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1.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):9443-9449, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067326

ABSTRACT

Oman has performed very well in the healthcare sector since 1970, it has achieved great heights in healthcare delivery. As per world bank data 2020, Oman has achieved 99% in providing basic sanitation services among its citizen and it has maintained this level since 2015.[1]. Centre of Studies Research-CSR-MOH has prepared a strategic plan “Health Vision 2050 for Health Research “to make Oman a regional leader in the Research & Development of Health Sector. As per this document, its mission is to provide a platform and conduct Research in the healthcare sector to address and prioritize healthcare services and reduce inequality in healthcare services among its citizen. This can be a major boost and contribute to socioeconomic development irrespective of the income among the Omani citizen. [2]. For any country to become prosperous needs a large pool of human capital, which can be achieved by providing good education and cheap health services to its citizen. Efficient human capitols lead to a good economy which further leads good GDP for any country. We can say the GDP of any country and its human capital complement each other. In this research paper, I have studied and analyzed the “Income & Expenditure” dataset from the data portal offal Al-Dakhliyah region of Oman, Health Vision document-2050, and Oman World Health Survey-2008. As per the report, Oman has scored very well ahead among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in economic stability, health, civil society, governance, and environment, in current-level Sustainable Economic Development Assessment (SEDA) scores, according to a report.[9]. In this research paper, we have reviewed and studied the impact of family income on sanitation, hygiene, and disease. Qualitative and quantitative methods like data collection using questionnaires, and world bank data and also reviewed various related research papers for our analysis. In this research paper, we have compared pre & post covid impacts on sanitation and hygiene practices among Omani citizens. A systematic review of published literature (2000-2019) evaluating the impact of family income on sanitation, hygiene, and disease. In low-and middle-income families [we used world bank data], we sought to examine the relationship between WASH provisions in healthcare facilities (HCF) and patient satisfaction/care-seeking behavior.[3].

2.
Enfermería Global ; 21(4):158-170, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067133

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La carga de trabajo excesiva en el personal de salud, debido a la pandemia del COVID19 ha generado la presencia del Síndrome de Burnout. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar un modelo logístico para los factores asociados a las dimensiones del Síndrome de Burnout en el personal de salud, durante la pandemia COVID-19, en Trujillo - Perú. Método: Se aplicó un diseño transversal, correlacional;se utilizó el cuestionario estandarizado del inventario de Burnout de Maslach aplicado virtualmente, que mide: agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y realización personal, la muestra estuvo conformada por 143 profesionales de salud de los establecimientos de la Micro red de Trujillo y de El Seguro Social de Salud (ESSALUD), Resultados: El 24,5% de profesionales de la salud tienen un nivel de agotamiento emocional alto, 27,3% nivel de despersonalización alto y 39,9% nivel de realización personal bajo. El estado civil, ingreso familiar, tipo de institución donde labora, la edad y el número de hijos se asocian al nivel de agotamiento emocional (p<0,05). El sexo, la profesión, tipo de institución, edad y número de hijos se asocian al nivel de despersonalización (p<0,05). El tipo de institución y la edad se asocian al nivel de realización personal (p<0,05). Conclusiones: El modelo logístico ordinal propuesto indica el 69,2% de éxito en nivel de agotamiento emocional, el 60,8% de éxito para el nivel de despersonalización y el 58,7% con el modelo para nivel de realización personal.Alternate :Introduction: Excessive workload in health personnel, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, has generated the presence of Burnout Syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine a logistic model for the factors associated with the dimensions of Burnout Syndrome in health personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic in Trujillo - Peru. Method: A cross-sectional, correlational design was applied. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire was used and applied virtually. It measures emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal fulfillment. The sample consisted of 143 health professionals from the Trujillo Micro-network and Social Health Insurance establishments (ESSALUD). Results: 24.5% of health professionals have a high level of emotional exhaustion, 27.3% a high level of depersonalization and 39.9% a low level of personal fulfillment. Marital status, family income, type of institution where they work, age and number of children are associated with the level of emotional exhaustion (p<0.05). Gender, profession, type of institution, age and number of children are associated with the level of depersonalization (p<0.05). The type of institution and age are associated with the level of personal fulfillment (p<0.05). Conclusions: The proposed ordinal logistic model indicates 69.2% success in emotional exhaustion level, 60.8% success for depersonalization level and 58.7% with the model for personal fulfillment level.

3.
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 26(3):157-164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066866

ABSTRACT

Background: Self-negligence, societal neglect, and lack of access to adequate health care make domestic workers vulnerable to ill-health. COVID-19 has adversely affected the work prospects of people across social classes and their health care-seeking opportunities as well. We studied the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on work prospects and health care-seeking behavior of a vulnerable section of the society-the women domestic workers. Method(s): A longitudinal analysis on 292 randomly selected women domestic workers residing in slums of 'Kalikapur' locality of Kolkata city, West Bengal (India). Data were collected using a predesigned and pretested schedule twice: in early-2020 (before severe impact of COVID-19) and mid-2020 (during the pandemic ravaging India). Paired t-test and McNemar's test were used to check for significant changes. Result(s): Of all the participants, 57.2% lost jobs partially while 2.7% were completely jobless in mid-2020;the average daily work-hour decreased by 25.7%. Their average monthly pay significantly reduced (P < 0.05);mean family income in mid-2020 was lesser as well, compared to earlier (P < 0.05). Compared to early-2020, 15.8% more participants were sole bread-winners for their families during COVID-19. Number of participants visiting health practitioners significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in mid-2020. Rise in over-the-counter medicine use (P < 0.05) and increased tendency to ignore symptoms (P < 0.05) during COVID-19 was noted. Conclusion(s): The COVID-19 pandemic has affected work prospects and health care-seeking behavior of women domestic workers negatively. Most of them faced wage reduction, many becoming sole-earners for their families. This necessitates continued formulation and implementation of strategies ensuring social benefits including healthcare. Awareness about affordable healthcare and ill-effects of bad practices like self-medication should also be built. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S205-S206, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057644

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Weight management is currently the only established treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown improvements in liver histology, aminotransferase activity, and quality of life after weight loss in children with NAFLD.1 Recent studies demonstrate an accelerated rate of weight gain among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic that has been attributed to many factors, including the inability to be in a structured school setting and disruptions in family income.2,3 Objective: Our study aims to explore the effect of COVID-19 stay-at-home mandates and school closures on weight gain and liver function tests in children with NAFLD. Method(s): Following IRB approval (IRB 2021-4333), a retrospective chart review was performed on children aged 13-20 years who were seen at Lurie Children's Hospital (LCH) hepatology clinic for NAFLD and had two or more clinic visits at least three months apart during the pandemic period, defined as 3/1/20-9/1/21, and the pre-pandemic period, defined as before 3/1/20. The two most recent visits at least three months apart were the ones selected for the pre-pandemic period. Demographic and clinical data (race, ethnicity, age, BMI, height, weight, AST, ALT) were ed. Monthly BMI, AST, and ALT differences during the two periods were calculated for each patient. Paired-samples T-Tests were used to analyze differences between the two periods. Relative risks for an increase in BMI, AST, or ALT during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period were calculated. Result(s): Our cohort included 102 patients, with mean age of 14.5 (SD 1.6) during pre-pandemic period and 15.6 (SD 1.4) during pandemic period, 71 (70%) males, and 85 (83%) identifying as Hispanic or Latino. Mean BMI was 34.2 kg/m2 (SD 7.16) with mean Z-score of 2.16 (SD 0.56) during pre-pandemic period and mean BMI of 35.5 kg/m2 (SD 7.0) with mean Z-score of 2.21 (SD 0.56) during pandemic period. Seventy-seven (75%) children had a liver biopsy or other imaging consistent with their NAFLD diagnosis. There was a significant difference between monthly BMI differences during the pre-pandemic period (mean 0.0691 kg/m2/month, SD 0.271) and pandemic period (mean 0.161 kg/m2/month, SD 0.271);p=0.02. Of the 102 patients in our cohort, 75 had two or more ALT measurements at least three months apart during both time periods. There was a significant difference between monthly ALT differences during the pre-pandemic period (mean -2.39 IU/L, SD 8.67) and pandemic period (mean 1.70 IU/L, SD 11.3);p=0.01 (Figure 1). There was no significant difference between monthly AST differences during the two time periods. The relative risk of having an increase in BMI Z-score during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period was 1.37 (95% CI [1.09-1.72], p < 0.01, Figure 2). The relative risk of having an increase in ALT or AST during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period was not significant. Conclusion(s): Our cohort of children with NAFLD experienced an accelerated rate of BMI increases and ALT elevation during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings underscore the importance of increasing access to resources for healthy behaviors during public health emergencies or extended school closures in facilitating the health and well-being of children with NAFLD.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):7940-7952, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033464

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 had profound effects on nurses' general health. The severity and extent of the COVID-19 epidemic means it is highly likely that health personnel will suffer from psychological stress as a result the direct contact they have with patients who are infected. The goal of this research is to assess the level of anxiety and stress behaviors in B.Sc Nursing students, and to determine the relationship between stress levels and levels of coping, and socio-demographic variables. Methods: This study was cross sectional study. The sample size consisted of 500 BSc nursing students and samples were selected using convenient sampling techniques and the data was collected through self-administered COVID 19 stress scale and COVID 19 coping scale. Results: The study revealed that majority of students (22 %) were male and (78%) were female. Result showed that only (8%) has mild stress, (91%) had moderate stress and had (1%) severe stress, and (2.2%) had poor coping, (96.8%) had average coping and (1%) good coping. There was negative significant correlation (r=-0.721) between stress and coping behaviour among nursing year nursing students. There was significant association between level of stress and demographic variables such as age, education of father and mother, occupation of father and mother and family income. Conclusion: Nursing students' stress levels should be examined on a regular basis, contributing variables should be recognized, and the nurse administrators should establish a guidance, counselling, and stress management program to especially manage the stress during pandemic.

6.
Taiwan Journal of Public Health ; 41(1):96-104, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025280

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between family income loss and child health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data for the analysis were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample of babies born in 2005, and 18, 024 caregivers participated in the survey as their children aged 15. In analysis, we first conducted descriptive analyses to test the correlation between socioeconomic variables and family income loss. We next assessed whether there was a gradient relationship between family income loss and child health using Cochran-Armitage trend test. Finally, multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between family income loss and child health. Results: Our findings indicated that (1) lower socioeconomic families were at a greater risk of suffering income loss during COVID-19;(2) children in the families experiencing a more severe loss of income had worse health, but the gradient relationship was not significant for those in higher income families;and (3) significantly higher risk of fair/poor health of children was found in the severe (OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) and mild (OR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) income loss groups than in the no income loss group after adjustment for socioeconomic variables. Conclusions: Family income loss due to COVID-19 was significantly associated with child health inequality. To avoid widening the health gap, children in families experiencing financial impacts during the COVID-19 pandemic should be protected and supported, particularly those in lower socioeconomic groups. © 2022 Chinese Public Health Association of Taiwan. All rights reserved.

7.
Energies ; 15(17):6104, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023313

ABSTRACT

The carbon emissions of sectors and households enabled by primary inputs have practical significance in reality. Considering the mutual effect between the industrial sector and the household, this paper firstly constructed an environmentally extended semi-closed Ghosh input–output model with an endogenized household sector to analyze the relationship between carbon emissions and the Chinese economy from the supply-side perspective. The structural decomposition analysis and the hypothetical extraction method were remodified to identify the supply-side driving effects of the changes in carbon emissions and investigate the net carbon linkage. The results show that the electricity, gas, and water supply sector was the key sector with the highest carbon emission intensity enabled by primary inputs. The household sector had an above 93% indirect effect of the enabled intensity, with its enabled intensity dropping significantly by more than 55% from 2007 to 2017. The operating surplus and mixed income caused 3214.67 Gt (34.17%) of the enabled emissions in 2017. The supply-side economic activity, measured by the value added per capita, was the main factor of the carbon emission growth, mainly attributed to the development of the manufacturing sector and the electricity, gas, and water supply sector. The emission intensity and allocation structure both brought a decrease in carbon emissions. The electricity, gas, and water supply sector and the manufacturing sector were the major sources of the supply-induced cross-sectoral input emissions, while the commercial and service sector and the household sector were the top source of supply-induced cross-sectoral output emissions. This paper sheds light on the policies of the carbon emission abatement and the adjustment of the allocation structure from the perspective of supply.

9.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003356

ABSTRACT

Background: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death for Kentucky children above age 1. The Nest has four separate non-profit programs that provide respite child care, legal/psychological support services to survivors of intimate partner violence, parenting classes, and crisis assistance to families (toiletries/cleaning-supplies/papergoods/diapers/formula/food/rental-assistance since COVID, serving more than 400 clients per month). Community need for car seats was previously demonstrated by the 57 used seats they distributed in a year. Methods: Standard national Child Passenger Safety (CPS) checkup forms were utilized, with an Excel data base of seats provided/notes of special circumstances/problems with seats/cars. Forms from October 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021 were reviewed for quality improvement at least monthly, with immediate adjustments as necessary. All education and seat installation occurred outdoors during fall months and on all but the coldest winter days. Staff and families were masked, items used were sanitized and meticulous hand washing was done between families due to COVID. New convertible seats from grants were supplemented with individually- purchased harnessed booster seats to serve older children and with current (never-in- crash, not -recalled) donated infant seats. CPS services were conducted in 4 languages (English, French, Spanish and Arabic) with fluent staff or consenting family members as translators, and were offered both by appointment/previous consultation/referral from Family Assistance and as walk-ins requesting help or were observed to have car-seat/booster-sized children. Results: A small program that distributed seats as commodities without instruction or assessment of child/car was revised into a formal CPS fitting station, addressing difficult cars, large families, grandparents raising grandchildren, and resettled international refugees. Approximately 90% of families had annual family incomes of < $20,000/year, many below $10,000. Almost every consult for one child revealed multiple children in need of car seat education or new seats. More than 150 seats were checked in nine months. Types of misuse (in >90%) seen include: no seat, child too loose in seat, seat too loose in car, use of infant seats facing forward for too-big toddlers, premature use of no-back boosters (NBB) for small young children when family has no money for harnessed seats or at the mis-direction of a medical professional. Families that live in high crime areas with car theft are bringing in car seats at night so need lighter weight ones, as do grandparents. Conclusion: Taking CPS to the parking lot of an established non-profit has permitted us to reach more families with great need in a place they trust. Types of misuse have provided a real-world window into the potential optimal timing/messages of CPS within pediatric anticipatory guidance, and families have shown how our anticipatory CPS guidance may need to be adapted to work in the environment that people actually live in.

10.
Sleep Science ; 15:9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935247

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The high consumption of alcoholic beverages contributes to the etiology and maintenance of several health problems. Binge-drinking is used to define the episodic excessive use of alcohol when a person consumes large doses of alcoholic beverages on a single episode. In adults, frequent alcohol consumption is associated with circadian and sleep misalignment, compromising functions in all physiological systems. Objective: To evaluate the association of binge-drinking alcohol during the COVID-19 pandemic with sleep quality. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study, between October and December 2020 in two medium-sized cities in Minas Gerais. Sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, with a global score from 0 to 21. Scores of 5-10 indicate poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption was evaluated by the frequency of consumption, and binge-drinking was evaluated by the question: “In the last 30 days, have you consumed 5 or more doses of alcoholic beverages (men) or 4 or more doses of alcoholic beverages (women) on a single occasion? One dose of alcohol is equivalent to one can of beer or one glass of wine, or one dose of distilled alcoholic beverage?”. Multivariate logistic regression was used to verify the association of binge-drinking alcohol with sleep quality. Results: Of the individuals evaluated, more than half had poor sleep quality (52.5%), were female (51.9%), black or brown (67.9%), with minimum high school education (56.5%), and family income below 5 minimum wages (60.4%). Alcohol consumption was reported by 58.2%, and prevalence of binge-drinking was 30.2%. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for sex, age, income and anxiety and frequency of alcohol consumption, individuals in binge-drinking had double the chance of had poor sleep quality (OR=2.06;95% CI 1.15-3.70). Conclusion: Individuals in binge-drinking during covid-19 pandemic are more likely to have poor sleep quality. Our results are important because the pandemic may have increased stress due to loss of income and employment, as well as increased social isolation. This stress can lead to increased binge-drinking and increased chances of having poor quality sleep.

11.
Sleep Science ; 15:8, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935246

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D is a global health problem that affects more than one billion people worldwide, and this prevalence is expected to have increased during a pandemic with social restriction measures. Vitamin D has been implicated in extraskeletal functions in many physiological mechanisms, including sleep. Objective: To evaluate the association of vitamin D scenario with sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional, populationbased study, between October and December 2020 in two medium-sized cities in Minas Gerais. Sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), with a global score from 0 to 21. Scores of 5-10 indicate poor sleep quality. We evaluated a possible scenario of vitamin D adequacy, considering the time of sun exposure and the consumption of food supplements that are sources of vitamin D. Thus, we classified the vitamin D scenario as sufficient when the average daily sun exposure was greater than or equal to 30 minutes/day or the individual reported consuming a food supplement that is a source of vitamin D. And insufficient individuals who expose themselves to the sun for less than 30 minutes/day or do not consume a food supplement that is a source of vitamin D. Multiple logistic regression was used to verify the association of insufficient vitamin D scenario with sleep quality. Results: Of the individuals evaluated, most were female (51.9%), black or brown (67.9%), with minimum high school education (56.5%), and family income below 5 minimum wages (60.4%). Regarding vitamin D, 35.0% had insufficient sun exposure (< 30min/day), 77.9% did not use vitamin D source supplements. Evaluating the vitamin D scenario, 27.1% were insufficient. The mean of PSQI score was 6.32 (95%CI: 6.03-6.62) e 52.5% had poor quality. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for sex, age, and income, subjects with insufficient vitamin D had 1.41 times the chance of having poor sleep quality (OR=1.41;95% CI: 1.01-1.98). Conclusion: Individuals with insufficient vitamin D scenario are more likely to have poor sleep quality during the pandemic of COVID-19. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of evaluating the impact of the pandemic on health conditions like vitamin D, and how they relate to sleep.

12.
Sleep Science ; 15:9-10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935245

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the pandemic, changes resulting from social and routine restrictions may have led to a change in sleep quality patterns. Furthermore, poor sleep quality may result in increased hunger and food intake, especially of ultraprocessed foods. Objective: To evaluate the association of sleep quality with food consumption pattern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study, between October and December 2020 in two medium-sized cities in Minas Gerais. Sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, with a global score from 0 to 21. Scores of 5-10 indicate poor sleep quality and greater than 10, a possible sleep disorder. The unhealthy eating indicator was designed according to food processing, unprocessed (fruits, vegetables and legumes, milk, and beans) and ultra-processed (processed meats, sweets, instant noodles, and soft drinks). Unprocessed foods consumed daily, and ultra-processed foods consumed never received the lowest score (zero). The highest score (four points) was received by unprocessed foods never, and ultraprocessed foods daily. The total score ranged from 0 (best) to 32 points (worst quality). It was subsequently categorized into quartiles and grouped to dichotomized variable: unhealthy food (2nd to 4th quartile;> 5 points) and healthy (1st quartile;< 4 points). Multiple logistic regression was used to verify the association of sleep quality with dietary consumption pattern. Results: Of the individuals evaluated, most were female (51.9%), black or brown (67.9%), with minimum high school education (56.5%), and family income below 5 minimum wages (60.4%). The food score ranged from 0 to 24 points, and 76.8% had an unhealthy eating pattern. Regarding sleep, 38.6% had poor quality, and 13.9% sleep disorder. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for sex, age, and income, subjects with poor sleep quality had 1.81 times the chance of having an unhealthy eating pattern (OR=1.81;95% CI 1.25- 2.62), and those with sleep disturbance had 2.28 times the chance of having an unhealthy eating pattern (OR=2.28;95% CI: 1.27-4.10). Conclusion: Individuals with poor quality and sleep disorders are more likely to have unhealthy eating during the pandemic of COVID-19. This study demonstrates the importance of investigating the repercussion of the pandemic on sleep and eating habits, and worsening health status of these individuals.

13.
Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning ; 33(2):228-242, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1933445

ABSTRACT

In this article, we projected household financial vulnerability in the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a nationally representative sample of households from the 2017 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we analyzed potential changes in financial status in the pandemic resulting from loss of income and savings from discretionary consumption. We provided a ranking of household groups by their financial vulnerability and the first estimate of the number of households at various degrees of financial vulnerability. Our study showed that a substantial part of the universal stimulus payments was made to households that had sufficient income to cover basic needs and those saved by reducing discretionary expenses. For the most financially vulnerable, the first one-time stimulus payment was too little and too late to help with their financial difficulties. Our findings shed light on to whom and in what form the US government should direct financial assistance during the pandemic.

14.
History of Education Quarterly ; 62(3):337-352, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1931235

ABSTRACT

Since No Child Left Behind was signed into law, test-based accountability has become a core feature of the K-12 public education system in the United States. The approach, it would seem, is here to stay. Yet that is not to say that anything resembling a consensus has emerged. Over the past twenty years, critics have continued to raise questions about the theory of change underlying test-based accountability, and scholars have detailed a variety of unintended consequences associated with it.If test-based accountability is both likely to persist and imperfect in its design, then it is critical to consider how its shortcomings might be addressed. In service of that aim, and in keeping with the mission of this feature, this Policy Dialogue explores future possibilities by starting, first, with a look at the past. In this particular case, participants were asked to address one simple question: “What have we learned from two decades of high-stakes testing?”As regular readers of HEQ are aware, these dialogues usually feature a historian in conversation with a scholar or practitioner from the world of policy. In this case, the choice of Diane Ravitch was a natural one, particularly given the fact that she is a member of HEQ's editorial board. A research professor at New York University, she is also a former assistant US secretary of education and the author of several books about measurement and accountability.Rather than select a single interlocutor, however, the editors chose to pair her with three leaders who represent the broad range of viewpoints in the field: Denise Forte, Princess Moss, and Paul Reville. Denise Forte is the interim CEO of The Education Trust. She brings to our conversation twenty years of experience in congressional staff roles, including as the staff director for the House Committee on Education and the Workforce. Princess Moss is vice president of the National Education Association and cochair of the NEA's task force on measurement and accountability. In prior work with the NEA's Executive Committee, she helped develop the group's position on reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act—from NCLB to the Every Student Succeeds Act. Paul Reville is the Francis Keppel Professor of Practice of Educational Policy and Administration at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and former secretary of education for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Nearly a decade before the passage of NCLB, he played a key role in the development of the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993, which instituted standards-based accountability across the state.HEQ Policy Dialogues are, by design, intended to promote an informal, free exchange of ideas between scholars. At the end of the exchange, we offer a list of references for readers who wish to follow up on sources relevant to the discussion.

15.
Race and Social Problems ; : 21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1926095

ABSTRACT

During the strong economic conditions that predated the COVID-19 pandemic, many US workers, especially females and individuals of color, suffered from economic vulnerability. Despite growing research attention, we lack an understanding of how the prevalence and patterns of earnings and job instability vary with worker characteristics, particularly at the intersections between sex and race/ethnicity. This study uses longitudinal administrative data from a large, diverse state from 2015 through 2018 to document changes in earnings and jobs. We then examine variation in the size, frequency, and direction of these changes by worker sex and race/ethnicity among a subsample of workers who are connected to the public welfare system. Results indicate that, as expected, workers who are connected to the public welfare system experienced higher levels of economic vulnerability, but with substantial racial/ethnic and sex differences. As a consequence, a large number of workers-disproportionately those of color-were experiencing high levels of economic instability during a period of strong economic growth. Our findings have implications for policy and practice strategies.

16.
Rawal Medical Journal ; 47(2):434-437, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925376

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the impact of covid-19 on medical education and anxiety level of medical students. Methodology: This prospective cross sectional study was done at Shifa College of mMedicine, Islamabad, Pakistan from 1st October 2020 to 15th November 2020. Medical students were randomly selected and a preformed questionnaire was circulated among them via Online Google forums. We used GAD-7 scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results: Out of 122 respondents, 69 (56.5%) were female. Mean age was 22.1 ± 1.7 years. Almost all students had online education during COVID-19, however, 64 (52.4%) of them faced communication problems during online education. Only 32 (26.2%) were satisfied with this method. In this study, 46 (37.7%) respondents had anxiety;38.0% had moderate to severe and 27.0% had mild anxiety. Most of the anxious respondents were significantly younger (21.6 vs. 22.5 years, p = 0.01). Females were significantly more anxious (69.6% vs. 30.4%) than males (p < 0.03). Conclusion: During Covid-19 pandemic, anxiety and stress levels have increased among medical student.

17.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):425-441, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1922534

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the oil palm smallholders' income, which includes both on-farm and off-farm resources.Design/methodology/approach>This study used a simultaneous equations system for arranging the oil palm household economic model.Findings>The results showed that the negative effect of demand disruption (decreasing of household income) is more than supply disruption (production declining). Declining household income due to COVID-19 caused farmer households to have no access to both basic need and other goods.Research limitations/implications>The samples for before-pandemic data differed from the situation during COVID-19 in both the location and the person due to technical constraints in research sites.Originality/value>The main contribution of this study was providing an empirical understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic influences the economic behavior of the most vulnerable entities in the Indonesian palm oil industry (oil palm smallholder farmers' households). This study would provide baseline information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy of oil palm smallholder's household income.

18.
Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics ; 25(SUPPL 1):S36-S37, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913292

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health problems are increasingly prevalent among children and adolescents. Children from low income families are likely to have worse mental health than their wealthier peers. Understanding the association between economic deprivation and poor child mental health, how it varies across ages from early childhood to teen years, and the mechanisms underlying the association is of paramount importance to tackle this increasing public health problem which has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: This study aims to investigate the relationship between family income and child mental health problems from childhood to adolescence in the UK, its potential variation with age, and the potential mechanisms that may explain the relationship. Methods: Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, child mental health was measured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), Internalising and Externalising subscales, all derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at ages 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 years. Family income was operationalised as permanent income, with lagged transitory income used as robustness check. A secondary exposure was frequency of poverty. Cross-sectional analysis using multivariable logistic regression was conducted at each survey age, based on the Grossman health production function. Results: Results were available for 8,096 children, the prevalence of mental health problems (TDS) ranged from 4.6% to 11.1% across all ages. Unadjusted results indicated significant protective effects of higher family income on the likelihood of the child having poorer mental health in all age groups. The relationship weakened after adjustment for confounding and potential mediating factors, and marginal effects of income on TDS were -0.024(SE=0.009), -0.014(SE=0.004), -0.009(SE=0.006), -0.048(SE=0.010) and -0.041(SE=0.011) at age 3, 5, 7, 11, and 14 years, respectively (p<0.001 in all age groups except age 7 where p=0.163). Adjust- ment for poor maternal mental health and low mother-to-infant attachment reduced the strength of the association between income and child mental health. Fully adjusted model suggested an increased independent effect of poor maternal mental health on children's mental health as children grew older. Discussion: While family income is strongly associated with a child's mental health, much of this effect is explained by other risk factors such as maternal depression, and therefore the direct effects are relatively small. This may suggest that policies targeting income redistribution may reduce child mental health inequalities, and also be beneficial to the wider family, reducing the prevalence of other associated risk factors. This is even more important as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic pushes more families into poverty.

19.
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi ; 16(1):E20-E26, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912002

ABSTRACT

[...]vaccination may be an important way to reduce the delayed effects of COVID-19 infection in children. A patient with SARS-CoV-2 contact and a positive PCR (polymerase chain reaction), antigen or antibody test experiences fever, elevated inflammatory markers, and involvement of at least two systems (heart, lung, kidney, skin, hematological, gastrointestinal, and neurological). [...]COVID-19 infection now poses a serious health risk to children. [...]vaccination may be an important way to reduce the delayed effects of COVID-19 infection in children. The research questions determined for this purpose are as follows: * What percentage of parents want to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19? * Based on the characteristics of the children (age, chronic disease, regular medication use, COVID-19 infection), is there a difference in the rate of parents' willingness to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19? * Based on the characteristics of the parents (level of education, family income, number of children in the family), is there a difference in the rate of willingness to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19? * Is there a difference in the rate of parents who are willing to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19 based on the vaccination history of the children (having special vaccinations within and outside the National Vaccination Schedule and experiencing side effects after vaccination)?

20.
European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies ; 14(1):68-86, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1904124

ABSTRACT

Within the broader context of new dimensions of poverty such as housing poverty, energy poverty, etc., this article describes dependencies between household income, real estate ownership and socio-economic trends. We argue that income is not the principal determinant for home ownership rate, but rather recent lifestyle changes can better explain the homeownership decreasing trend in developed economies. Job mobility, family formation determinants and demographical trends seem to find well-supported basis in literature and data. Using data for the US states we have proved that the decreasing rate of home ownership may be explained by social aspects of changing lifestyle such as increasing share of population moving from rural areas to cities, age of marriage, divorce rate, career-oriented lifestyle, rather than by the frequently cited price-income ratio. We have also observed a short-term correlation between financing availability and homeownership rate, but we conclude that property prices would adjust to lose monetary policy without any long-term effect on homeownership rate. It results that government or monetary policies aimed to cushion the housing unavailability (recently increasing value of price-income) ratio may distort the housing market. We propose a new insight in the housing availability discussion.

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