an organic whole'. The authors develop the existing academic discourse on the defacto effects of integration and the relationship between the national and collective interests of the integrating countries, which has become the subject of fierce controversy during the pandemic. The research is based on the original concept of the stability of regional integration during the period of external crises associations proposed by the authors. To achieve the research goal of determining the degree of spatial correlation, the authors calculated Moran's Spatial Autocorrelation Index and the multi-factor Geary's Index. The spatial and econometric analysis of the EU countries in times of COVID-19 made the authors conclude that the initial EU's response to the pandemic reflected nationalist self-help strategies rather than joint European approach during the earlier stages of the pandemic. Nevertheless, the EU demonstrated relatively strong intraregional trade resistance and ability to mitigate the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099066

ABSTRACT

We report results from serologic surveillance for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among 1,237 wild rodents and small mammals across Europe. All samples were negative, with the possible exception of 1. Despite suspected potential for human-to-rodent spillover, no evidence of widespread SARS-CoV-2 circulation in rodent populations has been reported to date.Esitämme tulokset serologisesta tutkimuksesta, jossa seulottiin SARS-CoV-2 tartuntojen varalta 1,237 luonnonvaraista jyrsijää ja piennisäkästä eri puolilta Eurooppaa. Kaikki näytteet olivat negatiivisia, yhtä näytettä lukuun ottamatta. SARS-CoV-2:n läikkymisen ihmisistä jyrsijöihin on arveltu olevan mahdollista, mutta todisteet viruksen laajamittaisesta leviämisestä jyrsijäpopulaatioissa puuttuvat.

3.
Euro Surveill ; 27(42)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089697

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCountries worldwide are focusing to mitigate the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic by employing public health measures. Laboratories have a key role in the control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Serology for SARS-CoV-2 is of critical importance to support diagnosis, define the epidemiological framework and evaluate immune responses to natural infection and vaccine administration.AimThe aim of this study was the assessment of the actual capability among laboratories involved in sero-epidemiological studies on COVID-19 in EU/EEA and EU enlargement countries to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies through an external quality assessment (EQA) based on proficiency testing.MethodsThe EQA panels were composed of eight different, pooled human serum samples (all collected in 2020 before the vaccine roll-out), addressing sensitivity and specificity of detection. The panels and two EU human SARS-CoV-2 serological standards were sent to 56 laboratories in 30 countries.ResultsThe overall performance of laboratories within this EQA indicated a robust ability to establish past SARS-CoV-2 infections via detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, with 53 of 55 laboratories using at least one test that characterised all EQA samples correctly. IgM-specific test methods provided most incorrect sample characterisations (24/208), while test methods detecting total immunoglobulin (0/119) and neutralising antibodies (2/230) performed the best. The semiquantitative assays used by the EQA participants also showed a robust performance in relation to the standards.ConclusionOur EQA showed a high capability across European reference laboratories for reliable diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. Serological tests that provide robust and reliable detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Laboratories , Antibodies, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Neutralizing
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115492, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086740

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential unintended consequences on mental health, at least for at-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: We present novel evidence on the heterogeneous direct and indirect effects of lockdown-stringency measures on individuals' perception of social isolation (i.e. loneliness) using panel data from five European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Sweden), which tracks changes in both in-person and remote social interactions between May 2020 and March 2021. METHOD: We combine data from the COME-HERE panel survey (University of Luxembourg) and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). We implement a dynamic mixture model in order to estimate the loneliness sub-population classes based on the severity of loneliness, as well as the evolution of social interactions. RESULTS: While loneliness is remarkably persistent over time, we find substantial heterogeneity across individuals, identifying four latent groups by loneliness severity. Group membership probability varies with age, gender, education and cohabitation status. Moreover, we note significant differences in the impact of social interactions on loneliness by degree of severity. Older people are less likely to feel lonely, but were more affected by lockdown measures, partly due to a reduction in face-to-face interactions. On the contrary, the younger, especially those living alone, report high levels of loneliness that are largely unaffected by changes in the pandemic after lockdown measures were initially implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the heterogeneity in loneliness is key for the identification of at-risk populations that can be severely affected by extended lockdown measures. As part of public-health crisis-response systems, it is critical to develop support measures for older individuals living alone, as well as promoting continuous remote communication for individuals more likely to experience high levels of loneliness.

5.
Build Environ ; : 109696, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085981

ABSTRACT

The airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19 disease, has been recognized as an essential route of contagion, so adequate ventilation is vital indoors. For this reason, the research goal focuses on carrying out the study and evolutionary and comparison analysis of the regulation of ventilation rates in dwellings in Europe (2010-2022) and on determining whether modifications are necessary for the said regulation based on the recommendations of competent international organizations. To do this, the methodology followed initially starts from the study carried out in 2010 by Christine Dimitroulopoulou, in which the existing regulation in various European countries regarding ventilation in dwellings was studied. Once this study has been analysed, it continues to update and compare the regulation of the different European countries cited in the said work, detecting during the process if a modification is necessary based on the recommendations indicated by international organizations such as the WHO or ECDC. The results and conclusions indicate that few countries have significantly changed their ventilation rates. Although the existing ones may be admissible, requiring controlled ventilation in the different regulations would be convenient.

6.
Non-conventional in French | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754742

ABSTRACT

Le rapport propose un aperçu des principales activités menées par le Bureau régional de l’OMS pour l’Europe (OMS/Europe) depuis septembre 2021. Au cours de l’année écoulée, l’action de l’OMS/Europe a été guidée par le Programme de travail européen 2020-2025 – « Une unité d’action pour une meilleure santé » et par ses deux principaux objectifs (la détermination à ne laisser personne de côté et le renforcement du rôle moteur des autorités de santé dans la Région européenne de l’OMS), ses trois priorités fondamentales et ses quatre initiatives phares, ainsi que par les cibles du Treizième Programme général de travail 2019-2023 et les objectifs de développement durable.

7.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754729

ABSTRACT

This is the eighth report for the 2021-2022 influenza season. The June 2022 characterization report, gave a breakdown of influenza detections across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region reported to TESSy up to week 25/2022. As of week 30/2022, 145 913 detections had been reported (a rise of nearly 13 000 since week 20/2022) resulting from extended late season influenza activity. Of these 145 913 detections, 98% were type A viruses, with A(H3N2) still dominating (84%) over A(H1N1)pdm09 (16%), but by a lower margin than in the June report (92%:8%), and 2% type B of which only 134 were ascribed to a lineage, with all but two being B/Victoria. This represents a large increase (144 903, 144-fold) in detections compared to the 2020-2021 season, on the back of a great increase (1 926 053, 176%) in the number of samples tested. However, while there have been clear indications of an influenza epidemic in 2021-2022 with the epidemic threshold of 10% positivity within sentinel specimens having been crossed for 17 weeks as of week 25/2022 (unlike in 2020-2021), numbers of detections are reduced compared to earlier seasons (e.g., 12% reduced compared to 2019-2020). The increased testing but reduced number of influenza detections is undoubtedly related to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and measures introduced to combat it.

8.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754728

ABSTRACT

This is the seventh report for the 2021-2022 influenza season. The May 2022 characterization report, gave a breakdown of influenza detections across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region reported to TESSy up to week 20/2022. As of week 25/2022, 138 352 detections had been reported (a rise of over 5 000 since week 20/2022) resulting from extended late season influenza activity. Of these 138 352 detections, 98% were type A viruses, with A(H3N2) (92%) dominating over A(H1N1)pdm09 (8%), and 2% type B of which only 125 were ascribed to a lineage, with all but two being B/Victoria. This represents a large increase (137 418, 148-fold ) in detections compared to the 2020-2021 season, on the back of a great increase (1 900 146, 200%) in the number of samples tested. However, while there have been clear indications of an influenza epidemic in 2021-2022 with the epidemic threshold of 10% positivity within sentinel specimens having been crossed for 17 weeks as of week 25/2022 (unlike in 2020-2021), numbers of detections are reduced compared to earlier seasons (e.g., 16% reduced compared to 2019-2020). The increased testing but reduced number of influenza detections is undoubtedly related to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and measures introduced to combat it.

9.
Revista Espanola De Sociologia ; JOUR(4), 31.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083162

ABSTRACT

A distinctive role of family care defines the southern European welfare models. Several studies have highlighted the functional overload for families with children under three years old, in which unpaid work is mainly provided by women (even when they work full time), in a context in which the public and private childcare provision is insufficient to meet families' needs. In Barcelona, the emergence of socially innovative projects has partially covered the demand for 0-3 childcare. These projects are based on communities of care made up of parents and educators. However, COVID-19 has severely impacted the participants in social innovations such as childminders, free-education nurseries, and community care groups. Educators working in these projects struggled to survive economically when the 2020 spring lockdown forced them to close, while the closures obliged mothers to juggle work with care. This article presents the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mothers and educators involved in socially innovative 0-3 childcare projects in Barcelona. The paper uses qualitative and quantitative empirical material gathered between May 2020 and June 2021: interviews with representatives of childcare associations, educators and mothers (before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Spain), and a survey with mothers with children under three (after the lockdown). The results of our investigation show that the communities behind the projects constituted a crucial resource. Parents and educators helped each other, sharing care and financial resources to keep the projects going and find new solutions to the work-family balance.

10.
Research in Transportation Economics ; JOUR: 101235,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082602

ABSTRACT

This study uses a large dataset to consider the network change of the three largest European Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) easyJet, Ryanair and Wizz Air during the pre-Covid-19 period and the Covid-19 pandemic period. Network changes are characterized in terms of airport pairs, city pairs, numbers of flights and network overlaps. The results show that European LCCs increasingly expanded their networks into markets that had already been served by incumbent LCCs, which indicates that LCCs increasingly compete head-to-head among themselves. Difference-in-differences regressions estimate that network overlaps among these LCCs lead to airfare reductions of approximately six Euros, ten percent.

11.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346256

ABSTRACT

Background: This study provides novel data on the COVID-19 seroprevalence dynamics between July to December 2020 in the adult urban population of Albania, when the Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 virus was still prevailing in this country. Methods: Data were collected June 27 - July 3 and December 21 - 28, 2020, using two independent randomly selected samples of individuals 20-70 years old residing in Metropolitan Tirana, Albania. Study participants were randomly selected from lists of residents in four primary health care centers in Tirana City. Serological testing was performed using ELISA to determine IgG antibodies anti-S1-SARS-CoV-2. Results: In early July, the proportion of individuals classified as seropositive was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.3% - 10.7%). This proportion rose 6.5 times by late December 2020, reaching 48.2% (95% CI: 44.8% - 51.7%). The increasing seroprevalence rates reported in our study mirror the trend of detected COVID 19 cases from June to December 2020 in Albania. However, they demonstrate a much higher cumulative incidence of the SARS-COV-2 infection in the community than the reported COVID-19 cases. Conclusion: The rapid increase in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence observed in Tirana City by the end of 2020 was likely a result of several factors, including the very low infection exposure between March-May 2020 when the entire city was in a lockdown, followed by the high susceptibility of the population due to naïve immunity. Despite high observed seroprevalence at the end of December 2020, COVID-19 incidence continued to increase in Albania through 2021 following the Alpha variant surge.

12.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-10, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077473

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Fighting pandemics requires an established infrastructure for pandemic preparedness, with existing, sustainable platforms ready to be activated. This includes platforms for disease surveillance, virus circulation, and vaccine performance monitoring based on Real-World data, to complement clinical trial evidence. AREAS COVERED: Because of its complexity, this can best be done by combining efforts between public and private sectors, developing a multi-stakeholder approach. Public-Private-Partnerships increasingly play a critical role in combating infectious diseases but are still looked at with hesitancy. The Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness (DRIVE) project, which established a platform for measuring brand-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe, exemplifies how to build a collaborative platform with transparent governance, state-of-the-art methodology, and a large network of participating sites. Lessons learned from DRIVE have been cardinal to set up COVIDRIVE, a platform for brand-specific COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness monitoring. EXPERT OPINION: The DRIVE partners propose that a debate on the benefits of Public-Private-Partnership-generated real-world evidence for vaccine effectiveness monitoring should be pursued to clarify roles and responsibilities, set up expectations, and decide the future environment for vaccine monitoring in Europe. In parallel, the driving factors behind PPP hesitancy should be studied.

13.
Informacios Tarsadalom ; 22(2):9-26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072406

ABSTRACT

Smart cities (SCs) became a key mission in the European Union's biggest research programme (Horizon Europe). The urban transition to smartness, making smart decisions and strengthening capabilities for resilience are appreciating today, with such external shocks as the COVID-19 pandemic. Finding the way to become smart is more important than ever. Since literature is mostly engaged with excellent cas-es, in this paper we analyse the SC strategy of a less-well-performing city: Budapest in Hungary, Central Eastern Europe, using a case-study methodology. We reveal that in the case of Budapest the SC strategy uses a top-down approach that over-weighs the deployment of technological solutions to manage urban sustainability issues rather than using a bottom-up and holistic approach. The framework condi-tions for implementing the SC strategy are rather neglected. In the case of the mod-el for cooperation, Budapest adopts a double-helix model rather than a triple-or quadruple-helix model.

14.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071079

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the motives behind the degrees of molecular pollution during the COVID-19 pandemic, which persisted from first walk 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020. A spatial Durbin file model is used linked to an edge backslide model in this article to find the widely inclusive and nearby consequences of present-day plan and urbanization on nonrenewable energy source by things. The outcomes are discussed next: both were available in modern-day plan and urbanization from a generally inclusive standpoint. The geological consequences of CO2 emissions were concentrated on utilizing information from 22 European countries somewhere in the range of 1990-2020, and all through the examination cycle, the Durbin spatial model was discovered. Although factors such as gross domestic product per capita, urbanization, and energy power impact CO2 emissions, exchange receptivity stays unaltered. The findings will fill in as critical repercussions for state-run administrations, wellbeing experts, and regulators in the war against the return of COVID-19 in Europe. The great number of suggestions were worthless since the concept integrated six money-connected creation assessments into a coordinated arrangement. There is information to indicate that CO2 emissions are associated with money-related events in neighboring nations.

15.
East European Politics ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070044

ABSTRACT

Is Covid-19 undermining European democracies? Recent scholarship overlooks the fact that most pandemic-related erosions of democracy can be attributed to illiberal inertia long in place before 2019. Did the democratic decay occur during the pandemic or due to the pandemic? We analyse the extent to which pandemic power grabs succeeded and failed in Europe with special attention to the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. The executive power of the purse was an opportunity to abuse state resources. Governments that engage in the "pandemic heist" with impunity can be directly linked to a power grab due to the pandemic.

16.
Psychiatry Research ; 317:114902, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069601

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the prevalence of probable depression and anxiety and their correlates during later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in eight European countries. Longitudinal data (wave 7 in June/July 2021: n=8,032;wave 8 in September 2021: n=8,250;wave 9 in December 2021/January 2022: n=8,319) were used from the European COvid Survey – a representative sample of community-dwelling adults from several European countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Denmark, Netherlands, France, Portugal, Italy and Spain). In wave 7 (wave 8;wave 9), 23.8% (22.0%;24.3%) of all respondents had probable depression and 22.6% (22.1%;23.7%) had probable anxiety. These prevalence rates substantially differed between the European countries. Regressions showed that emerging difficulties with the income were associated with both increases in depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. An increase in one's own perceived risk of getting infected with the SARS-CoV-2, the birth of a child and an increase in the Covid-19 stringency index were associated with increases in depressive symptoms. The significance of probable depression and anxiety during later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in eight European countries was highlighted. Avoiding income difficulties may also contribute to mental health.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071941

ABSTRACT

During 2021-2022 many countries in the European region of the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted mandatory and incentive-based vaccination measures to stimulate immunization against COVID-19. The measures ranged from positive incentive-based programs (i.e., cash incentives, meal discounts, and lotteries) to introducing COVID-19 certificates and enforcing the universal mandatory vaccination with fines. We assessed the effect of such interventions on COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the population of eight countries within the region. An interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) approach to account for autocorrelation and seasonality. The results showed the immediate positive impact of vaccination incentives on vaccine uptake in most cases, with the highest impact being cash incentives for the population (1197 per million population per day). Discount incentives did not show any significant impact. The introduction of COVID-19 certificates was associated with a significant immediate or gradual increase in daily administered vaccine doses in all the countries included in the study, up to 117,617 doses gained per million per month. The effect of mandatory vaccination for all or some groups of the population varied from a continuous decrease in daily administered doses (332 per million capita per day), no significant effect, or a delayed or temporary increase (1489 per million capita per day).

18.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115445, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069698

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the impact of confinement and economic support measures on the mental health of the older population (aged 50 and above) across twenty-five European countries and Israel. While studies evaluating the effect of confinement measures on mental health exist, they largely ignore the potentially offsetting effects of economic support measures. Moreover, previous findings on the effect of confinement measures are inconsistent, and many studies are based solely on cross-sectional designs. Using data from the Corona Survey wave (2020) of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we leverage the date of interview information to vary individual exposure to different policy contexts within countries. Overall, we do not find support for the negative effect of confinement measures on older adults' mental health. If anything, both confinement and support measures worked in tandem to soothe mental distress, resulting from the pandemic. The confinement effects, however, are contingent on age, potentially indicating that younger people are more likely to be negatively affected by lockdowns.

19.
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy ; : 107032, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069222

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the financial reporting quality of European banks by examining the occurrence of earnings management specifically income smoothing. Using a sample of listed European banks, we employ panel estimation to compare income smoothing in the pre-pandemic period (2019Q1-2019Q4) and the pandemic period (2020Q1-2021Q4). We find that earnings management has significantly increased during the pandemic years, evidencing how the quality of financial reporting is affected during the crisis period. Our findings further suggest that amid the crisis, governance quality limits the incidence of earnings management and emphasizes how the strength of country-level governance and institutional framework affects the quality of financial reporting. Further analysis shows that though banks are inclined to manage earnings during a crisis, nevertheless, the presence of high-quality audit is a limiting factor on the incidence of earnings management in the face of crisis. Our findings which are relevant to investors, market participants, and regulators among others make a significant contribution to the accounting literature and specifically complement the strand of literature on the discretionary use of loan loss provision for earnings management during crisis.

20.
Heart, Vessels and Transplantation ; 6(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067558

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV2 virus has infected over 545 million people and has claimed over 6 million lives globally by the end of June 2022. The global case fatality rate ranged from 5.5% in Mexico, 2.1-2.5% in South Africa, Brazil, Guatemala, Russia, 1.1-1.5% in the United States, Canada, India and Chile, 0.5-0.9% in Western European countries, 0.3% in Japan, 0.2% in Taiwan to 0.1% in Australia. Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular diseases was approximately 10%. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among COVID-19 non-survivors and COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit admission were approximately 20-30%. In a multicenter study of 8910 COVID-19 patients from 169 hospitals in Asia, Europe and North America, presence of pre-existing coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia was associated with increased mortality of 10.2%, 15.3% and 11.5% respectively, compared with 5-6% mortality in those without the above co-morbidities. The systemic inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 could lead to a wide spectrum of cardiovascular complications including acute cardiac injury, acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery dissection, acute myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, chronic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, cardiogenic shock, circulatory failure or even cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2022 Heart, Vessels and Transplantation. All right reserved.

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