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1.
Computers, Materials, & Continua ; 72(2):2565-2579, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1776818

ABSTRACT

The probability of medical staff to get affected from COVID19 is much higher due to their working environment which is more exposed to infectious diseases. So, as a preventive measure the body temperature monitoring of medical staff at regular intervals is highly recommended. Infrared temperature sensing guns have proved its effectiveness and therefore such devices are used to monitor the body temperature. These devices are either used on hands or forehead. As a result, there are many issues in monitoring the temperature of frontline healthcare professionals. Firstly, these healthcare professionals keep wearing PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) kits during working hours and as a result it would be very difficult to monitor their body temperature. Secondly, these healthcare professionals also wear face shields and in such cases monitoring temperature by exposing forehead needs removal of face shield. Doing so after regular intervals is surely uncomfortable for healthcare professionals. To avoid such issues, this paper is disclosing a technologically advanced face shield equipped with sensors capable of monitoring body temperature instantly without the hassle of removing the face shield. This face shield is integrated with a built-in infrared temperature sensor. A total of 10 such face shields were printed and assembled within the university lab and then handed over to a group of ten members including faculty and students of nursing and health science department. This sequence was repeated four times and as a result 40 healthcare workers participated in the study. Thereafter, feedback analysis was conducted on questionnaire data and found a significant overall mean score of 4.59 out of 5 which indicates that the product is effective and worthy in every facet. Stress analysis is also performed in the simulated environment and found that the device can easily withstand the typically applied forces. The limitations of this product are difficulty in cleaning the product and comparatively high cost due to the deployment of electronic equipment.

2.
Gastroenterology Insights ; 12(3):358, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1771168

ABSTRACT

(Background) Endoscopic procedures are interventions that have been defined as carrying a high-risk of infection with COVID-19. Most endoscopy units restrict their activity based on pre-endoscopic diagnosis. (Objective) To determine the consequences of endoscopic restrictions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and their impact on digestive cancer diagnosis. (Design) A comparison of upper digestive endoscopies and colonoscopies with gastrointestinal cancers diagnosed between three endoscopic centers, two of which restricted their procedures and one that did not but performed the procedures under a strict protocol. (Setting) A retrospective analysis was performed collecting data between 15 March 2019 and 15 August 2020. Two-factor ANOVA and a Tukey's a posteriori test were used as statistical tests. (Main outcome measures) There was variation in gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis between 2019 and 2020, considering the endoscopic procedures performed each year. (Result) There was a significant decrease in the total endoscopic procedures performed between 2019 and 2020 (p < 0.001), the result of reduced testing at the two centers (p < 0.001) with pre-endoscopic restrictions, which was not compensated for by a slight increase in procedures at the center without restrictions (p = 0.139). Regarding the total cancers diagnosed, while a significant decrease was observed for the two centers with pre-endoscopic restrictions (p = 0.007), a significant increase was registered in the center that maintained its endoscopic productivity (p < 0.001). After 851 procedures (537 upper digestive endoscopies and 314 colonoscopies) there was no evidence of COVID-19 infection in the endoscopic staff. (Conclusion) Endoscopic restrictions based on preendoscopic diagnosis should be reassessed in consideration of local pandemic situations, and a balance should be sought between COVID-19 infection risk and the detrimental delay of potential cancer diagnosis.

3.
8th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, SPIN 2021 ; : 1086-1091, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752438

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has harmed millions of people including both patients as well as frontline health workers. There is need to protect frontline health workers as they are the backbone of healthcare system. The existing face shields worn by these workers do protect them but lacks in technology intervention. As a result, healthcare professionals are facing one major issue. The utmost issue is to measure their own body temperature at regular intervals as this process needs removal of hand gloves, PPE (Personal protective equipment) kit and face shield. This is really inconvenient and needs a safe and reliable solution. This paper is disclosing an innovative solution by offering a technologically advanced face shield capable of measuring a body temperature without the need of removing a face shield and a PPE kit. This face shield is designed in solid-works and printed within the university premises using a 3D printer. The sensors were then placed inside this 3D printed assembly. This face shield was then handed over for regular use to faculty and students of health sciences. This innovation received positive feedback from the healthcare professionals. The overall mean score of 4.59 out of 5 indicate that this product is worthy in every facet. © 2021 IEEE

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S102, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746768

ABSTRACT

Background. While splashes to the eyes, nose and mouth can often be prevented through appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) use, they continue to occur frequently when PPE is not used consistently. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented universal masking and eye protection for all healthcare personnel (HCP) performing direct patient care and observed a subsequent decline in bloodborne pathogen (BBP) splash exposures. Methods. Our healthcare system, employing >12,000 healthcare personnel (HCP), implemented universal masking in April 2020 and eye protection in June 2020. We required HCP to mask at all times, and use a face shield, safety glasses or goggles when providing direct patient care. Occupational Safety tracked all BBP exposures due to splashes to the eyes, nose, mouth and/or face, and compared exposures during 2020 to those in 2019. We estimated costs, including patient and HCP testing, related to splash exposures, as well as the additional cost of PPE incurred. Results. In 2019, HCP reported 90 splashes, of which 57 (63%) were to the eyes. In 2020, splashes decreased by 54% to 47 (36 [77%] to eyes). In both years, nurses were the most commonly affected HCP type (62% and 72%, respectively, of all exposures). Physicians (including residents) had the greatest decrease in 2020 (10 vs. 1 splash exposures [90%]), while nurses had a 39% decrease (56 vs. 34 exposures). Nearly all of the most common scenarios leading to splash exposures declined in 2020 (Table). We estimated the cost of each BBP exposure as $2,940;this equates to a savings of $123,228. During 2020, we purchased 65,650 face shields, safety glasses and goggles (compared to 5303 similar items in 2019), for an additional cost of $238,440. Specific activities identified as leading to bloodborne pathogen splash exposures, 2019 vs. 2020. Conclusion. We observed a significant decline in splash-related BBP exposures after implementing universal masking and eye protection for the COVID-19 pandemic. While cost savings were not observed, we were unable to incorporate the avoided pain and emotional trauma for the patient, exposed HCP, and coworkers. This unintended but positive consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies the need for broader use of PPE, particularly masks and eyewear, for all patient care scenarios where splashes may occur.

5.
3rd IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Control and Instrumentation engineering, ICECIE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1709611

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has uprooted the normal lives and routines of Filipinos. Dubbed as the 'new normal,' the wearing of face masks and face shields and adherence to social distancing and the community quarantines have been enforced by the Philippine government to all its citizens. The primary concern is to slow down the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus absent of widespread and available pharmaceutical interventions such as vaccines and therapies, in the hopes of keeping the overall healthcare system functional. In this study, the researchers use NetLogo, an agent-based modeling software to emulate such government measures on a closed population of agents and observe the effects on the spread of COVID-19. Running different simulation scenarios, the researchers find that the NetLogo model is able to predict long- term trends imposed by these government restrictions. The results show that through increasing the number of people using face coverings and restricting interactions through enforcement of community quarantines, the rise of infections can be decreased substantially. The results of our model are consistent with the Philippine government's collated pandemic data on the effect of the enforcement of restrictions to the ongoing outbreak during certain time periods in the year 2020. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(1):175-176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677847

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid 19 infection is spreading like a wild fire world wide. More worrisome thing is that it has spread in health workers too which are the sole care takers of affected patients, despite of use of personal protective equipments and taking other precautions. Aim: To conduct a study at local level to see causes of high frequency of Covid 19 infection in health care workers. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional observational study in which we enrolled 195 doctors, nurses and paramedics from different hospitals of punjab, who were affected from covid 19 infection and gave them a questionnaire to fill regarding use of mask, (surgical, cloth, n=95)/duration of its use, use of surgical cap, goggles, soap or hand sanitizer use/frequency, technique of donning/doffing of PPE etc, to find out that where is the fault. Results: Out of total 195 participants 148 were doctors from various specialties, departments and with different work experience.47 were nurses and other paramedical staff including lab workers, pharmacists, ward boys and others. Out of 195 participants 42(21.5%) did not use PPE (cover-all with surgical apron, mask KN-95 or N-95, goggles/face shield) whereas 153(78.5%) used it. Conclusion: We concluded at the end of our study that improper doffing techniques, overuse of masks for more than 3 days, and infrequent hand washing may be the reasons for increased rate of infection and need to be dealt promptly.

7.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S279, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677167

ABSTRACT

Introduction: At the aim of counteracting the spread of the infection, the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control has provided indications on the suitability of the use of face masks when the social distancing cannot be implemented. Facial masks can alter verbal communication, causing potential safety problems. Methods: Eight types of masks (medical, PPE and cloth), one face-shield and four combinations of the same devices were tested, mounted on Head and Torso Simulator with an artificial mouth. For each configuration, tests were carried out in an anechoic chamber with an appropriate measurement chain for signal acquisition and processing. Results: The results show that medical devices exhibit lower attenuation at high frequencies, even compared to cloth. FFP2 and FFP3 have attenuations greater than 5 dB in the octave bands of 4 and 8 kHz, with negligible influence on acoustic performance due to the presence of valves. Face shield distorts the vocal spectrum, behaving like a low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency around 1 kHz, with a steep slope (with attenuation > 10 dB at 4 and 8 kHz) and an accentuated resonance at 1 kHz (about 6-8 dB), due to the thin PET screen. Clear mask shows low attenuation up to 4 kHz and adds the benefit of lip reading, especially useful for workers with hearing difficulties. Conclusions: These results show that the devices examined can alter the quality of speech. Further insights will concern the assessment of speech intelligibility in order to provide a contribution to an ergonomic design also linked to the acoustic comfort of these devices, which would be desirable in a post-p

8.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S183, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677084

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID 19 Pandemic has impacted all businesses across world. Customer facing businesses were impacted the most amongst them. Reliance has more than 8000 Retail stores spread across India with more than 2 lac employees. Involving business in Grocery stores, Apparel stores, Electronic stores, Home delivery by Jio-Mart stores, etc. Interventions: To ensure safety of employee of Retail stores Reliance has implemented standard prevention methods of Sanitization, Mask & Social distancing (SMS) and few other steps of wearing face shield, thermal screening, symptom checker tool were introduced to strengthen screening of suspect cases. Stringent testing protocols and Strict adherence to contact tracing was implemented. For positive patients Home isolation assistance, Hotel isolation facilities and Covid care centers managed by Reliance. Home care cell to monitor home isolation patients using Telemedicine. Assessment of patients by Inhouse Reliance medical team and timely hospitalization assistance. Thrust on vaccination drive were few more interventions. Methodology: Using qualitative techniques, consisting of observations using Pre-tested piloted checklist, Key informant interviews and reviews of Records as well as protocols. Findings: All the strategies were found to be implemented in standardized manner helping the business activities to sustain and serve the customers with uninterrupted supplies of the essentials. Conclusion: Standardized processes using innovative approaches help in efficient and effective implementation of Covid 19 management strategies towards reducing the mortality and morbidity.

9.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S177-S178, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677066

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Facial protective equipment (FPE) is a critical barrier to COVID-19 transmission, but compliance with FPE recommendations has historically been low, even amongst health care workers. This study analyzes factors influencing home care worker FPE compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Nurses and PSWs employed by VHA Home HealthCare (N=199) completed an online survey adapted from a Facial Protection Questionnaire used in previous studies from January 27 – February 10, 2021. Descriptive statistics, tests of significance, and logistic regression were conducted for each variable separated by FPE compliance. Results: This study found higher rates of FPE compliance (71%) than previously reported. Regression results suggest that participants who were not always FPE compliant (29%) were significantly more likely to have lower perceived FPE efficacy, lower knowledge of recommended FPE use, lower perception of risk at work, and higher personal barriers for face shields. Fogging of glasses or face shields from wearing a mask (74%) or face shield (71%) increased job difficulty for many participants. Conclusions: Policies and initiatives addressing perceived FPE efficacy, knowledge of recommended FPE use, perception of at-work risk, and personal barriers to FPE would be expected to significantly affect FPE compliance in the home care sector. Additionally, interventions that reduce visibility issues while wearing FPE would decrease personal barriers to FPE use.

10.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S33, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1676943

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Occupational protection for skin diseases among frontline health workers (HWs) has not received adequate attention during COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: To discuss the systematic measures to skin disease of HWs during emergency response to COVID-19, to promote long-term occupational health protection for them. Materials and Methods: Based on the reports about the skin diseases of frontline HWs during COVID-19 in China, we analyzed the situation within the framework of occupational diseases prevention and control, provided suggestions by professional principles. Results: 1. Little academic literature about derm issue of HWs during COVID-19 in China, while several news were reported by media. 2. Physical and mechanical injuries in the face of HWs due to long-time pressure of face mask nd respirator. Allergic contact dermatoses/contact urticaria caused by disinfectant, latex-containing products (e.g glove). Dermatophytes caused by long-time humid working environment when wearing gown, glove, google, face shield, rubber boots. 3. Skin diseases need to be addressed during emergency response to COVID-19. 4. Skin disease relevant to HWs should be integrated into the system of occupational disease prevention and control, and to be included in the national occupational diseases list, health surveillance and monitoring among HWs ought to be conducted. Conclusions: Occupational health of HWs and patient safety are 2 sides of the same coin of medical quality and safety. Skin diseases of HWs who fight against COVID-19 need to be tackled, experiences and lessons from China could be shared with the counterparts worldwide.

11.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S4-S5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1676920

ABSTRACT

The sound management of health care waste has been noted to be a major challenge facing developing countries especially Africa. This has resulted in several health threats to already ailing health systems. The situation could have worsened in recent years considering the current challenges the continent is facing in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health sector has been confronted with increased volumes of highly infectious wastes from the body fluids of patients patronising health facilities while the use of personal protective equipment (PPEs) such as nose masks, gloves, aprons and face shields during the pandemic have also increased due to the stringent protective practices recommended by the World Health Organization as well as several national ministries of health. This has resulted in the use of millions of PPEs both by health workers and patients. Studies have found that the coronavirus is capable of surviving on surfaces such as plastics, glass and fabric for up to nine days. The wastes from used PPEs therefore end up as wastes potentially infected with micro-organisms including the coronavirus which may persist in the environment for several days. Improper management of these wastes are therefore likely to pose environmental, occupational and public health threats especially in developing countries where sustainable waste management practices are yet to be achieved. Globally, healthcare workers represent less than 3% of the population but account for 14% of COVID-19 cases reported to WHO. It is a challenge to provide corresponding statistics in developing countries, because to date, few countries are able to provide complete counts of infections and deaths among health care works related to COVID-19. To what extent is inadequate management of health care waste likely to be contributing to morbidity and mortality from COVID 19 and other infections among heath care and waste management workers within and outside the confines of healthcare establishments? With the aid of some country examples, the paper demonstrates weaknesses in the waste management cycle that have the potential to militate against the occupational health and safety of healthcare and waste management workers. Other contributory factors to high morbidity and mortality hinge on weaknesses in IPC and WASH measures among others. The paper concludes that a dedicated health care waste management system facilitated by national and sub-national policies and guidelines, human capacity development and public-private partnerships for resource mobilization and investments to support essential infrastructure are needed for sustainability of the waste management function. Closely linked and integral to these measures is the existence of functional national and institutional infection prevention and control (IPC) and WASH programs. Also important are ensuring protection (through access to training, vaccines, testing and psychosocial support) as well as decent work conditions that include protection against excessive workloads and reasonable wages.

12.
Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik ; 53(1):119-127, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1616032

ABSTRACT

Challenges in the development of carbon fibre and graphene reinforced composite polylactic acid material is reserved in this research. A screw extrusion process is used to blend the carbon fibre particle (1?wt.%) and graphene (1?wt.%) with poly lactic acid pellets (98?wt.%) to extrude and draw a continuous composite poly lactic acid wire. The size of the wire drawn is 1.75?mm and it is found uniform in shape. Through electron microscope, the dispersion of carbon fibre and graphene in the polylactic acid material is confirmed with good bonding. Subsequently, the presence of carbon fibre and graphene reinforcement in polylactic acid material is confirmed through the x-ray diffraction peaks. The composite polylactic acid material developed through screw extrusion is to build a mechanical test sample. The strength of composite polylactic acid material is 31?MPa and 3D printed composite polylactic acid material is 63?MPa. The density of the composite material is found increased in 3D printed material than the raw polylactic acid material. With valid mechanical and thermal properties of composite polylactic acid material, a commercial product is developed. An autoclavable COVID -19 face shield is designed and developed through Fused filament fabrication 3D printer and the same was implemented.

13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 56-70, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1596876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The speed of the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put enormous pressure on hospitals and other healthcare facilities. This, together with blockages in several countries, has hindered the availability and accessibility of the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE). OBJECTIVE: To identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the available scientific evidence on the efficacy, safety, safe use and reuse of PPE for healthcare professionals, for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of studies analyzing products for disinfecting and enabling reuse of PPE for coronavirus within the evidence-based health program of a federal university in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: A systematic search of the relevant literature was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science and LILACS databases, for articles published up to November 30, 2020. RESULTS: Ten studies were selected. These analyzed the use of N95, surgical and cotton masks, face shields, flexible enclosures with plastic covers or polycarbonate intubation boxes and plastic curtains; and also PPE disinfection using several substances. CONCLUSION: Combined use of a face shield with a N95 mask proved to be superior to other associations for protecting healthcare workers. Some products are useful for disinfecting PPE, such as 70% ethanol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite and a mixture of quaternary ammonium and H2O2, and hydrogen peroxide. Ultraviolet light and dry heat at 70 °C can be used to decontaminate N95 masks. REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/4V5FD at the OPENSCIENCE Framework.

14.
Mater Today Proc ; 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587034

ABSTRACT

The use of mask and face shield has been established as one of the main preventive measures for the control of COVID 19 spread. In Mexico, as well as in other regions of the world, 3D printing has been employed for the design and production of masks and face shields as personal protective equipment (PPE). These models have been fabricated mainly by the makers, industries, and university communities; therefore, it is necessary to analyze the feasibility of the 3D printed PPE to understand its advantages and limitations. In this work, some characteristics of masks and face shields fabricated by additive manufacturing were studied to explore their viability as protection against flow fluids similar to human sneeze. In the present paper, the PPE was designed, and 3D printed utilizing three types of polylactic acid (PLA) as base material. The morphology and the surface elemental analyses of sectioned samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Showing spacing between printed layers, porous areas, and dispersed copper particles. On the other hand, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was carried out, the results demonstrated the importance of using PPE for protection of a possible exposure to a "contaminated" aerosol and human sneeze. Based on the abovementioned results, it is possible to consider the commercial PLA as suitable material for the manufacturing of PPE due to its capability to be disinfected employing isopropanol, ethanol, or commercial disinfectants.

15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 156, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of eye protection to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the real-world remains uncertain. We aimed to synthesize all available research on the potential impact of eye protection on transmission of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We searched PROSPERO, PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library for clinical trials and comparative observational studies in CENTRAL, and Europe PMC for pre-prints. We included studies that reported sufficient data to estimate the effect of any form of eye protection including face shields and variants, goggles, and glasses, on subsequent confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: We screened 898 articles and included 6 reports of 5 observational studies from 4 countries (USA, India, Columbia, and United Kingdom) that tested face shields, goggles, and wraparound eyewear on 7567 healthcare workers. The three before-and-after and one retrospective cohort studies showed statistically significant and substantial reductions in SARS-CoV-2 infections favouring eye protection with odds ratios ranging from 0.04 to 0.6, corresponding to relative risk reductions of 96% to 40%. These reductions were not explained by changes in the community rates. However, the one case-control study reported odds ratio favouring no eye protection (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.99, 3.0). The high heterogeneity between studies precluded any meaningful meta-analysis. None of the studies adjusted for potential confounders such as other protective behaviours, thus increasing the risk of bias, and decreasing the certainty of evidence to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Current studies suggest that eye protection may play a role in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers. However, robust comparative trials are needed to clearly determine effectiveness of eye protections and wearability issues in both healthcare and general populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Oropharyngeal swabs for diagnosis of COVID-19 often induce violent coughing, which can disperse infectious droplets onto providers. Incorrectly doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) increases the risk of transmission. A cheap, single-use variation of the face shield invented by a Singaporean team, SG Shield, aims to reduce this risk. This manikin study aimed to study the efficacy of the SG Shield in combination with standard PPE. METHODS: A person attired in full PPE whose face and chest was lined with grid paper stood in front of an airway manikin in an enclosed room. A small latex balloon containing ultraviolet fluorescent dye was placed in the oral cavity of the manikin and inflated until explosion to simulate a cough. Three study groups were tested: (a) control (no shield), (b) face shield and (c) SG Shield. The primary outcome was droplet dispersion, determined quantitatively by calculating the proportion of grid paper wall squares stained with fluorescent dye. The secondary outcome was the severity of provider contamination. RESULTS: The SG Shield significantly reduced droplet dispersion to 0% compared to the controls (99.0%, p = 0.001). The face shield also significantly reduced droplet contamination but to a lesser extent (80.0%) compared to the control group (p = 0.001). Although the qualitative severity of droplet contamination was significantly lower in both groups compared to the controls, the face shield group had more contamination of the provider's head and neck. CONCLUSION: The manikin study showed that the SG Shield significantly reduces droplet dispersion to the swab provider's face and chest.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390656

ABSTRACT

Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can become infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Polyethylene Terephthalates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
18.
J 3D Print Med ; 5(2)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378180

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19 resulted in a shortage of personal protective equipment. Community members united to 3D-print face shield headbands to support local healthcare workers. This study examined factors altering print time and strength. Materials & methods: Combinations of infill density (50%, 100%), shell thickness (0.8, 1.2 mm), line width (0.2 mm, 0.4 mm), and layer height (0.1 mm, 0.2 mm) were evaluated through tensile testing, finite element analysis, and printing time. Results: Strength increased with increased infill (p < 0.001) and shell thickness (p < 0.001). Layer height had no effect on strength. Increasing line width increased strength (p < 0.001). Discussion: Increasing layer height and line width decreased print time by 50 and 39%, respectively. Increased shell thickness did not alter print time. These changes are recommended for printing.

19.
Gut Liver ; 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led endoscopists to use personal protective equipment (PPE) for infection prevention. This study aimed to investigate whether wearing a face shield as PPE affects the quality of colonoscopy. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and colonoscopy findings of patients who underwent colonoscopies at Asan Medical Center, Korea from March 10 to May 31, 2020. The colonoscopies in this study were performed by five gastroenterology fellows and four expert endoscopists. We compared colonoscopy quality indicators, such as withdrawal time, adenoma detection rate (ADR), mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC), polypectomy time, and polypectomy adverse events, both before and after face shields were added as PPE on April 13, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 1,344 colonoscopies analyzed, 715 and 629 were performed before and after the introduction of face shields, respectively. The median withdrawal time was similar between the face shield and no-face shield groups (8.72 minutes vs 8.68 minutes, p=0.816), as was the ADR (41.5% vs 39.8%, p=0.605) and APC (0.72 vs 0.77, p=0.510). Polypectomy-associated quality indicators, such as polypectomy time and polypectomy adverse events were also not different between the groups. Quality indicators were not different between the face shield and no-face shield groups of gastroenterology fellows, or of expert endoscopists. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopy performance was not unfavorably affected by the use of a face shield. PPE, including face shields, can be recommended without a concern about colonoscopy quality deterioration.

20.
Environ Res ; 198: 111229, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209551

ABSTRACT

We aimed to develop a model to quantitatively assess the potential effectiveness of face shield (visor) in reducing airborne transmission risk of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 during the current COVID-19 pandemic using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The studies with and without face shield in both an infected and healthy person have been considered in indoor environment simulation. In addition to the influence of the face shield and the synchronization of the breathing process while using the device, we also simulated the effect of small air movements on the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate (outdoor environment simulation). The contact with infectious particles in the case without a face shield was 12-20 s (s), in the presence of at least one person who was positive for SARS-CoV-2. If the infected person wore a face shield, no contact with contaminated air was observed during the entire simulation time (80 s). The time of contact with contaminated air (infection time) decreases to about 11 s when the surrounding air is still and begins to move at a low speed. Qualitative differences between simulations performed on the patients with and without the face shield are clearly visible. The maximum prevention of contagion is probably a consequence of wearing a face shield by an infected person. Our results suggest that it is possible to determine contact with air contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 using the CFD method under realistic conditions for virtually any situation and configuration. The proposed method is probably the fastest and most reliable among those based on CFD-based techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Movements , Humans , Pandemics , Tomography
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