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1.
African Journal of Reproductive Health ; 26(8):9-12, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067583

ABSTRACT

In sum, the totality of the available evidence suggests that there is currently limited research data relating to the pathogenesis, consequences, and outcomes of pregnancy in African women infected with new viral illnesses such as COVID-19, Lassa fever, and Ebola virus disease. World Health Organization (2020) Ebola virus disease. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebolavirus-disease 7. In Guidelines for screening and caring for pregnant women with Ebola virus disease for health care providers in US hospitals. Jamieson DJ, Uyeki TM, Callaghan WM, Meaney-Delman D, Rasmussen SA. What obstetrician-gynecologist should know about Ebola: a perspective from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

2.
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 12(10):1741-1745, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067048

ABSTRACT

COVID War Room;Cardiovascular Disease;Sudden Death;Post-Discharge;Case Fatality Rate INTRODUCTION The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as first reported in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019,[1] had rapidly spread globally within a short period, and has now become a pandemic affecting more than 200 countries and territories. [...]Hon. Municipal Commissioner of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai guided setting up a novel concept of "COVID War Room" and "medical call center" within it to establish communication and alleviate apprehensions of the patients and relatives during the unprecedented surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Furthermore, due to the lockdown and the ongoing medical emergency, follow-up of the discharged patients of SARSCoV-2 infections was not satisfactory. Because of this, Hon. Additional Municipal Commissioner of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Director (Medical Education and Major Hospitals), and Dean planned to use the war room setup of our tertiary care center for telephonic follow-up in the patients who were treated successfully for COVID and discharged. Relatives who did not give consent and refused to provide any information, patients who took discharge against medical advice to either get quarantined at home and died at home or got admitted to another hospital and died in that hospital (suggestive of death directly due to COVID) and relatives or patients who could not be contacted because of wrong, invalid, or non-existing contact numbers were excluded from the data evaluation.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12914, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066480

ABSTRACT

This study addresses, for the first time, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the operation of the disability fund in Poland. The study considers the impact of deaths on the number of survivor pensions and funeral allowance paid. We selected benefits which are a direct consequence of the death of the insured person and do not involve a medical assessment or subsequent steps in the insurance procedure, which allowed for a novel result, avoiding the time-gap problem. Data of four years were included in the study: 2018 and 2019 as pre-pandemic years and 2020 and 2021 as pandemic years. The research presented in this article (unexpectedly) indicates that there is no impact of the increased number of deaths on the increase in the number of survivor pensions and therefore there is no negative impact of the COVID-19 implications on the disability fund. The relationship between the total number of deaths and the number of funeral allowances is characterized by a high correlation with a positive direction.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12806, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066464

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are rooted in unsustainable and unjust human–animal relationships. Zoonoses are facilitated by human proximity to animals, epidemiological risk embedded within factory farms, and exploitation of animals and humans in these intensive livestock production systems. The five major categories of epidemiological risk that factory farms propel include: intensification of production for which homogenous populations are congregated, creation of multi-species farms for which different animals are held within the same farm, long and intensive animal transport increases the likelihood of interaction with other wildlife, ecological characteristics of the pathogen lead to altered pathogen dynamics and antibiotic resistance within a human population through the overuse of antibiotics. Layer and broiler operations in the North American context illustrate these linkages. One Health is offered as a concluding conceptual and aspirational frame for pursuing a more sustainable and just world. This article offers two main messages. First, our relationships with animals directly impact the health of human populations through the transmission and creation of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs). Second, adopting One Health offers a means forward for more just and sustainable human–animal relations and reduction of zoonoses transmission.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11804, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066371

ABSTRACT

Freight vehicle crashes are more serious than regular vehicle crashes because they are likely to lead to major damage and injury once they occur;therefore, countermeasures are needed. The fatality rate from freight vehicle crashes is 1.5 times higher than that of all other accidents, and the death rate from expressway freight vehicle crashes continues to increase. In this study, the ten-freight-vehicle crash severity models (the ordered logit and probit model, the multinomial logit and probit model, mixed-effects logit and probit model, random-effects ordered logit and probit model, and multilevel mixed-effects ordered logit and probit model) are used to analyze the freight vehicle crash severity factors. The model was constructed using data collected from expressways over eight years, and 13 factors were derived to increase the severity of crashes and 7 factors to reduce the severity of crashes. As a result of comparing the 10 constructed models using AIC and BIC, the multilevel mixed-effects ordered probit model showed the best performance. It is expected that it can contribute to improving the safety of freight vehicles in the expressway section by utilizing factors related to the severity of crashes derived from this study.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065951

ABSTRACT

The long-term mortality risk of natural disasters is a key threat to disaster resilience improvement, yet an authoritative certification and a reliable surveillance system are, unfortunately, yet to be established in many countries. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of post-disaster indirect deaths in Japan, to improve the existing disaster recovery evaluation system and support decision making in public policy. This study first investigated the definition of indirect deaths via a literature review before examining the observed number of indirect deaths via case study, census data from the Population Demographic and Household Surveys, other social surveys, and reports in the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which severely damaged northeastern Japan, especially the three prefectures, which are the target areas in this context (i.e., Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi). It was found that the reported number of indirect deaths was significantly underestimated. In total, 4657 indirect deaths were estimated to have occurred in the target prefectures. This was higher than the reported number, which was 3784. The overall statistics established via collaboration between local administrations and governments can be improved to provide better reference for researchers and policymakers to investigate the long-term effects of natural disaster.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Earthquakes , Natural Disasters , Japan/epidemiology , Tsunamis
7.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):1034-1039, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058576

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 disease, which was declared pandemic by WHO on the 11th of March 2020, has affected more than 200 countries worldwide and adversely affected whole areas of life. Aim: Our aim in this study is to investigate whether scientists in countries with low mortality rates and a higher reported number of COVID-19 cases among OECD countries sufficiently share their scientific knowledge. Methodology: A literature search was conducted with the keywords, "COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, Coronavirus" in scientific databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Medline to find the number of published articles conducted by scientists in OECD countries between the period 01 March 2020 to 01 July 2020. To define the number of academic population of the countries, the number of residents in tertiary education levels of OECD countries was obtained from the educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds report published on the OECD website. Results: In regards to the countries with the lowest fatality rates, India (n:1578), Australia (n:1097), and Korea (n:876) are the top three countries that have contributed to the scientific literature with the most published studies on COVID-19 issue. Conclusions: Concerning the current scientific data, about 2,000 papers regarding COVID-19 disease have been registered in the PubMed database since the early beginning of this year. The number of scientific publications is not consistent with the rate of tertiary education levels. Besides, the number of observed cases, and the data-sharing policies of the countries are determinants of the number of scientific publications.

8.
Webology ; 19(5):209-219, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058368

ABSTRACT

March 2020 saw South Africa go through its first 21-day lockdown, and fear gripped the country as a new virus identified as COVID-19 caused a devastating impact throughout the world. During this time, history played the devils advocate by reminding society of the previous flu known as the 1919 Spanish flu, which saw millions of people succumb to its prowess. To a large extent, social media enabled a confused and saddened society to be connected. Besides essential services, all other sectors of the economy were instantly shut down. Social media became societys lifeline during COVID-19 as it abled them to remain connected. One could say that social media became societys life support in these uncertain times. A forwarded message does not declare the original sender nor restricts who the next receiver could be. Businesses were also able to function by using social media to the point that people could now buy everything virtually from a store without going to a store. Social media could not replace all essential functions, but it helped provide a sustainable bridge for postlockdown. Certain sectors of the economy, which dealt with production etc., experienced the full brunt of the lockdown. Artisans and artists lost a platform to showcase their talent and display their trade, leading to a loss of income. Education Institutions had some forms of online platforms which were used;however, distance learning was implemented overnight through the use of online mediums. While Moodle is a required platform used by many higher education institutions, other online platforms are also used. This paper describes the use of WhatsApp as an online medium providing higher education institutions with a lifeline by keeping them connected during COVID-19. For this paper, the author uses the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication which looks at the sender and receiver and the medium used to disseminate information. The senders and receivers are students, lecturers, administration staff, and management. Content analyses were used as part of the research methodology for this paper.

9.
International Journal of Medical Dentistry ; 26(3):398-410, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057446

ABSTRACT

Pathophysiologically, SARS-CoV-2 is similar to SARS-CoV-1, causing a strong characteristic inflammatory reaction that damages the airways [8]. [...]combined antiviral and host responses contribute to disease severity, as seen in cases of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infections [9]. [...]a spurt of cytokines released in response to viral infection results in cytokine storm and sepsis, leading to a mortality rate of 28% in critical COVID-19 cases [10]. [...]SARS-CoV-2 decreases ACE2 receptor expression, which is associated with acute lung injury and disease pathology. Since ACE2 controls the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), its suppression can impair RAS homeostasis and influence blood pressure, electrolyte equilibrium, inflammation, and vascular permeability in the airways [14]. The enhanced requirement for antioxidants and consumption of vitamin C by leukocytes could explain the reduction in vitamin C levels observed during infections in general, during lung infections specifically [29], and in critically ill patients [30]. Besides the antioxidative effects of vitamin C, its beneficial functions during pneumonia act via signaling pathways associated with inflammation suppression and enhancement of immunoregulation [31].

10.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):985-1000, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057418

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 Is A Highly Contagious Disease That Can Easily Spread From Person To Person And Is A Global Health Threat. The Ongoing COVID-19 Is Inducing Fear And Knowledge Of The Disease Will Help To Dissipate Fear. The Lockdown That Was Introduced At The Earlier Onset In Many Countries Including Nigeria Was Sudden And This Had Implication For Physical And Psychological State Of Individuals Especially Young People, Who Are Easily Bored. Assessment Of Young People's Knowledge And Psychosocial Experience During The Lockdown Was The Objective Of This Study. This Was Done To Provide Baseline Information About Their Experience During This Unprecedented Event. Methods: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Survey Was Conducted Among 352 Respondents From Five Schools During The First Reopening Of Schools For Those In JSS3 And SSS3 Who Were Due For External Examinations. Simple Random Sampling Was Used For Selection Of Schools, While Systematic Sampling Was Used To Select Respondents. Data Were Generated From 28th September To 2nd Of October, 2020. Data Were Analyzed Using Descriptive And Inferential Statistics Of Chi-Square Test At 0.05% Level Of Significance Results: More Than Half (57.1%) Were Females, 55.7% Were Between 15-19 Years With Mean Age Of 14.7± 1.910, 54.3.0% Were In Third Year Of Senior Secondary, 56.8% Were From Oyo State, 84.7% Are From Yoruba Ethnic Group And More Than Half Live With Both Parents. More Than Half (58.8%) Had Good Knowledge Of COVID-19, 56.0% Had Positive Psychological Experiences And 57.7% Had Positive Social Experience. Psychological (P=0.101) And Social Experiences (P=0.192) Were Not Significantly Associated With Level Of Knowledge Of COVID-19. Conclusion: More Than Half Of The Students Had Good Knowledge Of COVID-19, Positive Psychological And Positive Social Experiences. Regular Health Education About COVID-19 And Its Prevention Is Needed To Sustain The Positive Behavior Among The Students And Curb The Spread Of COVID-19.

11.
Journal of Medical & Allied Sciences ; 11(2):155-162, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056054

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus outbreak was originated from Wuhan, China, was first reported in India on 30th January 2020. The impact of an epidemic depends on the number of persons infected, infection transmissibility and the spectrum of clinical severity. To determine the impact of outbreak, analysis of the existing record was done. The objective of this study was to determine the demographic factors, case fatality rate, its association and trend was observed among positive cases reported in Gwalior district. Covid-19 related data collected at the IDSP unit of Gwalior District was analysed. A total of 11281 case reported between 30th March to 11th October was included and their recorded data was analysed using mean, median, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. The study shows that Mean age of the cases was 39.95±16.75 while their median age was 38.0 (27.0-52.0). Maximum cases were in the age group of 21-30 (25.6%). On assessing the current status, 94.7% patients were discharged from isolation/treatment facility, 4% case were active while 1.3% died. Risk Ratio (Odds Ratio) for death was calculated for different characteristics. It was concluded from the present study that the outcome of disease was found statistically significant in age groups, residence in containment area and isolation status among patients by using logistic regression analysis. Also, no gender predilection of the disease and its mortality.

12.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2692-2700, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050860

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementing public health vending machines (PHVMs) is an evidence-based strategy for mitigating substance use-associated morbidity and mortality via the dispensation of essential supplies to people who use drugs, including overdose prevention resources. PHVMs have been implemented throughout the world; however, their implementation in the United States (US) is a recent phenomenon. In 2017, Trac-B Exchange (a syringe services program in Clark County, Nevada) installed three PHVMs. In 2019, naloxone dispensation was launched at PHVMs in Clark County. The purpose of this research is to examine the extent to which naloxone dispensation at PHVMs was associated with changes in opioid-involved overdose fatalities. METHODS: Monthly counts of opioid-involved overdose fatalities among Clark County residents that occurred from January 2015 to December 2020 were used to build an autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) model to measure the impact of naloxone dispensation at PHVMs. We forecasted the number of expected opioid-involved overdose fatalities had naloxone dispensation at PHVMs not occurred and compared to observed monthly counts. Interrupted time series analyses (ITSA) were used to evaluate the step (i.e. the immediate impact of naloxone dispensation at PHVMs on opioid-involved overdose fatalities) and slope change (i.e. changes in trend and directionality of monthly counts of opioid-involved overdose fatalities following naloxone dispensation at PHVMs). RESULTS: During the 12-months immediately following naloxone dispensation at PHVMs, our model forecasted 270 opioid-involved overdose fatalities, but death certificate data indicated only 229 occurred, suggesting an aversion of 41 deaths. ITSA identified a significant negative step change in opioid-involved overdose fatalities at the time naloxone dispensation at PHVMs was launched (B = -8.52, p = .0022) and a significant increasing slope change (B = 1.01, p<.0001). Forecasts that extended into the COVID-19 pandemic suggested worsening trends in overdose fatalities. CONCLUSION: Naloxone dispensation at PHVMs was associated with immediate reductions in opioid-involved overdose fatalities. Key MessagesNaloxone dispensation at PHVMs was associated with immediate reductions in opioid-involved overdose fatalities.Communities should consider implementing public health vending machines in efforts to prevent opioid-involved overdose fatalities.The COVID-19 pandemic worsened the overdose crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Humans , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Nevada , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics , Public Health , United States
13.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1208, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046124

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug that belongs to the 4-aminoquinolone group [1]. Despite of this properties presents several immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory characteristics [1,2]. In 2020, with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers used existing drugs with potential for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine, which ended up being used off-label [3,4]. From the clinical trials hydroxychloroquine has many adverse effects that can increase risk for the SARS-COV-2 patients health. Common adverse effects are related to gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems, neurotoxicity and retinopathy [2,5]. Objective: The objective of this research was to describe the adverse effects profile of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients and to characterize the risks associated with off-label use of hydroxychloroquine. Methods: An observational, retrospective and descriptive study was conducted. Information collected from the "Eudravigilance" database was analyzed using descriptive statistics with R Studio® software. Information about the source of reporting, patient sex, serious adverse reactions, deaths and off-label cases and their outcome, were evaluated and compared in the pre- and post-pandemic period. Results: The number of reports of adverse reactions to hydroxychloroquine increased significantly during the pandemic period (increase of 310.3%), with health professionals (92.0%) and woman (2020: 64%;2021: 81%) reporting the most. The analysis of age groups allowed us to conclude that the 18-64 age group has the highest number of reported patients (2020: 49%;2021: 53%). The offlabel use of hydroxychloroquine was also an important aspect to consider in this study: in the period of 2020-2021, a total of 29.8% of suspected ADR have been caused by hydroxychloroquine in off-label use, with an important percentage of those being associated with COVID utilization (20.0%). Finally, deaths associated with the use of hydroxychloroquine were also evaluated, of which 67.0% are described in off-label use. Conclusion: The number of reports of adverse reactions to hydroxychloroquine increased significantly during the pandemic. The potential for harm increased as off-label administration of hydroxychloroquine was associated with an increased incidence and severity of adverse reactions. However, associated with other drugs, this drug may potentiate certain adverse reactions, such as QT interval prolongation, nausea, dizziness, hypoglycaemia, heart failure, among others. Regarding outcomes, there seems to be an increase in the number of deaths associated with hydroxychloroquine, however causality has not been established for the observed data. Hydroxychloroquine presented varied adverse reactions in the observed data, and its off-label use during the pandemic showed an increase in its incidence.

14.
Hidraulica ; - (3):89-96, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045811

ABSTRACT

Models were run to reproduce COVID-19 infections versus deaths in Mexico City. The first model was made using rain runoff concept, emulating rain as number of infections reproducing runoff as number of deaths given as of March 2020. The second consisted of using an artificial neural network (ANN) proposed as an initial condition function to be implemented in the model with delay. These models were applied to fit accumulated confirmed case data, obtaining fit corroborated by coefficient of determination, R2. The R2 value produced by model was 0.0528 in case of infections comparison vs. official deaths reported by the Ministry of Health, 0.0571 for t case of infections vs. modelling using the HEC-HMS tool, and 0.0937 for case of contagion vs. modelling using ANN.

15.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1129, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045675

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dengue is one of top ten global health threats and is a serious burden in the Philippines. Dengvaxia immunization program was launched on April 2016 for children 9-14-year-olds in three regions with high statistics of dengue, hospitalization, and deaths. This was coincidentally the campaign period for national elections. Use of vaccine, once available, was part of a strategy to control epidemic. Current measures were inadequate. On the 30 November 2017, Sanofi announced an advisory that vaccine should not be used in those who are dengue naive otherwise they will have risk for severe dengue and additional hospitalization. What started as vaccine-vigilance information sparked a public outcry. This led to a series of parliamentary investigations, traditional and social media misinformation and disinformation vilifying the health decision makers and the company, and criminal charges filed against over 20 individuals by the state over alleged unproven vaccine caused deaths. Despite attempts to correct these narratives by a few health professionals, the damage to institution, the program, the product, and individuals have been done. The consequences of such actions of emotional approach without understanding the science have resulted in creating general vaccine rejection, hesitancy, other outbreaks such as measles, lowered confidence even with recent COVID vaccines. Objective: This aim to describe the situation at that time in the Philippines and extract lessons that will inform better risk communications during crisis. Methods: Literature analysis and environmental scans were undertaken. Results: Some of the important lessons learned are in risk management and communications. Adverse health product information should be announced with circumspect considering the level of health literacy and risk appreciation in a country. Partisan politics interfered with poorly understood science, fueled by imprudent comments by officials and health professionals who spoke out of turn, amplified by the media and created chaos. The fear was so palpable that enlightened health professionals refused to provide countervailing facts. While the vaccine is listed as part of WHO EML and used in many countries, Philippines has imposed a ban on the product. Reinstating the vaccine would be perceived as the government had back-pedaled on a mistake. In the meantime, the drama contributed to vaccination hesitancy and outbreaks. Conclusion: Public health decisions are policy and regulatory decisions anchored in ethical and utilitarian principles. Pharmacovigilance plays an important role in public health decisions but only if approached in a scientific and objective manner and in the context of a country's culture.

16.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(S5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045510

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus within a short span of time has done enough to disrupt the global supply chains, investor sentiments, financial markets, and economic activity on a massive scale. The global economy of the entire world has been hamstrung and lies in tatters. Further, hundreds of millions of workers are being locked up in homes and face pay cuts and lay-offs if there is no respite in the fear pandemic. The viral wave moving across continents taking a massive toll as governments fight an unfamiliar and unanticipated fight against the virus, companies shutting operations, and normal life coming to a screeching halt. The COVID-19 crisis is catastrophic as we are unequipped to deal with the magnitude of the challenges thrown at us and severe time constraints to get equipped with the medical machinery to fight it. The baffled governments globally initiated rapid action but failed to have any bearing on the financial markets or ameliorate the situation in any way, except the lock-downs that potentially scuttle any efforts in ramping up capacities to effectively tackle the lethal virus, apart from colossal economic and societal costs. This exploratory study attempts to review and evaluate the unusual virus to humankind, its economic and policy effects, and suggest some practical policy prescriptions to tide over the public health-cum-economic crisis. The first and second sections bring out the uniqueness of the COVID19-triggered health emergency and accordingly set the objectives of the study and methods used. The third and fourth sections evaluate the socio-economic and financial fallout of the crisis and the unprecedented fiscal-monetary stimulus strategies resorted to globally. The fifth section specifically focuses on the highly populated Indian economy and the visionary ways of the largest ever fiscal-monetary impetus in the backdrop of a potentially high fiscal deficits scenario. The sixth section evaluates the impact on the Corporate Sector and success tactics of the FMCG & Pharmaceutical sectors. The last section essentially weighs various policy actions, impacts, and a few recommendations for policy effectiveness, besides conclusions.

17.
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 12(9):1454-1457, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025156

ABSTRACT

Clinico-Epidemiological Profile;COVID-19;Pandemic;Mortality INTRODUCTION Corona virus disease 2019 is primarily a respiratory tract infection caused by newly identified beta corona virus. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. [1] It is important to focus on understanding the risk factors contributing to the severity of illness in COVID-19. [...]the present study was taken up to understand the clinical and epidemiological parameters that contributed to mortality among COVID positive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done on a laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 who died in COVID designated hospital of Bengaluru city during course of treatment.

18.
Water ; 14(17):2612, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024375

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is accurately framed in its title: Are pluvial and fluvial (river) floods on the rise? First, physical mechanisms that drive changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods were examined. Then, a review of literature was undertaken on detection and an attribution of changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods in observation records for past to present, as well as in model-based projections for the future. Various aspects, factors, processes and mechanisms, as well as various indices of interest were considered. There is quite a common, even if not scientifically justified, belief that, generally, floods are on the rise. However, in this paper, a balanced, knowledge-based assessment was undertaken, with discussion and interpretation, including caveats and indicating considerable departures from such a flat-rate statement. Observation records show that precipitation extremes have been intensifying on a global scale and for many regions. A formal detection and attribution analysis shows that intensification of rainfall events may have been influenced by greenhouse gas forcing of anthropogenic origin. Frequency and magnitude of pluvial floods is on the rise with increasing intense precipitation, while changes of river floods are more complex. High river discharges were found to increase in some regions, but to decrease in other regions, so that no general corollaries can be drawn at the global scale. Heavy rainfall events and pluvial floods are projected to become, almost ubiquitously, more frequent and more intense with progressing climate change, while frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods are likely to increase in many but not all regions.

19.
BMJ Global Health ; 7(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020022

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to the fore long-standing inequities that resulted in certain already-vulnerable groups bearing a disproportionate burden of the disease. The poor have worse health outcomes and access to care, and live and work in inferior conditions, leading to a greater risk of severe illness and death.

20.
IUP Journal of Business Strategy ; 19(2):7-22, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011281

ABSTRACT

This study uses a modified version of the questionnaire used in Zou et al. (2020) to survey a sample of privately held Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in India concerning the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on business performance, what the owner/managers of firms did to survive, and what they feel about how their company will navigate 2022. Our survey results show that firms not only faced tremendous challenges to recover from the unprecedented shock of economic distress, but they also did it mostly without much official financial help. The paper reviews the few available survey studies and analyzes the results of the survey conducted. One can deduce that the lack of assistance had a severe effect on the survival of such MSMEs.

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