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1.
Journal of Experimental Political Science ; JOUR: 1-19,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082611

ABSTRACT

By exacerbating a pre-existing crisis of childcare in the United States, the COVID-19 pandemic forced many parents to renegotiate household arrangements. What shapes parents' preferences over different arrangements? In an online conjoint experiment, we assess how childcare availability, work status and earnings, and the intra-household division of labor shape heterosexual American parents' preferences over different situations. We find that while mothers and fathers equally value outside options for childcare, the lack of such options - a significant feature of the pandemic - does not significantly change their evaluations of other features of household arrangements. Parents' preferences over employment, earnings, and how to divide up household labor exhibit gendered patterns, which persist regardless of childcare availability. By illustrating the micro-foundations of household decision-making under constraints, our findings help to make sense of women's retrenchment from the labor market during the pandemic: a pattern which may have long-term economic and political consequences.

2.
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2075763

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The new challenge in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is to understand the limitations of models to reduce potential harm. Particularly, unknown disparities based on demographic factors could encrypt currently existing inequalities worsening patient care for some groups. Method(s): Following PRISMA guidelines, we present a systematic review of 'fair' deep learning modeling techniques for natural and medical image applications which were published between year 2011 to 2021. Our search used Covidence review management software and incorporates articles from PubMed, IEEE, and ACM search engines and three reviewers independently review the manuscripts. Result(s): Inter-rater agreement was 0.89 and conflicts were resolved by obtaining consensus between three reviewers. Our search initially retrieved 692 studies but after careful screening, our review included 22 manuscripts that carried four prevailing themes;'fair' training dataset generation (4/22), representation learning (10/22), model disparity across institutions (5/22) and model fairness with respect to patient demographics (3/22). We benchmark the current literature regarding fairness in AI-based image analysis and highlighted the existing challenges. We observe that often discussion regarding fairness are limited to analyzing existing bias without further establishing methodologies to overcome model disparities. Conclusion(s): Based on the current research trends, exploration of adversarial learning for demographic/camera/institution agnostic models is an important direction to minimize disparity gaps for imaging. Privacy preserving approaches also present encouraging performance for both natural and medical image domain. Copyright © 2022, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering.

3.
Socius ; 8(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068505

ABSTRACT

Social norms regulate our behavior in a variety of mundane and far-reaching contexts, from tipping at the restaurant to social distancing during a pandemic. However, how social norms emerge, persist, and change is still poorly understood. Here the authors investigate experimentally whether spontaneously emerging behavioral regularities (i.e., conventions) gain normativity over time and, if so, whether their normative underpinning makes them resistant to changes in economic incentives. To track the coevolution of behavior and normativity, the authors use a set of measures to elicit participants' first- and second-order normative beliefs and their (dis)approval of other participants' behaviors. The authors find that even in the limited duration of their lab experiment, conventions gain normativity that makes these conventions resistant to change, especially if they promote egalitarian outcomes and the change in economic incentives is relatively small. These findings advance our understanding of how cognitive, social and economic mechanisms interact in bringing about social change.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065952

ABSTRACT

The sudden onset of the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on all aspects of people's lives, including their attitudes toward society and psychological well-being. This study aimed to analyze the variation in public trust, perceived societal fairness, and well-being before and after the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study used two-wave longitudinal data of 15,487 residents (2018, T1; 2020, T2) derived from the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). A repeated measures analysis of variance showed that (a) public trust, perceived societal fairness, and subjective well-being significantly improved and (b) depression significantly increased. Linear regression analysis showed that education and socioeconomic status had a significant predictive effect on public trust, perceived societal fairness, and depression; socioeconomic status had a significant predictive effect on subjective well-being. This study provides evidence and direction for current social governance, namely, policy implementation and pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Trust
5.
Production and Operations Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052911

ABSTRACT

Supply chain fairness refers to the practices that members in a supply chain treat each other. Due to imperfections of a competitive market, some members could exploit their positions or circumstances that enabled them to gain excessive advantage over others. Such unfair practices could be in the form of unfair prices, unfair trade, or unfair pay. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed many vulnerabilities of global supply chains, but it also unearthed unfair supply chain practices. Yet, some firms are developing new initiatives to address various supply chain fairness issues, potentially creating strategic values. These observations motivate us to examine the potential benefits, identify underlying challenges, and discuss emerging opportunities for improving fairness in supply chains. This examination has highlighted the potential of a rich research agenda, and we propose research questions for further exploration. © 2022 Production and Operations Management Society.

6.
Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems (Ceciis 2021) ; : 131-138, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2040815

ABSTRACT

The use of online learning has grown worldwide in the last years, and the events produced by the COVID-19 pandemic have only served to boost this growth even more. Some authors claim that online learning is more universal, accessible and inclusive than traditional face-to-face education, but is this true? Are there any potential risks proper of online education (and, particularly, of online assessment) that have not been considered yet? This work tries to partially address such question by exploring the main ethical issues and challenges that can appear in the context of online assessment. As the paper shows, online assessment arises some ethical concerns, as well as some technical considerations that might not appear in traditional face-to-face evaluation methods, but which can have a negative and discriminatory effect over some students. This position paper presents some ethical concerns and challenges to consider, classifies them according to their context (social, personal, or educational) and points towards some potential solutions that can help mitigate the detrimental effects of online assessment. The goal of this work is to show that online assessment can have negative effects and add undue burdens unto the students, and to present some preliminary considerations in order to foster reflection and inspire discussion.

7.
Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice ; 64(3):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2039639

ABSTRACT

This special issue examines the study of legitimacy with a focus on racial–ethnic minority relationships in criminal justice system. The violent and senseless death of George Floyd in the United States on 25 May 2020 has galvanized the recent international Black Lives Matter movement and represented one of the many tragedies in the history of the global racialized criminal justice system, Canada included. The criminal justice system of Canada has a disturbing and problematic history of oppression and colonialism. Against this historical backdrop, however, Canada has been able to develop its own research on a number of key themes, voice these concerns on scientific grounds, and pave its own way towards a more inclusive multicultural future. The special issue is part of the efforts during the extraordinary circumstances of the Covid-19 pandemic, which witnessed a short invocation of police emergency powers in Ottawa. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Ce numéro spécial s'intéresse aux études sur la légitimité du point de vue particulier des relations avec les minorités raciales et ethniques au sein du système de justice pénale. La mort violente et gratuite de George Floyd, le 25 mai 2020 aux États-Unis, a galvanisé le récent mouvement Black Lives Matter sur la scène internationale;c'est l'une des nombreuses tragédies qui marquent l'histoire d'une justice pénale racialisée partout dans le monde, y compris au Canada. Le système de justice pénale canadien, en effet, a un passé troublant et problématique d'oppression et de colonialisme. Mais sur cet arrière-plan historique, le Canada a su cultiver des recherches sur de nombreux sujets primordiaux, formuler leurs problématiques en s'appuyant sur des données scientifiques et ouvrir lui-même sa voie vers un avenir plus inclusif et multiculturel. Ce numéro spécial est le fruit de ces efforts appliqués aux circonstances extraordinaires de la pandémie de COVID-19, au cours de laquelle le pays a eu recours, brièvement, à la Loi sur les mesures d'urgence à Ottawa. (French) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice is the property of University of Toronto Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 1727-1740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039551

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the resulting level of fiscal medical and health expenditure in China, and to provide the scientific basis for further improving fiscal medical and health service capacity in China. Patients and Methods: The data envelopment method and Gini coefficient method were used to analyze the efficiency and regional fairness of fiscal medical and health expenditure results by using the relevant provincial and municipal data of China from 2007 to 2019. Results: 1.Overall, from 2007 to 2019, the total expenditure continued to increase, the expenditure efficiency increased first and then decreased, and the expenditure fairness continued to improve. 2. From the perspective of subregions, there are apparent differences between regions in terms of total expenditure, expenditure efficiency, and expenditure fairness, showing a better situation in the central, western, northeast and a lower situation in the east. Conclusion: The overall level of fiscal medical and health expenditure in China shows an upward trend, but there is still much room for improvement. At the same time, there are pronounced regional differences, and the problems of efficiency and fairness coexist among regions. Therefore, in the future, we should increase medical and health investment and enhance the government's close attention; Improve the expenditure performance appraisal system; Formulate policies according to local conditions and avoid "one size fits all.".

9.
J Bioeth Inq ; 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035272

ABSTRACT

Digital COVID certificates are a novel public health policy to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. These immunity certificates aim to incentivize vaccination and to deny international travel or access to essential spaces to those who are unable to prove that they are not infectious. In this article, we start by describing immunity certificates and highlighting their differences from vaccination certificates. Then, we focus on the ethical, legal, and social issues involved in their use, namely autonomy and consent, data protection, equity, and international mobility from a global fairness perspective. The main conclusion of our analysis is that digital COVID certificates are only acceptable if they meet certain conditions: that they should not process personal data beyond what is strictly necessary for the aimed goals, that equal access to them should be guaranteed, and that they should not restrict people's autonomy to access places where contagion is unlikely. We conclude that, if such conditions are guaranteed, digital COVID certificates could contribute to mitigating some of the most severe socioeconomic consequences of the pandemic.

10.
Pacific Journalism Review ; 28(1-2):162-172, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030554

ABSTRACT

Commentary: In the context of a liberation narrative, an Afghanistani broadcaster and cultural affairs adviser now living in Aotearoa New Zealand, exam-ines the problems with this narrative when applied to the recent controversy around a pregnant New Zealand journalist in Afghanistan and her conflict with the New Zealand government and the MIQ system. Firstly, this narrative relies on the assumption that ‘there isn’t anyone in Afghanistan who can write in English and tell the stories of Afghanistan to the world’. It also relies on the assumption that a foreigner can tell Afghanistan’s story. Secondly, to the extent that it creates an expectation of unconditional gratitude on the part of its ‘beneficiaries’, this narrative denies the value of immigrants in society. The author argues she personally contributes to building social cohesion in New Zealand’s multicultural environment. More generally, New Zealand’s economy and workforce rely on immigrants, as has become increasingly apparent in the face of COVID-19 restrictions. The media’s liberation narrative fails to do justice to the value and importance of this contribution. The author argues that the antidote is a narrative characterised by diversity and solidarity, that builds up and builds on the voices, experiences and wisdom of Māori and Indigenous, minorities and immigrants. © 2022, Pacific Media Centre, Auckland University of Technology. All rights reserved.

11.
Laws ; 11(4):53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023857

ABSTRACT

How are transgender athletes understood in popular discourse? This paper adapts and merges Glaser and Strauss’ 1967 Grounded Theory Method with computerized Automated Text Analysis to provide clarity on large-n datasets comprised of social media posts made about transgender athletes. After outlining the procedures of this new approach to social media data, I present findings from a study conducted on comments made in response to YouTube videos reporting transgender athletes. A total of 60,000 comments made on three YouTube videos were scraped for the analysis, which proceeded in two steps. The first was an iterative, grounded analysis of the top 500 “liked” comments to gain insight into the trends that emerged. Automated Text Analysis was then used to explore latent connections amongst the 60,000 comments. This descriptive analysis of thousands of datapoints revealed three dominant ways that people talk about transgender athletes: an attachment to biology as determinative of athletic abilities, a racialized understanding of who constitutes a proper “girl”, and perceptions of sex-segregated sports as the sole way to ensure fairness in athletic opportunities. The paper concludes by drawing out the implications of this research for how scholars understand the obstacles facing transgender political mobilizations, presents strategies for addressing these roadblocks, and underscores the importance of descriptive studies of discourse in political science research concerned with marginalization and inequality.

12.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 17(5): 573-586, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021039

ABSTRACT

Given the unprecedented scale of digital surveillance in the COVID-19 pandemic, designing and implementing digital technologies in ways that are equitable is critical now and in future epidemics and pandemics. Yet to date there has been very limited consideration about what is necessary to promote their equitable design and implementation. In this study, literature relating to the use of digital surveillance technologies during epidemics and pandemics was collected and thematically analyzed for ethical norms and concerns related to equity and social justice. Eleven norms are reported, including procedural fairness and inclusive approaches to design and implementation, designing to rectify or avoid exacerbating inequities, and fair access. Identified concerns relate to digital divides, stigma and discrimination, disparate risk of harm, and unfair design processes. We conclude by considering what dimensions of social justice the norms promote and whether identified concerns can be addressed by building the identified norms into technology design and implementation practice.

13.
Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2006286

ABSTRACT

Disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods and COVID-19 continue to threaten the lives of people in all countries. In order to cover the basic needs of the victims, emergency logistics should be implemented in time. Location-routing problem (LRP) tackles facility location problem and vehicle routing problem simultaneously to obtain the overall optimization. In response to the shortage of relief materials in the early post-disaster stage, a multi-objective model for the LRP considering fairness is constructed by eval-uating the urgency coefficients of all demand points. The objectives are the lowest cost, delivery time and degree of dissatisfaction. Since LRP is a NP-hard problem, a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm of Discrete Particle Swarm Opti-mization (DPSO) and Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO) is designed to solve the model. In addition, three improvement strategies, namely elite-opposition learning, nonlinear escaping energy, multi-probability random walk, are intro-duced to enhance its execution efficiency. Finally, the effectiveness and perfor-mance of the LRP model and the hybrid metaheuristic algorithm are verified by a case study of COVID-19 in Wuhan. It demonstrates that the hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm is more competitive with higher accuracy and the ability to jump out of the local optimum than other metaheuristic algorithms.

14.
African Journal of Inter/Multidisciplinary Studies ; : 64-73, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2002903

ABSTRACT

Distance learning (DL) means that students work online or students' study online at home while the teacher assigns work and checks in digitally, or they lecture digitally. Distance learning has been regarded as a more flexible way of learning that requires accountability and good time management. On the other hand, the resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic could contribute to the advantages associated with DL. This study discusses this from the perspective of institutional innovation, either as a potentially disruptive innovation or potential constructive innovation. The paper also re-imagines the conceptual and ethical considerations and the requirements associated with distance learning. It conceptualises further that ethics are a fundamental part of teaching pedagogy and, more importantly, DL, but the advent of COVID-19 poses further demands for educators and students in maintaining ethical principles. During the Covid-19 pandemic, DL was proposed alongside social distancing (SD) measures and served as a method of engaging students in a learning environment. Although, the physical distance also poses a difficulty in obtaining students' levels of understanding in terms of course content, thus, this study concludes that distance learning uncovers far more problems, such as the level of readiness (of stakeholders;teachers, students, government, and parents) in the process of transitioning to online teaching platforms, educational equity, and a lack of infrastructure or resources to facilitate online teaching as a result of Social Distancing (SD) emanated from the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Biometrics ; 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985688

ABSTRACT

In data collection for predictive modeling, underrepresentation of certain groups, based on gender, race/ethnicity, or age, may yield less accurate predictions for these groups. Recently, this issue of fairness in predictions has attracted significant attention, as data-driven models are increasingly utilized to perform crucial decision-making tasks. Existing methods to achieve fairness in the machine learning literature typically build a single prediction model in a manner that encourages fair prediction performance for all groups. These approaches have two major limitations: (i) fairness is often achieved by compromising accuracy for some groups; (ii) the underlying relationship between dependent and independent variables may not be the same across groups. We propose a joint fairness model (JFM) approach for logistic regression models for binary outcomes that estimates group-specific classifiers using a joint modeling objective function that incorporates fairness criteria for prediction. We introduce an accelerated smoothing proximal gradient algorithm to solve the convex objective function, and present the key asymptotic properties of the JFM estimates. Through simulations, we demonstrate the efficacy of the JFM in achieving good prediction performance and across-group parity, in comparison with the single fairness model, group-separate model, and group-ignorant model, especially when the minority group's sample size is small. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the JFM method in a real-world example to obtain fair risk predictions for underrepresented older patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

16.
Pacific Journalism Review ; 28(1-2):162-172, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1981081

ABSTRACT

In the context of a liberation narrative, an Afghanistani broadcaster and cultural affairs adviser now living in Aotearoa New Zealand, examines the problems with this narrative when applied to the recent controversy around a pregnant New Zealand journalist in Afghanistan and her conflict with the New Zealand government and the MIQ system. Firstly, this narrative relies on the assumption that 'there isn't anyone in Afghanistan who can write in English and tell the stories of Afghanistan to the world'. It also relies on the assumption that a foreigner can tell Afghanistan's story. Secondly, to the extent that it creates an expectation of unconditional gratitude on the part of its 'beneficiaries', this narrative denies the value of immigrants in society. The author argues she personally contributes to building social cohesion in New Zealand's multicultural environment. More generally, New Zealand's economy and workforce rely on immigrants, as has become increasingly apparent in the face of COVID-19 restrictions. The media's liberation narrative fails to do justice to the value and importance of this contribution. The author argues that the antidote is a narrative characterised by diversity and solidarity, that builds up and builds on the voices, experiences and wisdom of Maori and Indigenous, minorities and immigrants.

17.
Journal of Business Research ; 152:361-371, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1977430

ABSTRACT

This research examines how consumers evaluate the fairness of price increases during collective stress situations. Across three collective stress situations (COVID-19, Black Lives Matter protests, and economic downturn), the authors confirm that a collective stress situation evokes feeling of nostalgia as a coping mechanism. When the collective stress situation is more severe, it heightens feelings of nostalgia, which then enhances consumer empathy, such that people tend to infer benevolent motives for a price increase. That is, consumers perceive the price increase as more fair. This research also reveals how a consumer’s political identity can moderate the impact of the perceived severity of the collective stress situation on nostalgia and thus price fairness. As a collective stress situation becomes more severe, conservatives (vs. liberals) experience greater nostalgia, leading to higher perceived fairness of price increases.

18.
Current Issues in Tourism ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960753

ABSTRACT

As a historically stigmatized group, essential service workers on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic rapidly became known as ‘heroes’ by an appreciative society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to interpret the valorization of essential service workers through a Deonance Theory perspective. Findings revealed nuances in simultaneous competing and complimenting behavioural motivations among members of society. Theoretical implications include the interpretation of Deonance Theory at the societal level, which extends applications beyond the prediction of behavioural motivations at the individual level. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

19.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

20.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1120-1122, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958128

ABSTRACT

YOUTHS' RIGHT TO HEALTH-AFFIRMING SOCIAL CONTEXTS People are embedded within neighborhoods, communities, political atmospheres, and economic systems;these contexts determine living conditions such as access to quality education, employment with living wages, adequate and appropriate health care, affordable healthy food and physical recreation, and community support. Yet youths have inherent rights to health, enumerated by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.2 Among these are the rights to "the highest attainable standard of health" (Article 24), and to "a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development" (Article 27). SOCIETY'S NEED FOR POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT Aligned with the social determinants of health framework, which situates individuals' health outcomes within social contexts, PYD regards human development as a product of youths' internal assets functioning in tandem with their environmental resources and supports.4 As a strengths-based perspective, PYD maintains that all youths have internal and external assets that make their individual development and their contributions to society unique.5 Aligned with the UN Convention on the Rights ofthe Child, PYD insists that society is responsible for fostering environments where youths have the resources they need to thrive and, importantly, for involving youths as partners in shaping their world, as contribution is both a means and an end to PYD.5 Although favorable environmental contexts are essential for positive development, Yeager identifies four internal drives that help youths develop through adolescence5: (1) to stand out: o develop a personal identity;(2) to fit in: to develop a sense of connectedness;(3) to measure up: to develop competence and find ways to achieve;and (4) to take hold: to make commitments to particular goals, activities, and beliefs. "10 In response, Maine's Department of Health and Human Services announced the establishment of the Office of Population Health Equity (OPHE) within the Maine Center for Disease Control (MCDC) to collaborate within and beyond the MCDC to achieve health justice.11 The MCDC prioritizes youth participation through its funding to the Maine Youth Action Network (MYAN), which is composed of community-based, PYDguided programs that engage youths on issues of public health education, research, and policy.

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