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1.
Econ Hum Biol ; 47: 101194, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104832

ABSTRACT

We study the role of education during the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy. We compare excess mortality in 2020 and 2021 compared to the pre-pandemic mortality between municipalities with different shares of educated residents. We find that education initially played a strong protective role, which however quickly faded out. After pondering several alternative explanations, we tentatively interpret this finding as the outcome of the interplay between education, information and public health communication, whose availability and coherence varied along the epidemic.

2.
Journalism Practice ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107134

ABSTRACT

This study introduces the concept of "nobody-fools-me perception", a cognitive bias consisting of overconfidence in one's own ability to detect disinformation, associated with the belief that one is more immune to false content than almost everyone else. Specifically, it examines the extent to which variables such as age and education determine the conviction that one is able to spot false content, and influence the skills and habits of checking and sharing potentially unverified information on health, a serious problem in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on two face-to-face focus groups and one online focus group made up of Spanish people between the ages of 25 and 54, this qualitative research study explored the behaviour of regular citizens when assessing the truthfulness of health-related news, and their habits about believing it. The results reveal that younger people tended to distrust the ability of older people to spot false content, and vice versa. They also show that people with a higher educational level were more confident about their own immunity to disinformation. By introducing the concept of "nobody-fools-me perception", this study contributes to our understanding of how subjective perceptions lead to believing in false news.

3.
Data & Knowledge Engineering ; : 102103, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104701

ABSTRACT

The spreading of misleading information on social web platforms has fuelled massive panic and confusion among the public regarding the Corona disease, the detection of which is of paramount importance. Previous studies mainly relied on a specific web platform to collect crucial evidence to detect fake content. The analysis identifies that retrieving clues from two or more different sources/web platforms gives more reliable prediction and confidence concerning a specific claim. This study proposed a novel multi-web platform voting framework that incorporates 4 sets of novel features: content, linguistic, similarity, and sentiments. The features have been gathered from each web-platforms to validate the news. To validate the fact/claim, a unique source platform is designed to collect relevant clues/headlines from two web platforms (YouTube, Google) based on specific queries and extracted features concerning each clue/headline. The proposed idea is to incorporate a unique platform to assist researchers in gathering relevant and vital evidence from diverse web platforms. After evaluation and validation, it has been identified that the built model is quite intelligent, gives promising results, and effectively predicts misleading information. The model correctly detected about 98% of the COVID misinformation on the constraint Covid-19 fake news dataset. Furthermore, it is observed that it is efficient to gather clues from multiple web platforms for more reliable predictions to validate the news. The suggested work depicts numerous practical applications for health policy-makers and practitioners that could be useful in safeguarding and implicating awareness among society from misleading information dissemination during this pandemic.

4.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-22, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103941

ABSTRACT

Misinformation or fake news has had multifaceted ramifications with the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, creating widespread panic amongst people. This study investigates the impact of misinformation/ fake news (on internet platforms) on consumer buying behavior, impact of fear (created by fake news) on hoarding of essential products and consumer spending and finally impact of misinformation-induced panic buying on supply chain disruptions. It draws upon the consumer decision theory and the cognitive load theory for explaining the psychological and behavioral responses of consumers. The study follows an inductive approach towards theory building using a multi-method approach. Initially, a qualitative research method based on interviews followed by text-mining has been used followed by analysis using python for topic modelling using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The findings revealed several prominent themes like consumer shift to online buying, two contrasting spending intentions namely financial security and compensatory consumptions, irrational panic buying, uncertainty/ambiguity of government protocol and norms, social media fraudulent practices and misinformation dissemination, personalized buying experience, reduced trust on news and marketers, logistics and transportation bottlenecks, labor shortage due to migration and plant closures, and bullwhip effect in supply chains.

5.
Experimental Ir Meets Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Interaction (Clef 2022) ; 13390:495-520, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2094392

ABSTRACT

We describe the fifth edition of the CheckThat! lab, part of the 2022 Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (CLEF). The lab evaluates technology supporting tasks related to factuality in multiple languages: Arabic, Bulgarian, Dutch, English, German, Spanish, and Turkish. Task 1 asks to identify relevant claims in tweets in terms of check-worthiness, verifiability, harmfullness, and attention-worthiness. Task 2 asks to detect previously fact-checked claims that could be relevant to fact-check a new claim. It targets both tweets and political debates/speeches. Task 3 asks to predict the veracity of the main claim in a news article. CheckThat! was the most popular lab at CLEF-2022 in terms of team registrations: 137 teams. More than one-third (37%) of them actually participated: 18, 7, and 26 teams submitted 210, 37, and 126 official runs for tasks 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

6.
R Soc Open Sci ; 9(10): 220716, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087953

ABSTRACT

Online platforms play a relevant role in the creation and diffusion of false or misleading news. Concerningly, the COVID-19 pandemic is shaping a communication network which reflects the emergence of collective attention towards a topic that rapidly gained universal interest. Here, we characterize the dynamics of this network on Twitter, analysing how unreliable content distributes among its users. We find that a minority of accounts is responsible for the majority of the misinformation circulating online, and identify two categories of users: a few active ones, playing the role of 'creators', and a majority playing the role of 'consumers'. The relative proportion of these groups (approx. 14% creators-86% consumers) appears stable over time: consumers are mostly exposed to the opinions of a vocal minority of creators (which are the origin of 82% of fake content in our data), that could be mistakenly understood as representative of the majority of users. The corresponding pressure from a perceived majority is identified as a potential driver of the ongoing COVID-19 infodemic.

7.
Ieee Access ; 10:98724-98736, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070263

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the spread of fake news became easy due to the wide use of social media platforms. Considering the problematic consequences of fake news, efforts have been made for the timely detection of fake news using machine learning and deep learning models. Such works focus on model optimization and feature engineering and the extraction part is under-explored area. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to investigate the impact of features to obtain high performance. For this purpose, this study analyzes the impact of different subset feature selection techniques on the performance of models for fake news detection. Principal component analysis and Chi-square are investigated for feature selection using machine learning and pre-trained deep learning models. Additionally, the influence of different preprocessing steps is also analyzed regarding fake news detection. Results obtained from comprehensive experiments reveal that the extra tree classifier outperforms with a 0.9474 accuracy when trained on the combination of term frequency-inverse document frequency and bag of words features. Models tend to yield poor results if no preprocessing or partial processing is carried out. Convolutional neural network, long short term memory network, residual neural network (ResNet), and InceptionV3 show marginally lower performance than the extra tree classifier. Results reveal that using subset features also helps to achieve robustness for machine learning models.

8.
Online Information Review ; 46(6):1152-1166, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070251

ABSTRACT

Purpose - News consumption is critical in creating informed citizenry;however, in the current context of media convergence, news consumption becomes more complex as social media becomes a primary news source rather than news media. The current study seeks to answer three questions: why the shifted pattern of news seeking only happens to some but not all of the news consumers;whether the differentiated patterns of news seeking (news media vs social media) would result in different misinformation engagement behaviors;and whether misperceptions would moderate the relationship between news consumption and misinformation engagement. Design/methodology/approach - A survey consisted of questions related to personality traits, news seeking, misperceptions and misinformation engagement was distributed to 551 individuals. Multiple standard regression and PROCESS Macro model 1 were used to examine the intricate relationships between personality, news use and misinformation engagement. Findings - Results indicate that extroversion was positively associated with social media news consumption while openness was inversely related to it. Social media news consumption in turn positively predicted greater misinformation sharing and commenting. No association was found between Big Five personality traits and news media news seeking. News media news seeking predicted higher intention to reply to misinformation. Both relationships were further moderated by misperceptions that individuals with greater misperceptions were more likely to engage with misinformation. Originality/value - The current study integrates personality traits, news consumption and misperceptions in understanding misinformation engagement behaviors. Findings suggest that news consumption via news media in the digital era merits in-depth examinations as it may associate with more complex background factors and also incur misinformation engagement. Social media news consumption deserves continuous scholarly attention. Specifically, extra attention should be devoted to extrovert and pragmatic individuals in future research and interventions. People with these characteristics are more prone to consume news on social media and at greater risk of falling prey to misinformation and becoming a driving force for misinformation distribution. Peer review -The peer review history for this article is available at:https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-10-2021-0520

9.
Revista Ibero-Americana De Estudos Em Educacao ; 17(2):1327-1340, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072384

ABSTRACT

This article sought, through literature review, to present the advance of fake news and how misinformation and lack of prior knowledge affect the routine of individuals and interfere with the health of the population. Although health subjects are not part of the curriculum of many Educacao Profissional e Tecnologica (EPT) courses, it is important to question how certain events interfere in the school community and how the school and the teacher can use fake news in a didactic way with scientific knowledge, to train citizens with new competencies and skills that are in demand in the labor market today. The concern arises at the time of the pandemic, when people worldwide are learning to live with a new routine, imposed by COVID-19. We start from this contextualization to propose the epistemology of the active methodology, based on projects, which considers as presuppositions for learning, real situations having life and events as context and this allows the student to research and reflect, leading to the development of new competencies and skills.

10.
Asr Chiang Mai University Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ; 9(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072236

ABSTRACT

The downside of the integrative aspect of the digital space is how easily fake news can propagate which jeopardized the regulation and control measures of the COVID-19 pandemic. While existing literature expounds on the nature of infodemic phenomenon, recent curiosities lack the exploration of the contributing factors that led to the inability to recognize fake news on social media as it corresponds to the New Media Literacy (NML) levels. NML allows adaptation to technological advancement as it constantly evolves with great sophistication. Anchored from this gap, the study employs a quantitative research design where 385 respondents from Cebu City-a highly urbanized city in the Philippines-were asked to answer a three-part survey questionnaire. The findings purport that a high percentage of respondents can distinguish legitimate from fake news and take proactive measures in reporting or resharing the posts. Moreover, the study reveals that the respondents have high NML levels, particularly in functional prosuming and consuming aspects, which the study probed according to the demographic factors. The salient discussion then revolves around the low critical outcomes of prosuming and consuming NML aspects to push for educational policy formulation methods with interpretive social-scientific approaches. This reinforces the post-truth lens in expanding the fields of concerns arising from the infodemic phenomenon. Furthermore, recommendatory measures are provided in the Philippine educational system- that may be reintegrated into the dimensions of policy theories for educational policy evaluation to probe different areas of improvement in the Media and Information Literacy of the K-12 curriculum.

11.
LIBRARIES AND THE GLOBAL RETREAT OF DEMOCRACY: Confronting Polarization, Misinformation, and Suppression ; 50:163-182, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068052

ABSTRACT

As fake news and other disinformation are spread primarily online and erode trust in experts and institutions, they challenge the role of librarians as information gatekeepers. Experts have advocated for libraries to educate the public to resist misinformation, yet libraries cannot assume sole responsibility for information literacy work. In this chapter, the authors explore several successful information literacy programs in Ukraine, whose fake news problems made global headlines in 2014, when the Russian annexation of Crimea was accompanied by a flood of crude but effective disinformation. The authors look particularly at the Learn to Discern programs established by the international non-profit organization IREX to foster information literacy using techniques grounded in interdisciplinary expertise and carefully evaluated through pilot studies and follow-up evaluations. These programs train instructors through workshops and provide them with materials. In the first program, aimed at the general public, many of the instructors were librarians, and library facilities were heavily used to deliver the public training. In the second program, information literacy was integrated into the public school curriculum and thousands of teachers were trained to deliver expertly designed materials for particular grade levels and subjects. The authors also consider the special challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, both as a source for new forms of misinformation and as a disruptor of training previously delivered in tightly packed libraries and classrooms. These Ukrainian programs demonstrate the potential for fighting fake news and other misinformation on a scale far beyond what could be accomplished by individual libraries acting alone.

12.
New Media & Society ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2064630

ABSTRACT

The global problem of online disinformation has led scholars, educators, and other stakeholders in societies to emphasize the utility of news literacy to engender more critical news audiences. Using a survey among a representative online sample of citizens in Hong Kong (N = 1485), this study examined how dispositional news literacy was related to individuals’ ability to discern real and fake COVID-related news on social media and their news authentication behaviors. Results showed that higher news literacy was related to greater ability to discern the veracity of real and fake news headlines;greater likelihood of certain internal acts of authentication when exposed to fake news (e.g. assessing content characteristics of the message);and greater likelihood to search online to verify fake news. The findings demonstrated the normative benefits of high dispositional news literacy among the general populace that can attenuate the effects of online disinformation. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of New Media & Society is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
9th IEEE International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, SETIT 2022 ; : 204-211, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063285

ABSTRACT

Fake news corresponds to distributed information which is not true. It becomes popularized during the 2016 U.S. elections. With the spread of COVID-19 and becoming an epidemic, much information is exchanged around the world. A part of this information is fake having a negative impact on mental health and psychological well-being of people. Because of the importance of this issue, we propose in this work applying several machine learning algorithms to detect COVID-19 fake news. We propose, also, several metrics to evaluate those models and to choose the best among them. Compared to the existing works, we use four classes: Fake, Mostly Fake, True and Mostly True. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
Applied Cognitive Psychology ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2059243

ABSTRACT

Acceptance of fake news is probably modulated by an intricate interplay of social, cultural, and political factors. In this study, we investigated whether individual‐level cognitive factors related to thinking and decision making could influence the tendency to accept fake news. A group of volunteers responded to a COVID19‐related fake news discrimination scale as well as to questionnaires assessing their thinking style (reflective vs. intuitive) and thinking disposition (actively open‐mindedness). Furthermore, they completed a computerized contingency learning task aimed at measuring their tendency to develop a causal illusion, a cognitive bias leading to perceive causal connections between non‐contingent events. More actively open‐minded and more reflective individuals presented higher fake news discrimination scores. In addition, those who developed weaker causal illusions in the contingency learning task were also more accurate at differentiating between fake and legitimate news. Actively open‐minded thinking was the main contributor in a regression model predicting fake news discrimination. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Applied Cognitive Psychology is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-24, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059910

ABSTRACT

Studies show that COVID-19 has increased the effects of misinformation and fake news that proliferated during the continued crisis and related turbulent environment. Fake news and misinformation can come from various sources such as social media, print media, as well as from electronic media such as instant messaging services and other apps. There is a growing interest among researchers and practitioners on how fake news and misinformation impacts on supply chain disruption. But the limited research in this area leaves a gap. With this background, the purpose of this study is to determine the role of fake news and misinformation in supply chain disruption and the consequences to a firm's operational performance. This study also investigates the moderating role of technology competency in supply chain disruption and operational performance of the firm. With the help of theories and literature, a theoretical model has been developed. Later, the conceptual model has been validated using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The study finds that there is a significant impact of misinformation and fake news on supply chain disruption, which in turn negatively impacts firms' operational performance. The study also highlights that firms' technology competency can improve the supply chain situation that has been disrupted by misinformation and fake news.

16.
Ann Ig ; 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056239

ABSTRACT

Background: The fight against fake news, mainly spread through Internet, is a major public health issue, even among undergraduate students. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a website promoted by the Italian Federation of the Provincial Orders of the Medical Doctors as a first aid communication kit for health topics. Study design: Pre-post study using a web-based survey, conducted in April-May 2019 on Medical students and October-November 2020 on Communication Sciences students at the University of Florence (Italy). Methods: Undergraduate students of both schools were exposed to the use of the "dottoremaeveroche" website. Primary and secondary outcomes measures: the Italian-electronic Health Literacy Scale self-assessment tool was used to examine subjects' electronic Health literacy, and source quality. All responses were rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Changing in perception of abilities were examined using the Wilcoxon test. Results: The 362 participants felt moderately confident in electronic Health Literacy, with an initial Italian-electronic Health Literacy Scale overall mean score of 3.6±0.7 for medical and 3.2±0.8 for communication students. Medical students had a good idea of how to find helpful sources (3.9±0.8) and communication students felt confident in recognizing their quality (3.5±1.0). In contrast, their confidence in using Web information to make health decisions was low (medical: 2.9±1.1; communication: 2.8±1.1). All items improved significantly after "dottoremaeveroche" use (p<.001), with the overall mean score of Italian-electronic Health Literacy Scale increasing to 4.3±0.6 for medical and 4.1±0.8 for communication students. Conclusions: Low electronic health literacy levels can affect public health efforts, as seen during the COVID- 19 pandemic. The effectiveness of "dottoremaeveroche" among students showed the usefulness of online educational interventions that, if further implemented, could help combat the spread of infodemic.

17.
Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics ; 22(4):769-778, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056615

ABSTRACT

Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook, have facilitated mass communication and connection. Due to the development as well as the advancement of social platforms, the spreading of fake news has increased. Many studies have been performed for detecting fake news with machine learning algorithms;but these existing methods had several difficulties, such as rapid propagation, access method and insignificant selection of features, and low accuracy of the text classification. Therefore, to overcome these issues, this paper proposed a hybrid Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers — Support Vector Machine (BERT-SVM) model with a recommendation system that used to predict whether the information is fake or real. The proposed model consists of three phases: preprocessing, feature selection and classification. The dataset is gathered from Twitter social media related to COVID-19 real-time data. Preprocessing stage comprises Splitting, Stop word removal, Lemmatization and Spell correction. Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) converter is utilized to extract the features and convert text to binary vectors. A hybrid BERT-SVM classification model is used to predict the data. Finally, the predicted data is compared with the preprocessed data. The proposed model is implemented in MATLAB software with several performance metrics carried out, and these parameters attained better performance: accuracy is 98 %, the error is 2 %, precision is 99 %, specificity is 99 %, and sensitivity is 98 %. Therefore the better effectiveness of the proposed model than existing approaches is shown. The proposed social networking analysis model provides effective fake news prediction that can be used to identify the Twitter comments, either real or fake. © Kiruthika N.S., Thailambal G., 2022.

18.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 87, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053993

ABSTRACT

Misinformation has been a pressing issue since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, threatening our ability to effectively act on the crisis. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of fake news on behavioural intentions. Does exposure to or belief in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines affect people's intentions to receive such a vaccine? This paper attempts to address this question via three preregistered experiments (N = 3463). In Study 1, participants (n = 1269) were exposed to fabricated pro- or anti-vaccine information or to neutral true information, and then asked about their intentions to get vaccinated. In Study 2, participants (n = 646) were exposed to true pro- and anti-vaccine information, while Study 3 (n = 1548) experimentally manipulated beliefs in novel misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines by increasing exposure to the information. The results of these three studies showed that exposure to false information about the vaccines had little effect on participants' intentions to get vaccinated, even when multiple exposures led them to believe the headlines to be more accurate. An exploratory meta-analysis of studies 1 and 3, with a combined sample size of 2683, showed that exposure to false information both supporting and opposing COVID-19 vaccines actually increased vaccination intentions, though the effect size was very small. We conclude by cautioning researchers against equating exposure to misinformation or perceived accuracy of false news with actual behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Vaccination
19.
E-Learning and Digital Media ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053803

ABSTRACT

The phenomenal increase in the level of digital technologies has in no small measure enabled and opened new vista of possibilities that were hitherto inconceivable before the advent of these digital technologies. Indeed, this phenomenon has also increased the ‘crescendo’ of various seemingly impossible trends in the area of circulation of information in the globalised world in ways such as global rapid communication, unhindered and constant access to information, democratised production and dissemination of information and digital content, and the ability to coordinate global political activities or movements through several populist strategies and political antics employed by politicians. Currently, it is somewhat seemed intractable to separate truth from falsehood due to striking similarities in the appearance of the two. However, these phenomena have brought about untoward development resulting in the amplification of various forms of digital deceptions peddled on several digital devices. Like other countries, Nigeria, too, is battling with the rise in populism politics, fake news, ethnic nationalism (laden with ethnic jingoism), hate and dangerous speech and other kinds of digital deceptions, among others. The escalating herder-farmer communal clashes, ethno-religious crises in some states in Nigeria, a tsunami of misinformation and disinformation about COVID-19, as well as political tensions between the two dominant political parties (All Progressives Congress and People’s Democratic Party (PDP)), have been influenced by deceptions, untruths and political propaganda. Therefore, through extensive interaction with (and review of) both the extant and current literature, this paper: provides further insights into the evolving issues regarding deceptions, fake news, epistemic errors as well as democratic and social harms emanating from deceptions in the Nigerian polity. The methodology used in this paper involves a comprehensive but selective literature review conducted to locate papers (Journal articles and theses or dissertations) on the foregoing evolving issues. Also, literature related to each of the analyses of the trend of fake news and other forms of digital deceptions in the light of the emerging post-truth era and their potential impacts on the country is incorporated into the review. However, a conclusion is drawn from the findings while the paper recommends that curtailing the influence of digital deceptions and fake news on the body polity of Nigeria requires collective responsibility of all the stakeholders coupled with enhanced steps (which include but are not limited to: credibility, media skills, regulation, collaboration, media literacy, professionalism, gatekeeping, self-censorship as well as detection) towards fighting the menace and morbidity of digital deceptions in the country. © The Author(s) 2022.

20.
2022 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ISIEA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052038

ABSTRACT

The rapid advancement of social networks and the convenience of internet availability have accelerated the rampant spread of false news and rumors on social media sites. Amid the COVID-19 epidemic, this misleading information has aggravated the situation by putting people's mental and physical lives in danger. To limit the spread of such inaccuracies, identifying the fake news from online platforms could be the first and foremost step. In this research, the authors have conducted a comparative analysis by implementing five transformer-based models such as BERT, BERT without LSTM, ALBERT, RoBERTa, and a Hybrid of BERT & ALBERT in order to detect the fraudulent news of COVID-19 from the internet. COVID-19 Fake News Dataset has been used for training and testing the models. Among all these models, the RoBERTa model has performed better than other models by obtaining an F1 score of 0.98 in both real and fake classes. © 2022 IEEE.

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