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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(4): 230-234, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate possible emergence of resistance to disinfectants in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from patients with whooping cough in the Czech Republic in 2014 and 2015. METHODS: In an EN1500-based study, clean and dry fingertips of volunteers were always contaminated with one of the two clinical isolates of B. pertussis. Clinical isolates of B. pertussis were obtained from the National Reference Laboratory for Pertussis and Diphtheria, National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Prague, Czech Republic. Dry and contaminated fingertips were immersed in 10 ml medium and then rubbed with the fingers for 1 minute. After that, the hands were treated with isopropanol 60% v/v or tested products, and then the fingertips were rubbed again into 10 ml of pure medium for 1 minute. The suspensions obtained were immediately diluted and plated on charcoal medium. RESULTS: Ethanol-based product A and propanol-based product B showed bactericidal activity after 30 s of contact. The confidence interval limit for product A and B was 0.12 and 0.19, respectively. Quaternary ammonium compound-based product C was found to be ineffective after 30 s of contact. The confidence interval limit for product C was 0.62. CONCLUSION: Products A and B were assessed as effective against clinical isolates of B. pertussis in accordance with EN 1500. Quaternary ammonium compound-based product C did not comply with the requirements of EN 1500.

2.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719081

ABSTRACT

As sustainability has been a growing priority of the European Union (EU) in the last decade, especially since the establishment of the EU Green Deal, the medical technology sector - including the in vitro diagnostics (IVD) sector - must comply with European legislation in this field, like all other sectors. However, this sector faces particular challenges as the health and safety of human lives are at stake. Chemicals, in particular, can comprise a politically sensitive issue, as they can pose risks to the environment that need to be managed. At the same time, the same chemicals can be considered essential to safeguard continuity of diagnostic services to health systems, who rely on laboratory medicines for the treatment of patients. An important task for the EU Green Deal to succeed, from an IVD sector perspective, is therefore to find the right balance between serving patients on the one hand and protecting the planet on the other.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 320: 115719, 2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716699

ABSTRACT

The association between social capital and health is under continuous research. Based both on theoretical frameworks and previous empirical studies, the magnitude and sign of this association are ambiguous. Our main goal is to empirically investigate under which conditions is social capital relevant to obtain good or very good self-rated health, while acknowledging that different paths can lead to this outcome. The data used in this study come from the European Social Survey 2018 (47,423 observations for 29 European countries) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was adopted. Our results show that neither the presence of social capital (as measured in this study - 'Generalised trust' and/or 'Informal social connections'), nor its absence, is a necessary condition for good or very good self-rated health. While not being necessary, there are contexts where social capital is relevant for health and, whenever it is present, it positively contributes to good or very good self-rated health. However, our results further suggest that social capital alone is not sufficient to be healthy. The relevance of social capital is contingent on the presence, or absence, of other conditions. What works for some individuals does not work for others. And for any given individual, rarely there is only one way to be healthy. Additionally, our findings suggest that the impact of belonging to a minority ethnic group on health might be stronger than what has been hitherto recognised.

4.
Digit Soc ; 2(1): 5, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36713889

ABSTRACT

Anu Bradford has described the European Union's ability to externalise its norms and standards as the so-called Brussels effect. We apply the Brussels effect to select issues discussed via the EU-US Trade and Technology Council (TTC) and show that its capacity to project power stems not only from the EU's market size but also from its domestic decision-making structure. The political capital accumulated in the EU's consensus-based and inclusive deliberations functions as an effective instrument for motivating other states to adopt European regulations, as legislative acts resulting from European inter-institutional and multi-level policy-making hold high standards of legal certainty and signal European strategic goals and political commitments credibly. Knowing that European consensus is an important condition for externalisation, Brussels can facilitate consensus by calling for internal compromise in order to be able to take the European compromise to the international stage. Thus, the internal and external dimensions of the Brussels effect are mutually reinforcing. This twofold appearance demarcates it from the California effect and the Beijing effect.

5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716120

ABSTRACT

The EU In-Vitro Diagnostic Device Regulation (IVDR) aims for transparent risk-and purpose-based validation of diagnostic devices, traceability of results to uniquely identified devices, and post-market surveillance. The IVDR regulates design, manufacture and putting into use of devices, but not medical services using these devices. In the absence of suitable commercial devices, the laboratory can resort to laboratory-developed tests (LDT) for in-house use. Documentary obligations (IVDR Art 5.5), the performance and safety specifications of ANNEX I, and development and manufacture under an ISO 15189-equivalent quality system apply. LDTs serve specific clinical needs, often for low volume niche applications, or correspond to the translational phase of new tests and treatments, often extremely relevant for patient care. As some commercial tests may disappear with the IVDR roll-out, many will require urgent LDT replacement. The workload will also depend on which modifications to commercial tests turns them into an LDT, and on how national legislators and competent authorities (CA) will handle new competences and responsibilities. We discuss appropriate interpretation of ISO 15189 to cover IVDR requirements. Selected cases illustrate LDT implementation covering medical needs with commensurate management of risk emanating from intended use and/or design of devices. Unintended collateral damage of the IVDR comprises loss of non-profitable niche applications, increases of costs and wasted resources, and migration of innovative research to more cost-efficient environments. Taking into account local specifics, the legislative framework should reduce the burden on and associated opportunity costs for the health care system, by making diligent use of existing frameworks.

6.
Chembiochem ; 2023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36704975

ABSTRACT

Ground-breaking research in disease biology and continuous efforts in method development have uncovered a range of potential new drug targets. Increasingly, the drug discovery process is informed by technologies involving chemical probes as tools. Applications for chemical probes comprise target identification and assessment, as well as the qualification of small molecules as chemical starting points and drug candidates. Progress in probe chemistry has opened the way to novel assay formats and pharmaceutical compound classes. The European Federation of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology (EFMC) has launched the Chemical Biology Initiative to advance science in the field of medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, while representing all members of this extended scientific community. This review provides an overview of the many important developments in the field of chemical biology that have happened at the lively interface of academic and industrial research.

7.
Bioanalysis ; 14(22): 1407-1411, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705021

ABSTRACT

In this report, the European Bioanalysis Forum shares the proposals for harmonized implementation of the ICH M10 guideline on bioanalytical method validation and study sample analysis from the ICH M10 workshop. The focus of the discussions was to understand new, changed or still ambiguous regulatory expectations in the guideline, as identified in feedback from the pre-workshop surveys or during the workshop. The proposals from the workshop aim at stimulating and helping a harmonized implementation of the guideline, and using our community as a sounding board during and after implementation to highlight areas of misalignment and to create a platform for continued sharing with the regulatory authorities in an effort to contribute to industry and regulators developing similar interpretations on guideline expectations.


Subject(s)
Research Design , Research Report , Industry
8.
EFSA J ; 21(1): e07735, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698493

ABSTRACT

The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as 'High risk plants, plant products and other objects'. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by plants of Prunus persica and P. dulcis, as budwood/graftwood, rooted or grafted on rootstocks of either P. persica, P. dulcis, P. armeniaca, P. davidiana or their hybrids, imported from Türkiye, taking into account the available scientific information, including the technical information provided by Türkiye. All pests associated with the commodity were evaluated against specific criteria for their relevance for this opinion. Four quarantine pests (peach rosette mosaic virus, tomato ringspot virus, Anoplophora chinensis, Scirtothrips dorsalis) and 14 non-regulated pests (Hoplolaimus galeatus, Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Didesmococcus unifasciatus, Euzophera semifuneralis, Lepidosaphes malicola, Lepidosaphes pistaciae, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Malacosoma parallela, Nipaecoccus viridis, Phenacoccus solenopsis, Pochazia shantungensis, Russellaspis pustulans) that fulfilled all relevant criteria were selected for further evaluation. For these 18 pests, the risk mitigation measures proposed in the technical Dossier from Türkiye were evaluated taking into account the possible limiting factors. For the selected pests, an expert judgement is given on the likelihood of pest freedom taking into consideration the risk mitigation measures acting on the pest, including uncertainties associated with the assessment. The degree of pest freedom varies among the pests evaluated, with fungi from Botryosphaeriaceae family (L. pseudotheobromae, N. dimidiatum and N. novaehollandiae) being the pests most frequently expected on the imported plants. The Expert Knowledge Elicitation indicated with 95% certainty that between 9,813 and 10,000 bundles (consisting of 10 or 25 plants each) per 10,000 would be free from the above-mentioned fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family.

9.
World J Clin Oncol ; 14(1): 1-12, 2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36699626

ABSTRACT

Colonic stenting has had a significant positive impact on the management of obstructive left-sided colon cancer (OLCC) in terms of both palliative treatment and bridge-to-surgery (BTS). Notably, many studies have convincingly demonstrated the effectiveness of stenting as a BTS, resulting in improvements in short-term outcomes and quality of life, safety, and efficacy in subsequent curative surgery, and increased cost-effectiveness, whereas the safety of chemotherapy after stenting and the long-term outcomes of stenting as a BTS are controversial. Several studies have suggested an increased risk of perforation in patients receiving bevacizumab chemotherapy after colonic stenting. In addition, several pathological analyses have suggested a negative oncological impact of colonic stenting. In contrast, many recent studies have demonstrated that colonic stenting for OLCC does not negatively impact the safety of chemotherapy or long-term oncological outcomes. The updated version of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines released in 2020 included colonic stenting as a BTS for OLCC as a recommended treatment. It should be noted that the experience of endoscopists is involved in determining technical and clinical success rates and possibly oncological outcomes. This review discusses the positive and negative impacts of colonic stenting on OLCC treatment, particularly in terms of oncology.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e43174, 2023 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701180

ABSTRACT

Recently, we were deeply saddened by the findings of the coroner investigating the death of 14-year-old Molly Russell. Deeply saddened and angry but not surprised. This case should be seen as a sentinel event, given that this is the first time social media was directly implicated as a cause of death. We should use this opportunity to advance proposals for the regulations of the health effects of social media.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Social Media , Humans , Adolescent
11.
Age Ageing ; 52(1)2023 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) updated in 2018 the cut-off points for low grip strength to assess sarcopenia based on pooled data from 12 British studies. OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the EWGSOP2 cut-off points for low grip strength to those derived from a large German sample. METHODS: We assessed the grip strength distribution across age and derived low grip strength cut-off points for men and women (peak mean -2.5 × SD) based on 200,389 German National Cohort (NAKO) participants aged 19-75 years. In 1,012 Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA)-Age participants aged 65-93 years, we calculated the age-standardised prevalence of low grip strength and time-dependent sensitivity and specificity for all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Grip strength increased in the third and fourth decade of life and declined afterwards. Calculated cut-off points for low grip strength were 29 kg for men and 18 kg for women. In KORA-Age, the age-standardised prevalence of low grip strength was 1.5× higher for NAKO-derived (17.7%) compared to EWGSOP2 (11.7%) cut-off points. NAKO-derived cut-off points yielded a higher sensitivity and lower specificity for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Cut-off points for low grip strength from German population-based data were 2 kg higher than the EWGSOP2 cut-off points. Higher cut-off points increase the sensitivity, thereby suggesting an intervention for more patients at risk, while other individuals might receive additional diagnostics/treatment without the urgent need. Research on the effectiveness of intervention in patients with low grip strength defined by different cut-off points is needed.


Subject(s)
Sarcopenia , Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , Prevalence
13.
An. R. Acad. Nac. Farm. (Internet) ; 88(número extraordinario): 61-84, diciembre 2022.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-JHG-279

ABSTRACT

La dispensación es el acto llevado a cabo por un farmacéutico o bajo su supervisión, destinado a garantizar que los pacientes reciban los medicamentos en las dosis precisas según sus requerimientos individuales, durante el periodo de tiempo adecuado, con la información para su correcto uso, y de acuerdo con la normativa vigente. Con el fin de comprender este acto se ha analizado previamente el concepto de medicamento, los estudios que debe cursar un farmacéutico, y la regulación de los conceptos de ordenación farmacéutica, así como de las oficinas de farmacia en la Unión Europea, con el objetivo final, de comparar el acto de dispensación en cada uno de países de la Unión Europea.Para realizar dicha comparación, se ha traducido, analizado e interpretado cada una de las normas que afectan directamente al acto de dispensación de medicamentos en cada Estado miembro. Los aspectos que se han investigado son: la obligatoriedad de presencia de un farmacéutico en la oficina de farmacia; la venta de medicamentos en establecimientos distintos de las oficinas de farmacia; la capacidad de sustitución de aquellos medicamentos sujetos a prescripción médica por el farmacéutico; y, la regulación de la venta online de medicamentos sujetos a prescripción médica. Si bien es cierto que se ha concluido que la presencia del farmacéutico es obligatoria en el 99% de los países, no se ha encontrado una armonía total en la normativa del resto de parámetros objeto de comparación en el presente trabajo de investigación. (AU)


Dispensing is the act carried out by a pharmacist or under his supervision, aimed at ensuring that patients receive the medicines in the precise doses according to their individual requirements, for the appropriate period, with the information for their correct use, and in accordance with current regulations. To understand this act, the concept of medicine, the studies that a pharmacist must take, the regulation of the concepts of pharmaceutical management, as well as the pharmacy offices in the European Union have been previously analyzed. Finally, compare the act of dispensing in each of the countries of the European Union.To make that comparison, each of the rules directly affecting the act of dispensing medicinal products in each Member State has been translated, analysed and interpreted. The aspects that have been investigated have been: the obligatory presence of a pharmacist in the pharmacy office; the sale of medicinal products in establishments other than pharmacies; the ability to replace those medicinal products subject to medical prescription by the pharmacist; and, the regulation of the online sale of medicines subject to medical prescription. Although it is true that it has been concluded that the presence of the pharmacist is mandatory in 99% of the countries, no total harmony has been found in the regulations of the rest of the parameters subject to comparison in this research work. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Products Commerce , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacy , Prescriptions , European Union
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 39(6): 1417-1426, nov.-dic. 2022. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-486

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es resumir de manera objetiva el informe del Comité Científico Europeo que acaba de actualizar el algoritmo en el que se basa el logotipo nutricional Nutri-Score. Se revisa la metodología utilizada, las prioridades establecidas y sus justificaciones, y los diferentes escenarios probados, las modificaciones propuestas y su impacto en los diferentes grupos de alimentos afectados.El Comité Científico consideró que el algoritmo actual funciona en general bien, pero ha introducido algunas mejoras. Las modificaciones recomendadas por el Comité permiten corregir algunas limitaciones identificadas: clasificación de los aceites, pescados grasos, productos integrales, frutos secos y quesos, así como la penalización superior de los alimentos muy azucarados o muy salados, productos lácteos azucarados, platos preparados y carnes rojas, entre otros, manteniendo al mismo tiempo la coherencia global del sistema y la clasificación general de los productos entre ellos. Con la actualización del algoritmo de Nutri-Score se observa globalmente una mejor alineación entre las clasificaciones obtenidas por Nutri-Score y las recomendaciones dietéticas en vigor en los diferentes países europeos que lo han adoptado. (AU)


The aim of this article is to objectively summarize the report of the European Scientific Committee in charge of updating the algorithm underlying the front-of-pack Nutritional label Nutri-Score. It described the methodology used and the priorities established, the scientific rational and the different scenarios tested, the proposed modifications and their impact on the different food groups concerned.The Scientific Committee considered that its current algorithm works globally well, but has introduced some improvements. Modifications recommended allow to correct some of its identified limits: classification of oils, fatty fish, whole grain products, nuts, cheeses, higher penalization of very sugary or very salty foods, sweet dairy products, composite products, red meat... while maintaining the overall consistency of the system and the classification of the products. The update of the Nutri-Score algorithm permits a better alignment between the Nutri-Score classifications and Nutritional recommendations disseminated in the different European countries that have adopted it. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Labeling , Cheese , Consumer Behavior , Nutritive Value , Europe
15.
Sustain Sci ; : 1-16, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694671

ABSTRACT

There is increasing recognition of the wicked nature of the intertwined climate, biodiversity and economic crises, and the need for adaptive, multi-scale approaches to understanding the complexity of both the problems and potential responses. Most science underpinning policy responses to sustainability issues, however, remains overtly apolitical and focussed on technical innovation; at odds with a critical body of literatures insisting on the recognition of systemic problem framing when supporting policy processes. This paper documents the experience of implementing a mixed method approach called quantitative story-telling (QST) to policy analysis that explicitly recognises this normative dimension, as the methodology is part of a post-normal science (PNS) toolkit. The authors reflect on what was learnt when considering how QST fared as a tool for science-policy interaction, working with European Union (EU) level policy actors interested in sustainable agriculture and sustainable development goal 2. These goals-also known as UN Agenda 2030-are the latest institutionalisation of the pursuit of sustainable development and the EU has positioned itself as taking a lead in its implementation. Thus, the paper illustrates our experience of using PNS as an approach to science policy interfaces in a strategic policy context; and illustrates how the challenges identified in the science-policy literature are amplified when working across multiple policy domains and taking a complex systems approach. Our discussion on lessons learnt may be of interest to researchers seeking to work with policy-makers on complex sustainability issues.

16.
EFSA J ; 21(1): e07771, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694843

ABSTRACT

The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver a scientific opinion on the efficacy of a postharvest treatment aiming to eradicate all developmental stages of Guatemalan potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in ware potatoes. The Panel evaluated the scientific publication describing the elevated CO2 treatment, which was defined as: 10-day exposure to 30% CO2, 20% O2 and 50% N2 in controlled atmosphere at 17°C on the variety Negra Yema de Huevo (Papas Antiguas de Canarias, PDO potatoes, Solanum chaucha). In the scientific publication, the treatment was applied under semi-commercial and commercial conditions on artificially and field-infested tubers. The effect of the pest developmental stage on the treatment efficacy was investigated with artificial infestation of potato tubers with eggs, neonate and second instar larvae. Pupae and adults were placed in separate containers during the treatment. However, the third and fourth larval instars were not investigated. Further limitations were the sample size in the experiments, the mortality rate in the control group and the unknown level of infestation of the naturally infested potato tubers. It was not possible to evaluate the degree of pest freedom due to incomplete data on the conditions of production, i.e. the infestation level in the field. The Panel was able to conclude that although no surviving insects were observed in the performed experiments, the statistical evaluation of the presented results from the commercial trial indicate that it cannot be excluded that insects would survive the treatment. For example, based on the data provided the 95% confidence interval of the survival rate for eggs was: 0%-0.453%.

18.
Asian Spine J ; 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693429

ABSTRACT

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study of the anatomical variations, morphometry, and histology of the iliolumbar veins (ILVs). Purpose: This study aimed to describe the anatomical variations of the ILVs and determine their tissue composition in South African cadavers of European descent. Overview of Literature: A safe anterior surgical approach to the L4/L5 intervertebral disc space requires understanding the anatomy of the ILVs. Limited understanding of ILVs and their variations may lead to inadvertent avulsion of veins with subsequent hemorrhage and damage to the adjacent nerves intraoperatively. Variations in ILVs are population specific, but such reports are limited in the South African population. Methods: Eighty-nine adult cadavers were dissected to reveal ILV patterns. The variations (origin, course, and drainage pattern), morphometries, and topography of the ILVs were studied. A total of 19 (10 proximal, nine distal) ILVs were processed for hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Verhoeff's histological staining to determine the tissue composition. Results: The ILVs were identified in 100% of the cases, and 45% of the ILVs were anastomosed to each other bilaterally. The rightside ILVs terminated into the posterior surfaces of the iliac vessels (p =0.001), whereas the left-side ILVs terminated into the lateral surfaces (p =0.001). The left-side proximal ILVs had higher elastic fiber composition (p =0.030). The ratio of the ILVs' elastic fibers to collagen fibers was 1:9, and 61% of the cadavers exhibited type 1 ILV pattern. Moreover, 42% of the ILVs were at the S1 vertebral level with 31% lying between L4 and L5 spinal nerve roots. The obturator nerve coursed anteriorly to the ILVs in 96% of cases. Conclusions: The ILV variations described for South Africans present new additional patterns, such as bilateral anastomosis and laterality of the terminal drainage. The ILVs have more collagen fibers than elastic fibers, predisposing them to avulsion during surgical retraction. The identification of all the ILVs is crucial to minimize inadvertent hemorrhage and damage to adjacent structures.

19.
Genome Med ; 15(1): 4, 2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The genetic architectures of colorectal cancer are distinct across different populations. To date, the majority of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) are derived from European (EUR) populations, which limits their accurate extrapolation to other populations. Here, we aimed to generate a PRS by incorporating East Asian (EAS) and EUR ancestry groups and validate its utility for colorectal cancer risk assessment among different populations. METHODS: A large-scale colorectal cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS), harboring 35,145 cases and 288,934 controls from EAS and EUR populations, was used for the EAS-EUR GWAS meta-analysis and the construction of candidate EAS-EUR PRSs via different approaches. The performance of each PRS was then validated in external GWAS datasets of EAS (727 cases and 1452 controls) and EUR (1289 cases and 1284 controls) ancestries, respectively. The optimal PRS was further tested using the UK Biobank longitudinal cohort of 355,543 individuals and ultimately applied to stratify individual risk attached by healthy lifestyle. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis across EAS and EUR populations, we identified 48 independent variants beyond genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) at previously reported loci. Among 26 candidate EAS-EUR PRSs, the PRS-CSx approach-derived PRS (defined as PRSCSx) that harbored genome-wide variants achieved the optimal discriminatory ability in both validation datasets, as well as better performance in the EAS population compared to the PRS derived from known variants. Using the UK Biobank cohort, we further validated a significant dose-response effect of PRSCSx on incident colorectal cancer, in which the risk was 2.11- and 3.88-fold higher in individuals with intermediate and high PRSCSx than in the low score subgroup (Ptrend = 8.15 × 10-53). Notably, the detrimental effect of being at a high genetic risk could be largely attenuated by adherence to a favorable lifestyle, with a 0.53% reduction in 5-year absolute risk. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we systemically constructed an EAS-EUR PRS to effectively stratify colorectal cancer risk, which highlighted its clinical implication among diverse ancestries. Importantly, these findings also supported that a healthy lifestyle could reduce the genetic impact on incident colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Life Style , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics
20.
Empirica (Dordr) ; : 1-34, 2023 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36685484

ABSTRACT

With ever-increasing political tensions between China and Russia on one side and the EU and the US on the other, it only seems a matter of time until protectionist policies cause a decoupling of global value chains. This paper uses a computable general equilibrium trade model calibrated with the latest version of the GTAP database to simulate the effect of such a decoupling-implemented by doubling non-tariff barriers-between the two blocks on trade and welfare. Imposing import barriers almost completely eliminates bilateral imports. In addition, changes in price levels lead to higher imports and lower exports of the imposing country group from and to the rest of the world. The targeted country group increases exports to the rest of the world and reduces imports. Welfare falls in all countries involved, suggesting that governments should strive to cooperate rather than turn away from each other. By imposing a trade war on Russia, the political West could inflict severe damage on the Russian economy because of the latter's smaller relative economic size.

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