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1.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care ; 32(Supplement 2):S33-S34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063952

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Prognosis of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), hitherto an invariably fatal disease, has purportedly improved with the introduction of the unlicensed nucleoside analog GS-441524 (GS). Method(s): A prospective observational study. Inclusion criteria comprised a complete medical record, characteristic clinical signs and laboratory changes, and a confirmatory RT-PCR test for the presence of feline coronavirus and FIP pathogenic strains in pleural/peritoneal/cerebrospinal fluid samples. Clinical signs, laboratory parameters, and adverse effects were recorded at diagnosis, during treatment, and at the end of a 12-week observation period. Remission was defined as completion of 12 weeks or more of treatment and resolution of clinical signs. Result(s): Overall, 175 medical files were reviewed but only 38 cases met the inclusion criteria. Samples of used vials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified GS-441524 as the active component. Twenty-one cats (55%) were considered in full remission, 7 (18 %) cats are currently treated, and 4 cats are in the 12-week observation period. Two cats experienced a relapse, 1 and 6 weeks after completion of treatment. Six (15%) cats died. Anemia (65%), jaundice (50%), thrombocytopenia (50%), and an albumin globulin ratio under 0.6 (81%) were common findings. Clinical manifestation included effusive (n = 30), noneffusive (n = 3), and neurological (n = 6) forms. Adverse effects included injection site reactions (52% of cats) and pain (95% of cats), and temporary creatinine increase (64%). Conclusion(s): Short-term efficacy against FIP disease, using an unlicensed nucleotide analog, was observed herein. The unknown purity or biological activity of these unlicensed compounds is a major limitation of this treatment.

2.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033150

ABSTRACT

This is the first report on a clinical follow-up and postmortem examination of a cat that had been cured of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) with ocular manifestation by successful treatment with an oral multicomponent drug containing GS-441524. The cat was 6 months old when clinical signs (recurrent fever, lethargy, lack of appetite, and fulminant anterior uveitis) appeared. FIP was diagnosed by ocular tissue immunohistochemistry after enucleation of the affected eye. The cat was a participant in a FIP treatment study, which was published recently. However, 240 days after leaving the clinic healthy, and 164 days after the end of the 84 days of treatment, the cured cat died in a road traffic accident. Upon full postmortem examination, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry, there were no residual FIP lesions observed apart from a generalized lymphadenopathy due to massive lymphoid hyperplasia. Neither feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA nor FCoV antigen were identified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in any tissues or body fluids, including feces. These results prove that oral treatment with GS-441524 leads to the cure of FIP-associated changes and the elimination of FCoV from all tissues.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autopsy , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , RNA
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(17)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the ratio between lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and total nucleated cell counts (TNCC) in effusions may be useful to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). METHODS: LDH/TNCC ratio was retrospectively evaluated in 648 effusions grouped based on cytology and physicochemical analysis (step 1), on the probability of FIP estimated by additional tests on fluids (step 2) or on other biological samples (step 3, n = 471). Results of different steps were statistically compared. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were designed to assess whether the ratio identify the samples with FIP "probable/almost confirmed". The cut-offs with the highest positive likelihood ratio (LR+) or Youden Index (YI) or with equal sensitivity and specificity were determined. RESULTS: A high median LDH/TNCC ratio was found in FIP effusions (step1: 2.01) and with probable or almost confirmed FIP (step 2: 1.99; 2.20 respectively; step 3: 1.26; 2.30 respectively). The optimal cut-offs were 7.54 (LR+ 6.58), 0.62 (IY 0.67, sensitivity: 89.1%; specificity 77.7%), 0.72 (sensitivity and specificity: 79.2%) in step 2 and 2.27 (LR+ 10.39), 0.62 (IY 0.65, sensitivity: 82.1%; specificity 83.0%), 0.54 (sensitivity: 82.1%; specificity 81.9%) in step 3. CONCLUSIONS: a high LDH/TNCC ratio support a FIP diagnosis.

4.
Journal of Mahanakorn Veterinary Medicine ; 17(1):123-133, 2022.
Article in Thaï | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012234

ABSTRACT

A male Munchkin cat was brought to a small animal teaching hospital at Mahanakorn University of Technology. The patient presentation with vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and intermittent fever. From history-taking, the owner previously had a cat that was diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) living in the same house but had isolated in a separate area. Fecal examination revealed bacterial enteritis. Hematology and blood chemistry results shown lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and low serum albumin/globulin ratio (0.3 A: G ratio). Abdominal ultrasound revealed mesenteric lymph node (MLN) enlargement and cholecystitis. Cell cytology from the liver and MLN revealed suppurative inflammation. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was negative for the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) in the blood sample. On the 4th day of treatment, the cat developed pleural and peritoneal effusion. Thoracentesis and abdominocentesis were performed and submitted for analysis. The fluid's results were classified as modified transudate, low A: G ratio (0.3), Rivalta's test (positive), and positive for FCoV by using RT-PCR. On the 8th day of treatment, the cat died from systemic hypotension. Viscous straw yellow-colored fluid and pyogranulomatous lesions at the liver, lung, kidney, and MLN were observed from the necropsy. Histopathology's results shown severe suppurative inflammation in all the above organs. FIP was confirmed by detected FCoV antigen in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the kidney and lung tissue by immunohistochemistry staining.

5.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1709-1714, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006668

ABSTRACT

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, affecting wild and domestic cats. Feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV) variants of FCoV cause fatal peritonitis affecting approximately 5% of FCoV infected animals. The present study aimed to detect and isolate the feline infectious peritonitis virus for the first time in Iraq. In this study, 50 samples (fecal swab and peritoneal fluid) were collected from suspected pet cats from different areas of Baghdad, Iraq. The very suitable age was under two years old. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) was used to detect Feline infectious peritonitis in infected collected samples by the amplification of spike protein (S). The result of real-time RT-PCR revealed that out of 50 samples from suspected cats, 10 samples were positive for FIPV. Moreover, 10 positive samples by real-time RT-PCR were used for the isolation of the virus in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. Subsequently, the isolated virus was detected by real-time RT-PCR and then by conventional RT-PCR, followed by electrophoresis.

6.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 976(34), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001167

ABSTRACT

Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV), Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Feline Calici Virus (FCV), and other cat's viral diseases were reported in Indonesia. Viral diseases that appear usually appear in each season with different intensities depending on the type of virus. The research data was taken from Animal Hospital Prof. Soeparwi's medical record in 2017-2019 along with rainfall, humidity, and temperature data in the Yogyakarta area in 2017-2019 obtained from the Climatology and Geophysics Meteorology Agency (BMKG). Disease data are grouped by diagnosis;temperature, humidity, and rainfall data. Data analysis was performed with Microsoft Excel 2016 in the form of a frequency chart and descriptive. The results of the analysis between the incidence patterns of FPV, FIP, FCV, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR), and Papilloma with climatic conditions in the dry and rainy season periods show patterns that vary depending on the character of the virus that causes the disease. High incidence in the rainy season is seen in FPV and FCV, for FIP the incidence of each season is almost the same in each year, whereas the incidence of FVR and Papilloma can be higher in the rainy season and sometimes also can be higher in the dry season. These findings indicate that the incidence of viral diseases in cats has a seasonally based pattern of events.

7.
Point Veterinaire ; 51(410):16-20, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999460

ABSTRACT

In this article the author discusses how electrophoresis can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases in animals such as feline infectious peritonitis, Leishmania infantum and neoplasms.

8.
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(9): 905-933, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002009

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important infectious diseases and causes of death in cats; young cats less than 2 years of age are especially vulnerable. FIP is caused by a feline coronavirus (FCoV). It has been estimated that around 0.3% to 1.4% of feline deaths at veterinary institutions are caused by FIP. SCOPE: This document has been developed by a Task Force of experts in feline clinical medicine as the 2022 AAFP/EveryCat Feline Infectious Peritonitis Diagnosis Guidelines to provide veterinarians with essential information to aid their ability to recognize cats presenting with FIP. TESTING AND INTERPRETATION: Nearly every small animal veterinary practitioner will see cases. FIP can be challenging to diagnose owing to the lack of pathognomonic clinical signs or laboratory changes, especially when no effusion is present. A good understanding of each diagnostic test's sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, likelihood ratio and diagnostic accuracy is important when building a case for FIP. Before proceeding with any diagnostic test or commercial laboratory profile, the clinician should be able to answer the questions of 'why this test?' and 'what do the results mean?' Ultimately, the approach to diagnosing FIP must be tailored to the specific presentation of the individual cat. RELEVANCE: Given that the disease is fatal when untreated, the ability to obtain a correct diagnosis is critical. The clinician must consider the individual patient's history, signalment and comprehensive physical examination findings when selecting diagnostic tests and sample types in order to build the index of suspicion 'brick by brick'. Research has demonstrated efficacy of new antivirals in FIP treatment, but these products are not legally available in many countries at this time. The Task Force encourages veterinarians to review the literature and stay informed on clinical trials and new drug approvals.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/drug therapy , Cats , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/diagnosis , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/drug therapy
9.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):398-405, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999285

ABSTRACT

Family Coronaviridae (coronaviruses, CoVs), comprises enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses. They are largest RNA viruses identified so far. CoVs are known for over half a century as agents causing respiratory, alimentary or systemic infections in domestic and wild birds and mammals. Feline (FcoV) and canine coronaviruses (CCoV) are common in the populations of these animals and fetine infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), infection may often be fatal. The new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-Z, causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-IQ), identified in 2019 and responsible for the ongoing pandemics, has raised concerns about its zoonotic potential. Since cats and dogs live in close contact with owners it is important to establish their possible role in COVlD-19 epidemiology. There have been reports of SAHS-Covo2 positive dogs and cats in the literature and on various websites, including OIE website. However, considering that despite that millions of people are infected and the virus is still spreading worldwide, while only few cases of SARS-CoV-19 in dogs and cats have been confirmed, these companion animals do not play a role as virus reservoirs, thus are not important in COVlD-19 pandemics.

10.
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus ; 11(3):412-423, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994709

ABSTRACT

Minmin, a 1-year-old male local cat weighing 4.3 kg has decreased appetite and an enlarged abdominal cavity. Based on physical examination, there was abdominal distension. Routine hematology and blood biochemical examinations were performed which showed chronic inflammation and abnormal liver and kidney function. Radiographic examination and abdominocentesis showed fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites) with pale yellow fluid and thickened liquid consistency. The results of the rivalta test showed a positive accumulation of exudate which was characterized by a jellyfish-like formation. The cat was diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. The therapies given are diuretic furosemide 5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, antibiotic cefotaxime sodium 30 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, anti-inflammatory dexamethasone 0,5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) subcutaneously, hepato-protector betaine 2.5 mg/kg BW (every two days) subcutaneously, and keto acid 11 mg/kg BW orally (every two days). The results of treatment for one week only provide temporary results in reducing the degree of abdominal distension. The cat died in the sixth month after therapy.

11.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987917

ABSTRACT

Cats are susceptible to feline coronavirus (FCoV), a highly contagious virus with fecal-oral transmission. In people, susceptibility to coronavirus infection, such as SARS-CoV infection, has been associated with the ABO blood group, with individuals with blood group O having significantly lower risk of SARS-CoV infection. This study evaluated a possible association between feline blood group phenotypes A, B and AB and serostatus for antibodies against FCoV. We also investigated risk or protective factors associated with seropositivity for FCoV in the investigated population. Feline populations were surveyed for AB group system blood types and for presence of antibodies against FCoV. Blood phenotype, origin, breed, gender, reproductive status and age of cats were evaluated as protective or risk factors for coronavirus infection. No blood type was associated with FCoV seropositivity, for which being a colony stray cat (p = 0.0002, OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.14-0.54) or a domestic shorthair cat (p = 0.0075, OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.09-0.69) were protective factors. Based on results of this study, feline blood phenotypes A, B or AB do not seem to predispose cats to seropositivity for FCoV. Future studies on other feline blood types and other infections could clarify whether feline blood types could play a role in predisposing to, or protecting against, feline infections.

12.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979411

ABSTRACT

Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) infect cats worldwide and cause severe systemic diseases, such as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP has a high mortality rate, and drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration have been ineffective for the treatment of FIP. Investigating host factors and the functions required for FCoV replication is necessary to develop effective drugs for the treatment of FIP. FCoV utilizes an endosomal trafficking system for cellular entry after binding between the viral spike (S) protein and its receptor. The cellular enzymes that cleave the S protein of FCoV to release the viral genome into the cytosol require an acidic pH optimized in the endosomes by regulating cellular ion concentrations. Ionophore antibiotics are compounds that form complexes with alkali ions to alter the endosomal pH conditions. This study shows that ionophore antibiotics, including valinomycin, salinomycin, and nigericin, inhibit FCoV proliferation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ionophore antibiotics should be investigated further as potential broad-spectrum anti-FCoV agents.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cats , Cell Proliferation , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/drug therapy , Ionophores/pharmacology
13.
Journal of Southwest Minzu University Natural Science Edition ; 48(2):135-141, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1958497

ABSTRACT

Feline Astrovirus (FAstV), Feline Parvovirus(FPV) and Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECoV) are important pathogens causing diarrhea in cats.In order to establish a molecular detection method which can differentiate the three pathogens in the same PCR system, an FAstV/FPV/FECoV triple PCR method was established with optimized primer concentrations and annealing temperature, and specificity, sensitivity and repeatability were tested. The results showed that the PCR method could only identify FAstV (320 bp), FPV (468 bp) and FECoV (664 bp) genes, while not other canine and feline related pathogens. The detection limits of FAstV, FPV and FECoV were 2x10~7 copy/L (7.1 pg/L),4.7x10~6 copy/L (2.4 pg/L) and 7x10~6 copy/L (5.1 pg/L) respectively. The established triple PCR method was used to detect 207 cat fecal samples collected in Chengdu from 2019 to 2020, including 141 diarrhea samples and 66 clinical health samples. The detection rates of FAstV, FPV and FECoV were 24.15% (50/207), 37.20% (77/207) and 15.46% (32/207) respectively, and the co-infection rates of FAstV/FPV, FPV/FECoV and FAstv/FECoV were 9.18%,6.28% and 6.28% respectively. In conclusion, the triple PCR method of FAstV/FPV/FECoV was successfully established, and could be applied for virus detection and epidemiological investigation.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(14)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957208

ABSTRACT

Cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease with a high mortality rate caused by the feline coronavirus (FCoV), have been reported in non-domestic felids, highlighting the need for surveys of FCoV in these endangered species. With the aim of adding information on FCoV prevalence in captive non-domestic felids, samples (feces or rectal swabs and, when available, oral swabs, blood, and abdominal effusion) collected between 2019 and 2021 from 38 non-domestic felids from three different zoological facilities of Northern Italy were tested for evidence of FCoV infection via RT-qPCR. Three animals were found to be FCoV positive, showing an overall 7.9% FCoV prevalence ranging from 0% to 60%, according to the zoological facility. FCoV infection was detected in tiger cubs of the same litter, and all of them showed FCoV-positive oral swabs, with low viral loads, whereas in one animal, FCoV presence was also detected in rectal swabs at low FCoV copy numbers. Future studies should be carried out, including samplings from a higher number of captive non-domestic felids, in order to gain a deeper knowledge of FCoV epidemiology within these populations.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 925922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933699

ABSTRACT

Although feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection is extremely common in cats, there are currently few effective treatments. A peptide derived from the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domain of the coronavirus (CoV) spike protein has shown effective for inhibition of various human and animal CoVs in vitro, but further use of FCoV-HR2 in vivo has been limited by lack of practical delivery vectors and small animal infection model. To overcome these technical challenges, we first constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis (rBSCotB-HR2P) expressing spore coat protein B (CotB) fused to an HR2-derived peptide (HR2P) from a serotype II feline enteric CoV (FECV). Immunogenic capacity was evaluated in mice after intragastric or intranasal administration, showing that recombinant spores could trigger strong specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Furthermore, we developed a novel mouse model for FECV infection by transduction with its primary receptor (feline aminopeptidase N) using an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus type 5 vector. This model can be used to study the antiviral immune response and evaluate vaccines or drugs, and is an applicable choice to replace cats for the study of FECV. Oral administration of rBSCotB-HR2P in this mouse model effectively protected against FECV challenge and significantly reduced pathology in the digestive tract. Owing to its safety, low cost, and probiotic features, rBSCotB-HR2P is a promising oral vaccine candidate for use against FECV/FCoV infection in cats.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Feline , Animals , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Coronavirus, Feline/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity , Mice , Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spores, Bacterial/genetics
16.
Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 52(2):303-309, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928906

ABSTRACT

FCoV viruses exhibit great genetic diversity, leading to the presence of FIPV-causing variants. Current molecular evolution analysis and genetic variation studies of FCoV in China are predominately focused on gene encoding the spike protein or other structural proteins, while few studies have evaluated genetic variations in nonstructural FCoV genes, which can play an important role in disease pathogenesis. In this study, the gene encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 7b nonstructural FCoV protein of the Chinese Fujian strain FJLY20201 was amplified from the ascitic fluid of a Chinese domestic cat infected with FIPV and compared with ORF 7b from previously published FCoV strains. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that FJLY20201 exhibited high identity with other Chinese FCoV strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Chinese strains did not differentiate between type I and type II serotypes of FCoV based on S proteins. In addition, they formed clades and differed genetically from strains originating outside China. This study provides the molecular epidemiology data about the ORF 7b genes of FCoV strains in China. Our results show that the identity of ORF 7b genes was closer between the Chinese isolates, and suggest that variation in ORF 7b is more dependent on geographical origin.

17.
Infectious disease management in animal shelters ; 2(656), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918436

ABSTRACT

This second edition contains 24 new and updated chapters on aetiology, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases in cats, dogs and exotic small companion mammals in animal shelters. These include an introduction to infectious disease management in animal shelters, wellness, data surveillance, diagnostic testing, necropsy techniques, outbreak management, pharmacology, sanitation, canine and feline vaccinations and immunology, canine infectious respiratory disease, canine distemper virus, canine influenza, feline infectious respiratory disease, canine parvovirus and other canine enteropathogens, feline panleukopenia, feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis, internal parasites, heartworm disease, external parasites, dermatophytoses, zoonoses, rabies, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency viruses and conditions in exotic companion mammals (ferrets, rabbits, guineapigs and rodents). It is intended for shelter veterinarians, managers and workers.

18.
Companion Animal ; 27(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903908

ABSTRACT

Until recently, feline infectious peritonitis was an invariably fatal disease that occurs when a ubiquitous enteric coronavirus mutates. This enables it to replicate effectively within macrophages, resulting in immune-mediated phlebitis and serositis. While our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis remains unchanged, with the recent availability of legalised antiviral drugs, successful treatment is now a possibility, albeit at a cost. As we approach a new dawn of research into the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, this review summarises current therapeutic options. Please note, some protocols are still being optimised.

19.
NAVC Clinician's Brief ; 29, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898327
20.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):120-121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881028

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies have shown that vaccinated individuals harbor cross-reactive T cell responses that can cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 and endemic human common cold coronaviruses (HCoVs). However, it is still unknown whether CD4+ T cells from vaccinated individuals recognize peptides from bat coronaviruses that may have the potential of causing future pandemics. In this study, we identified a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitope (S815-827) that is conserved in coronaviruses from different genera and subgenera including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, multiple bat coronaviruses and a feline coronavirus. We hypothesized that S815-827 is recognized by vaccinated individuals, and that S815-827-reactive T cells can cross-recognize homologues bat coronaviruses. Methods: To evaluate CD4+ T cell responses, we isolated CD8 depleted PBMCs from COVID-19 vaccinated individuals and performed IFN-γ ELISPOT assays. To assess T cell cross-reactivity, S815-827-reactive T cell lines were re-stimulated with homologous coronavirus peptides and cytokine production was assessed with flow cytometry. Additionally, the Vira-FEST assay (which utilizes TCR Vβ CDR3 sequencing) was performed to identify cross-reactive CD4+ T cell clones. Statistical comparisons were done using Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test or Friedman test with Dunn's multiple comparison as appropriate. Results: Our results show that 16 out of 38 (42%) of vaccinated participants in our study who received the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) COVID-19 vaccines had robust CD4+ T cell responses to S815-827. All responders also recognized homologous peptides from at least 2 other coronaviruses, and 8 out of 11 responders recognized peptides from at least 6 out of the 9 other coronaviruses tested. To determine T cell cross-reactivity, we re-stimulated S815-827 specific T cell lines with homologous coronavirus peptides. We found that S815-827 specific T cells had a robust increase in IFN-γ+ TNF-α+ expression upon re-stimulation with other peptides. We next used the Vira-FEST assay to confirm cross-reactivity by assessing if the same CD4+ T receptor clonotypes recognize both S815-827 and homologous bat coronavirus peptides. In all 3 participants tested, we identified multiple cross-reactive T cell receptors that recognize both S815-827 and homologous bat coronavirus peptides. Conclusion: Our results suggest that current mRNA vaccines elicit T cell responses that can cross-recognize bat coronaviruses, and thus might induce protection.

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