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1.
Romanian Journal of Medical Practice ; 17(3):109-114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2218188

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and vaccinations produce immune responses mostly through B cells (plasmocytes/ antibodies) and effector T cells (helper and cytotoxic). After removing the antigen, 90-95% of the effector cells disappear, but the remaining ones turn into T cells with long memory. The maintenance of cellular memory, the mode of information storage and the lifespan of T cells are insufficiently known. After measles, resident T cells in the plasma will offer protection only against the measles virus, generating a long period of immunodepression (immune amnesia).After the flu, memory T cells generate immune protection for 1-2 years for secretory IgA and longer for serum IgG. In SARS-CoV-2 infection, memory T cells (B and T) respond quickly to reinfection for 8-10 months. In conditions of intense stimulation in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MARS infection, marked leukopenia occurs with lymphopenia generating immunodepression and high mortality, disorders similar to septic shock. An important role in these disorders is played by the host's genetic structure and epigenome. © 2022, Amaltea Medical Publishing House. All rights reserved.

2.
Hormone Research in Paediatrics ; 95(Supplement 2):229, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2214154

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, the European Registries For Rare Endocrine Conditions (EuRRECa), which is a collaboration between Endo- ERN, ESPE and ESE provided the possibility for registration of cases. Obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease course in adults. In children and adolescents, COVID-19 disease course is much milder, but has also been identified as risk factor. As rare genetic obesity disorders often present with extreme obesity early in life, it might be postulated that they are at increased risk for severe course of COVID-19 infection. The aim was to study the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in these patients. Method(s): The RareEndoERN COVID-19 taskforce, formed in April 2020, set up the monthly e-REC reporting of new clinical encounters of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases in rare genetic obesity disorders. Thirteen centres committed to reporting. Case specific data were collected by an additional digital survey. Result(s): Seventeen patients with rare genetic obesity disorders and COVID-19 infection were reported by two centers between April 2020 and December 2021. Median age was 16 years (range min 2 - max 22), 11/17 were female, median BMI was 28kg/m2 (min 17-max 73). Diagnosis was: rare genetic obesity- syndromal form in 13/17 cases (of which 8 Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) and 5 other forms of syndromal obesity);non-syndromal form in 2/17;and 'other' in 2/17 patients. The following co-morbidities were present: type2 DM in 3/17, dyslipidemia 2/17, NAFLD 2/17, sleep apnoea 1/17;COVID-19 was confirmed in all cases. Symptoms were Fever (5/17);Cough (3/17);Tiredness or exhaustion (2/17);Loss of appetite (1/17);Loss of taste or smell (0/17);Muscle pain (0/17);Runny nose (3/17);Headache (4/17);Sore throat (4/17);Stomach symptoms (1/17);Diarrhoea (0/17);None (/17)2;Other (3/17) like change of behavior or seizure. One patient with PWS was admitted to the emergency room due to a seizure and was dismissed after a few hours of observation. None of the patients needed admission to the hospital, IC unit care, or oxygen treatment;18/17 patients fully recovered, 1 PWS patient had persistent complaints of tiredness. Conclusion(s): In patients with rare genetic obesity disorders and confirmed COVID-19 infection reported number of cases are low, even in large centers of expertise. The clinical course seems mild for these patients, in the age range 2-22 years, even in the presence of extreme obesity and type 2 diabetes.

3.
Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management ; 13(2):41-52, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2206598

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, new technologies have reshaped people's working environment. Both organizations and individuals have benefited a lot from these new technologies. However, everything is two-sided, which means the development of various new technologies in the work scene, such as smartphones, has had a series of negative effects on employees' job performance and their physical and mental health. Researchers generally regard smartphone addiction in the work scene as a behavioral addiction in a specific environment. The formation of employees' smartphone addiction is affected by many factors, in which psychological factors belonging to endogenous factors and working environment factors belonging to exogenous factors are significant. Besides, in the past three years, the outbreak and popularity of COVID-19 accelerates formation of employees' smartphone addiction. The influence of smartphones addiction on employees had advantages and disadvantages while it is generally believed that the disadvantages, which have numerous negative effects on employees' physical and psychological health, personal life, family and job performance, outweigh the advantages. The mechanism of psychological smartphone addiction can be explained by job demand - resource theory and boundary theory. In the future, we still need to pay attention to the influencing mechanism of smartphone addiction and employees' job performance and figure out the key influencing factors, so as to amplify the advantages of using smartphones in the work scene and make smartphone serve to the target of improving job performance.

4.
Minerva Psychiatry ; 63(4):339-346, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205200

ABSTRACT

Background: this study investigated the impact of cOViD-19 on professional (hcWs) health care workers' mental health and the prevalence of depression, anxiety, fear and stress related to their workload. METHOD(S): This is a cross-sectional survey including 1,554 male and female participants aged 20-65 years in Turkey who completed the 21-item Depression, anxiety, stress scale (Dass-21), Burnout and Fear of cOViD-19 scale (FcV-19s). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. RESULT(S): Significant differences were found between two groups defined as HCWs-frontline and non-frontline, in the following characteristics: (P=0.013), gender (P<0.001), education (P<0.001), occupational status (P<.001), income (P=0.003), working-years experience (P<0.001), number hospital rooms assigned (P=0.024), number of persons living with (P=0.024), and smoking habits (P=0.018). The findings showed that the prevalence of depression anxiety and stress was significantly higher among the frontline workers when compared to non-frontline ones (all P<=0.018). They also reported significantly higher scores of fear of COVID-19 for all items (P<0.001). The mean scores of burnout items were significantly higher among frontline-HCWs as well as all items regarding the COVID-19 (P<0.001). The multivariate stepwise regression analysis confirmed Predictors for depression were: feeling the burnout (physical / mental exhaustion), feeling emotionally exhausted from work, clammy hand, number of years of work experience, fear of family members catching infection, can't sleep because the risk of getting cOViD-19. Meanwhile, hardworking, number of years at work, feeling depressed and burnout (physical / mental exhaustion) form current COVID-19 work, were all considered main risk factors for anxiety. CONCLUSION(S): The findings of this study determined that fear and burnout related COVID-19 were significantly associated with high scores of depression, anxiety, and stress among frontline-hcWs, which requires immediate action and support. Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.

5.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199518

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDue to the COVID-19 pandemic, schools were closed, teachers had to teach from home and after a while, they had to return to the classroom while the pandemic was still on-going. Even before the pandemic, teachers were already more at risk for burn-out syndrome compared to the general population. Furthermore, not much research pertaining to this population has been carried out during the pandemic and so the impact of the pandemic on teachers' risk of burn-out syndrome and recovery need remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to fill this knowledge gap and map out the impact on risk of burn-out syndrome and recovery need at different time points during the pandemic. Methods and findingsAt baseline, 2,167 secondary school teachers in Flanders were included in this prospective study. Questionnaire data were obtained at ten different time points between September 2019 and August 2021. To assess risk of burn-out syndrome and its dimensions, the Utrecht Burn-out Scale for Teachers was administered. Need for recovery was assessed using questions adopted from the Short Inventory to Monitor Psychosocial Hazards. The results revealed an initial positive effect of the first lockdown (Mar/Apr 2020) with a decrease in risk of burn-out syndrome [Odds ratio (OR) Jan/Feb 2020-Mar/Apr 2020 = 0.33, p < 0.001], emotional exhaustion (EMM Jan/Feb 2020-Mar/Apr 2020 = -0.51, p < 0.001), depersonalization (EMM Jan/Feb 2020-Mar/Apr 2020 = -0.13, p < 0.001) and recovery need [Estimated marginal mean (EMM) Jan/Feb 2020-Mar/Apr 2020 = -0.79, p < 0.001]. No significant effect on personal accomplishment was found (p = 0.410). However, as the pandemic went on, higher risk of burn-out syndrome, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and recovery need, and lower personal accomplishment were observed. ConclusionsDespite the initial positive impact on risk of burn-out syndrome, its dimensions and recovery need, a negative long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic became visible. This study highlights once again the importance for interventions to reduce teachers' risk of burn-out syndrome, especially in such difficult times as a pandemic.

6.
Portuguese Journal of Public Health ; 40(Supplement 1):8, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194300

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the physical and mental health of Portuguese teachers. Method(s): The sample consists of 1779 Portuguese teachers (1423 female and 356 male);58% (n=1029) over 50 years of age;72.7% (n= 1293) with more than 21 years of service;and 48.1% (n= 856) teaching 3rd cycle/secondary school. We studied the distribution of responses for the variables: professional wellbeing, exhaustion, cognitive problems, musculoskeletal dysfunctions and voice disorders, and performed an analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test (p<.05), according to gender, age, years of service and teaching level. Result(s): 13.6% of the teachers reported feeling ill-being during the performance of their professional activity;85.6% exhaustion;74% musculoskeletal disorders;68.9% cognitive problems;and 59.7% voice disorders. The results according to gender, age, years of service show significant differences in all health dimensions (p<.05), except for teaching level for musculoskeletal disorders (F=.982, p=.427). In all health dimensions, the most significant differences occurred in the groups of teachers aged 20-21 years and 56-70 years;length of service between 0-5 years and those of more than 21 years;and the teaching level between 1st cycle and special education, with the exception of professional well-being where the greatest difference was reported between preschool and 3rd cycle/secondary teachers (95% CI ].9076;4.6364[;p=.000). Conclusion(s): The Covid-19 pandemic has worsened teachers' health status and professional well-being. The impact of these results on the quality of teaching should be the focus of future studies.

7.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology ; 97(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2193234

ABSTRACT

COVID‐19, which emerged in December 2019 and continues to wreak havoc, has led to the death of many people around the world. In this study, we aimed to uncover the variables underlying the exacerbation of the disease by considering the changes in T cell subsets in adults and juveniles with different disease severity of COVID‐19. Peripheral blood samples of 193 patients (128 adults and 65 juveniles) diagnosed with COVID‐19 were evaluated in a flow cytometer, and a broad T cell profile was revealed by examining T cell subsets in terms of exhaustion and senescence. We found remarkable differences in the effector memory (EM;CD45RA−CCR7−) cell subsets of severe pneumonia cases. The frequencies of EM2 CD4+ T, EM3 CD4+ T, EM3 CD8+ T, EM2 DN T and EM3 DN T cells were found to increase in severe pneumonia cases. Consistently, these cells were found in juveniles and uncomplicated adults in similar or lower proportions to healthy controls. The findings of our study provide a view of the T cell profile that may underlie differences in the course of COVID‐19 cases in juveniles and adults and may provide new insights into the development of effective treatment strategies.

8.
Information Technology & People ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191466

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis study aims to examine the impact of information communication technology-enabled work during non-working hours (ICT-enabled WNWHs), as a source of stress, on employee behavioral outcomes -in-role job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) that benefit organizations and OCBs that benefit individuals, through emotional responses - work exhaustion, nonwork exhaustion and organization-based self-esteem. As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns demonstrated that employees frequently engage in ICT-enabled WNWHs, studying stress induced by ICT-enabled WNWHs is essential for understanding employee adaptation to the work-from-home trend that emerged from COVID-19 lockdowns.Design/methodology/approachA quantitative survey comprising 1,178 employees in China was conducted, and the data reliability and validity were confirmed. Partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis was employed to test the hypotheses.FindingsThe study results empirically proved that, although ICT-enabled WNWHs had significant effects on employee behavioral outcomes, the related emotional responses were the mediators of the stress transmission mechanism that directly affected employee behavioral outcomes. Notably, work exhaustion and organization-based self-esteem partially mediate the stress transmission mechanism, while nonwork exhaustion exerts a full mediating effect.Originality/valueThis study proposes the stress transmission mechanism of ICT-enabled WNWHs and delineates emotional responses regarding the work environment attributes of ICT-enabled WNWHs, an approach rarely seen in prior IS studies. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to identify and empirically demonstrate organization-based self-esteem as one among the emotional responses to ICT-enabled WNWHs. Furthermore, it expands understanding of the holistic impacts of ICT-enabled WNWHs, which is lacking in information systems (IS) literature.

9.
Employee Relations ; 45(1):257-274, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2191358

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The present study aims to examine the mediating role of (in)voluntariness in teleworking in explaining the relationship between employees' fit to telework and work well-being (i.e. work engagement and exhaustion).Design/methodology/approach>A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. The sample comprised 222 individuals performing telework in Portugal. Statistical analyses employed were descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, confirmatory factor and structural equation analyses, and mediation analysis using Hayes Process macro.Findings>The findings confirmed the hypothesis that employees' fit to telework raises the voluntariness in telework and decreases involuntariness in telework. However, contrary to expectations, no significant relationships were found between voluntariness in telework, work engagement and exhaustion. Yet, involuntariness in telework showed a significant role in decreasing work engagement and increasing workers' exhaustion. The mediating role of involuntariness in telework was confirmed in explaining the relationship between employees' fit to telework and exhaustion.Practical implications>Managers in global firms can draw from the results to understand how employees' fit to telework directly and/or indirectly contributes to work well-being and develop human resource (HR) management practices aiming to increase employees' fit to telework.Originality/value>Although teleworking is already studied, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies have analyzed the same conceptual model employees' fit to telework, (in)voluntariness in teleworking and work well-being.

10.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):42, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190467

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We assessed professional fulfilment and burnout and their relationship to personnel demographics, ICU call structure and work stress among anesthesiology intensivists during the COVID-19 Omicron variant surge. METHOD(S): Observational cross-sectional survey of 606 SOCCA members in January and February 2022 using the Stanford Professional Fulfilment Index (PFI) to grade levels of professional fulfilment and burnout (work exhaustion and interpersonal disengagement). Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney U (2-groups) and Kruskal-Wallis (>2-groups) Tests. RESULT(S): 175 intensivists (29%) responded of whom 65% were male and 49% between 36-45 years old. There was a wide range of subjective response and no direct relationship between level of professional fulfilment and symptoms of burnout. Factors associated with higher median professional fulfilment scores were age >45 years (p=0.005), call supervision of in-house ICU fellows from home (p=0.01), <=15 weeks full-time ICU coverage in 2020 (p=0.023) and role as Medical Director (p=0.019). Call supervision of in-house ICU fellows from home and >15 weeks full-time ICU coverage in 2020 were associated with lower median exhaustion scores (p=0.012) and higher median disengagement scores (p=0.047) respectively, but otherwise there was no correlation between symptoms of burnout and personnel demographics, ICU call structure and COVID-19 work stress. CONCLUSION(S): Our observations indicate that during the Omicron surge professional fulfilment was higher in intensivists who were older, had at home call, fewer ICU weeks of coverage or were Medical Directors. In contrast, the demographics we measured largely failed to predict symptoms of burnout. The wide range of responses suggests that institutional wellness initiatives to identify and alleviate burnout should be personalized rather than aggregated.

11.
Teaching and Teacher Education ; 124:103998, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2183621

ABSTRACT

We examined teachers' experiences of autonomy and time pressure at two timepoints within one school term. Analyses involved identifying autonomy-pressure profiles, examining whether teachers' membership in the profiles shifted over time, and investigating predictors and outcomes of profile membership. Among 401 Australian teachers, latent profile analysis revealed five profiles. Latent transition analysis showed there was a moderate to high amount of membership shifting over time for some profiles, whereas membership in other profiles remained largely stable. Leadership practices and remote teaching (during COVID-19) predicted membership in profiles. The profiles also differed in their reports of emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions.

12.
Clinical Neurophysiology ; 141(Supplement):S163, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2177665

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Long term symptoms following COVID-19 now affects a large number of patients. Fatigue, functional impairment, muscle weakness, and myalgia are among the most prevalent described symptoms. Routine investigations are often normal despite persisting symptoms. We previously found myopathic changes at electrophysiological examinations of 11 of 20 post-COVID-19 patients referred for investigation due to paresthesia (1) and we showed pathology in muscle biopsies from 16 patients (2). We here describe electromyography (EMG) results in post-COVID-19 patients with neuromuscular symptoms. Method(s): At the Post-COVID Clinic at Aarhus University Hospital patients are evaluated due to complex and persistent symptoms. From September 2020 to September 2021, 467 patients were evaluated of which 394 (84%) reported physical fatigue, muscle exhaustion, myalgia, and/or had reduced muscle strength. In case these symptoms were non-improving or affected daily function, patients were referred for EMG and single fiber EMG (sfEMG). Neurophysiological results were compared with 40 healthy subjects. Result(s): Currently a total of 85 patients had EMG investigation performed. 18 patients were not included in analyses due to comorbidities or insufficient investigations. Demographic and clinical characteristics did not differ comparing 67 included patients with all 467 patients. At a median of 8 (IQR 5-11) months, after the acute phase of COVID-19, EMG showed myopathic changes in 42 patients (63%) in biceps-brachii, 31 patients (46%) in anterior-tibial, and in 25 patients (37%) in vastus-medialis muscles. SfEMG showed increased mean jitter in 13 patients (19%) in tibialis-anterior with or without myopathic changes. sfEMG was performed in extensor-digitorum-communis muscle in 41 patients, and of these, 15 patients had increased jitter (37%). Conclusion(s): Myopathic changes are commonly seen in post-COVID-19 patients with neuromuscular symptoms. Abnormal sfEMG suggesting neuromuscular transmission defect is also seen with or without myopathic changes. These findings can potentially explain fatigue in post-COVID-19 patients. Copyright © 2022

13.
European Geriatric Medicine ; 13(Supplement 1):S172, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2175542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Symptoms of COVID-19 can persist for months following initial infection. This carries significance in the older population of who have been disproportionately affected by COVID- 19. Studies focussing on older survivors of COVID-19 have demonstrated a high prevalence of long-term symptoms, affecting both physical and cognitive performance. Systematic follow-up for these patients is therefore essential to understand and better manage this symptom burden. Method(s): The aim of this study was to ascertain the nature of followup for older people hospitalised with COVID-19 infection. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19, alongside an abnormal chest radiograph, were referred for follow-up at 12 weeks. Telephone consultations with a geriatrician were conducted using a post-COVID questionnaire to screen for symptoms, and onward referrals arranged where necessary. Result(s): 82 patients aged 60 years or older were identified. Fatigue and exhaustion were most frequently reported (28%), followed by shortness of breath (24%) and cognitive issues (18%). Whilst a significant number received further follow-up within Geriatric medicine (13%), few were referred to long COVID clinics (4%) or mental health services (4%). Conclusion(s): Geriatric medical review was beneficial, however we recognise limitations to existing referral criteria. A significant cohort of older COVID-19 survivors will not be detected by this method: Those presenting with delirium or fatigue rather than radiographic changes, and those in the community who may not self-present. We therefore recommend that a history of COVID-19 is important to elicit in comprehensive geriatric assessment.

14.
European Geriatric Medicine ; 13(Supplement 1):S187-S188, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2175491

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to dramatic changes in older people's lives. We aimed to report pandemic-related changes in diet and physical activity (PA) and identify predictors of these changes in UK community-dwelling older adults. Method(s): We recruited 491 older males and females. A postal questionnaire was completed in summer/autumn 2021 (the first UK lockdown was announced in 03/2020). This ascertained demographic, lifestyle factors, number of comorbidities (NoC), nutrition risk (DETERMINE checklist), and SARC-F scores, and presence of frailty. Associations between these characteristics in relation to selfreported changes in diet quality (DQ) ('healthiness' of diet) and PA (lower, similar, or higher, compared to before the first lockdown) were explored using ordinal logistic regression. Result(s): Median (lower quartile, upper quartile) age was 79.8 (77.0, 83.7) years. 11 (4.9%) males and 25 (9.4%) females reported poorer DQ and 81 (36.0%) males, and 113 (42.8%) females reported lower PA, compared to before lockdown. The following were associated with increased risk of being in a worse category for both change in DQ and PA after adjustment for sex: Higher BMI (p<0.001);higher DETERMINE score (p<0.005);higher SARC-F score (p<0.014);and self-reported exhaustion in the previous week (p<0.003). Higher NoC was additionally associated (p = 0.001) with increased risk of being in a worse category for change in PA, after adjusting for sex. Conclusion(s): Individuals at greater nutritional risk and at risk of sarcopenia were at increased risk of deterioration in DQ and PA during the pandemic. Understanding whether factors are reversible is now required.

15.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 38(Supplement 1):S90, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2175130

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was followed by large number of mucormycosis cases. Indiscriminate use of immunosuppressive drugs, underlying diseases like diabetes cancers, or autoimmune diseases was thought to be the cause. However, the mortality was not as high as that seen in non-COVID mucormycosis. Aims & Objectives: To study the detailed characteristics of T-cells for evaluating the underlying differences in the T-cell immune dysfunction in post-COVID and non-COVID mucor patients. Material(s) and Method(s): The study included histopathologically confirmed cases of mucor (13 post-COVID, 13 non-COVID) and 15 healthy individuals (HI). Expression of T-cell activation (CD44, HLADR, CD69, CD38) and exhaustion (CTLA, PD-1, LAG-3 and TIM-3) markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. Result(s): All cases showed significant depletion of T-cells compared to HI. Both post-COVID and non-COVID groups showed increased activation and exhaustion as compared to HI. Non-COVID mucor group showed significant activation of CD4 + T cells for HLADR and CD38 ((P = 0.025, P = 0.054) and marked T-cell exhaustion in form of co-expression of PD-1 and LAG-3 on both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in comparison to post-COVID patients (P = 0.002, P = 0.001). Additionally, co-expression of PD-1 & CTLA and LAG-3 & TIM-3 on CD8 + T cells was statistically significant in non- COVID mucor patients ((P = 0.031, P = 0.003). Conclusion(s): Immunosuppression in non-COVID mucor showed pronounced exhaustion of T-cells in comparison to post-COVID mucor cases implicating T-cell immune dysfunction is much more severe in non-COVID mucor which are in a state of continuous activation followed by extreme exhaustion leading to poorer outcome.

16.
Hum Cell ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175241
17.
Teaching and Teacher Education ; 123:103992, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165887

ABSTRACT

The increase of resignations in education has continued to trend upwards, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study's aim was to develop a comprehensive investigation of key predictors and motivations for leaving academia. The key factors associated with intent-to-quit were: low perceived organizational support, high exhaustion, and low compassion satisfaction. Additionally, high rates of depression and anxiety were worse for faculty intending to leave academia. To improve retention, it is recommended that higher education institutions commit to increase support to faculty and to improve overall working conditions, in order to advert the predicted impending Great Resignation within academia.

18.
J Transl Med ; 20(1):587, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 can induce a strong host immune response. Many studies have evaluated antibody response following SARS-CoV2 infections. This study investigated the immune response and T cell receptor diversity in people who had recovered from SARS-CoV2 infection (COVID-19). METHODS: Using the nCounter platform, we compared transcriptomic profiles of 162 COVID-19 convalescent donors (CCD) and 40 healthy donors (HD). 69 of the 162 CCDs had two or more time points sampled. RESULTS: After eliminating the effects of demographic factors, we found extensive differential gene expression up to 241 days into the convalescent period. The differentially expressed genes were involved in several pathways, including virus-host interaction, interleukin and JAK-STAT signaling, T-cell co-stimulation, and immune exhaustion. A subset of 21 CCD samples was found to be highly "perturbed," characterized by overexpression of PLAU, IL1B, NFKB1, PLEK, LCP2, IRF3, MTOR, IL18BP, RACK1, TGFB1, and others. In addition, one of the clusters, P1 (n = 8) CCD samples, showed enhanced TCR diversity in 7 VJ pairs (TRAV9.1_TCRVA_014.1, TRBV6.8_TCRVB_016.1, TRAV7_TCRVA_008.1, TRGV9_ENST00000444775.1, TRAV18_TCRVA_026.1, TRGV4_ENST00000390345.1, TRAV11_TCRVA_017.1). Multiplexed cytokine analysis revealed anomalies in SCF, SCGF-b, and MCP-1 expression in this subset. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent alterations in inflammatory pathways and T-cell activation/exhaustion markers for months after active infection may help shed light on the pathophysiology of a prolonged post-viral syndrome observed following recovery from COVID-19 infection. Future studies may inform the ability to identify druggable targets involving these pathways to mitigate the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04360278 Registered April 24, 2020.

19.
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer ; 10(Supplement 2):A1064, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2161954

ABSTRACT

Background Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are important for controlling both infection and tumor growth. We performed comprehensive immunophenotyping of HPV-specific and non-HPV-specific viral bystander (EBV, CMV, IAV, and SARS2-CoV2) CD8+ TRM cells in HPV-associated HNSCCs. Methods We assessed HPV-specific and non-HPV-specific viral bystander CD8+ T cell frequency and functional states in the primary tumor, tumor-involved lymph node (LN), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 34 HPV-associated HNSCC patients. CD8+ T cells were isolated and probed by 89 different pMHC tetramers across three HLA alleles (A*02:01, A*01:01 and A*24:02) using multiplexed combinatorial peptide-MHC (pMHC) tetramer staining and spectral flow cytometry. To interrogate HPV-specific responses, we analyzed 61 HPV16 E6 and E7 epitopes. To compare non-HPV bystander virus-specific T cells, we investigated 11 bystander virus (EBV, CMV and IAV) and 17 SARS2-CoV-2 (spike protein) epitopes. Tetramer+ CD8+ T cells were immunophenotyped by co-staining 20 cellular markers to probe T cell exhaustion and tissue resident phenotypes. Results 76.4% (26 of 34) of HPV-associated HNSCCs had detectable HPV-specific T cells within their tissue and 82% (28 of 34) had bystander virus-specific T cells. Overall, we identified 26 HPV- (10 HPV16-E6 and 16 HPV16-E7), 11 bystander (non-HPV) virus-, and 8 SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cell populations. We observed a broader HPV epitope repertoire within LN and PBMC as compared to tumors. However, the frequency of HPV-specific T cells infiltrating the tumor was significantly higher compared to the LN and PBMC. Within the tumor, 13 HPV- (6 HPV16-E6 and 7 HPV16-E7), 6 bystander (non-HPV) virus-, and 3 SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cell populations were identified. The frequency of tumor-infiltrating HPV-specific T cells ranged from 0.02-3.01% for E6, 0.013-10.9% for E7, 0.013-1.93% for bystander (non-HPV) virus-specific T cells, and 0.014- 11.5% for SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cells. High-dimensional analysis identified four distinct TRM subsets. Tumor-infiltrating HPV-specific T cells were enriched for two CXCR6+ TRM subsets that were also PD-1hiTIM-3+, suggesting they were terminal exhausted. In contrast, tumor- and LN-infiltrating bystander non-HPV-specific T cells were CXCR5+PD-1int TRM and not exhausted. Conclusions We report a high frequency of HPV and bystander viral epitopes within HPV-associated HNSCCs, and identified two distinct CXCR6+ terminal exhausted HPV-specific TRM subsets within the tumor. Spatial localization of these two distinct CXCR6+ terminally exhausted TRM to myeloid populations in the primary tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes are ongoing to better understand tumor-specific T cell priming within these two sites.

20.
New Technology, Work and Employment ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2161732

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) forced organisations to implement intensive telework for many of their workers overnight. This scenario was completely new, and the emergency caused by COVID-19 created the possibility of experimenting with new ways of working with an unknown impact on employee well-being. Drawing on previous literature, we defined a model of telework quality consisting of the following four core domains: agile offices within organisations, functional remote workstations, flex-time and engaging management. We identified two high-quality and low-quality telework profiles using latent profile analysis on a data sample of 2295 insurance and financial sector employees. Demographic, occupational and procedural characteristics were associated with the probability of being in the positive or negative profiles. Our results showed that employees' emotional exhaustion and work engagement levels were related to telework quality. This study suggests that organisations need to consider the quality of telework to effectively adopt new ways of working that foster employee well-being.

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