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1.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

2.
Development Southern Africa ; 39(5):722-737, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050752

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results of the five waves of the National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) on food security between May 2020 and May 2021. Despite significant investments in social protection, food insecurity and household and child hunger remained stubbornly high. We conclude that given the protracted nature of the pandemic, slow economic recovery, household and child hunger have stabilised at higher levels than before the pandemic. The phasing out of emergency relief coupled with the constrained economic situation, are some of the reasons why levels of food insecurity and hunger are likely to remain high in the near future. Strict lockdown regulations also reduced employment and income from informal economic activities. Social support for vulnerable individuals and households remain an urgent priority. Continuing support targeted at households with children is particularly important given the dire consequences of enduring hunger for stunting, and on children's long-term development.

3.
Revista Paranaense de Desenvolvimento ; 140:71-88, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046696

ABSTRACT

Sectors strategic to the post Covid-19 economic recovery Parana are identified here by using an input-output matrix and economic indicators calculated from 2018 Parana-Rest of Brazil interregional system data. Intersectoral linkages indices portray food industry, civil construction, commerce and land transport as driving sectors of the state economy. Results concerning production, employment and income are higher for the textile and clothing, commerce, accommodation and food, education, health, and software development sectors, the latter being an important sector for the emergence of micro and small business. Incentive actions directed to strategic sectors in the economic recovery involve professional qualification, microcredit, business incubators, and extension activities focusing the dissemination of new communication and sales technologies.

4.
Working Paper - Groupe de Recherche en Economie et Developpement International (GREDI) 2020. (20-10):34 pp. 30 ref. ; 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045283

ABSTRACT

We examine the effects of fiscal policy on the Quebec territory using data from Q1-1981 to Q1-2020. To do so, we estimate VAR models and extract government spending shocks according to the sign restriction method proposed by Uhlig (2005). The impulse responses of real GDP, household consumption, private non-residential investment, and the household confidence index to a temporary and positive government spending shock are all significantly positive in the short run. We find high multipliers for total government spending shocks-they are above 2 in the short run, while government investment spending is above 3.5 and shows greater persistence. The possible consequences of the pandemic and the stimulus package on Quebec's debt trajectory complete the analysis. Lastly, government investment spending is the best way to get the economy going and even lower the debt ratio to meet the goals for 2026.

5.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

6.
Sustainable Agriculture Research ; 11(3):20-26, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040283

ABSTRACT

The Specialty Crop Industry was hard hit after Covid-19 was declared a pandemic. Concerns of the future of the industry triggered the initiation of a Qualtrics survey to investigate growers' attitude and behaviors amidst Covid-19, identify new production practices and cost analysis going into the fall crop season. The results of the survey conducted from June 10-July 02, 2020 will also be useful to Extension professionals in other regions and Policymakers in determining financial assistance programs for growers who suffered from Covid-19 pandemic. Results depicted that 62.5% of farmers will plant the same acreages in the fall of 2020 amidst the pandemic.

7.
Farm sector financial ratios: pre-COVID forecasts and pandemic performance for 2020 2022. 27 pp. 13 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033978

ABSTRACT

This study compares 2020 values for farm sector financial ratios before and after the onset of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Forecasts from the February 5, 2020, release of the USDA Economic Research Service's Farm Income and Wealth Statistics data product represent the pre-pandemic (before) forecasts. Those forecast values are compared to the data released on February 4, 2022, which represent the realized values for 2020 and include pandemic impacts on commodity demand and the policy response to the economic shock. Solvency ratios (which are indicators of the sector's ability to repay financial liabilities via the sale of assets) worsened in 2020 relative to pre-pandemic expectations. Efficiency ratios (which evaluate the conversion of assets into production and revenue) and liquidity ratios (which are indicators of the availability of cash to cover debt payments) showed mixed outcomes for the realized results in 2020 relative to the pre-pandemic forecasts. Four profitability ratios were stronger in 2020 relative to pre-pandemic expectations. All solvency, liquidity, and profitability ratios plus 2 out of 5 efficiency ratios for 2020 were weaker than their respective average ratios obtained from 2000 to 2019 data.

8.
Alanya Academic Review ; 6(2):2481-2498, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026415

ABSTRACT

In this study, the time-varying dynamic relationships among real exchange rate, average real oil price and food inflation is investigated in Turkey during the period of 2006:1-2021:12. For this reason, TVP-VAR models are applied. The findings from this study revealed that the pass-through effect of real exchange rate on food inflation increases rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this effect reaches the highest level in October 2021 in which the fluctuations in exchange rate occured. Besides, it is detected that raises in average oil prices significantly enhance food inflation since the vaccination proccess, starting in early 2021, has caused increases in production and demand.

9.
Alanya Academic Review ; 6(2):2261-2274, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026413

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the financial performance of companies operating in manufacturing subsectors and listed on the Stock Exchange Istanbul. In this direction, the financial efficiency and productivity change values of manufacturing companies before and during the Covid-19 pandemic were examined using the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index (MTFP) method. The findings obtained in the study indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has negative effects on the financial performance of manufacturing companies. At the same time, the findings show that the COVID-19 pandemic has most affected the main metal industry, food, drink, and tobacco, metal and metals products and machinery industry subsectors.

10.
Independent Journal of Management and Production ; 13(3):s310-s328, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025736

ABSTRACT

The article reveals the importance of state financial regulation as one of the most important tools for economic growth and ensuring the competitiveness of industries and the economy of Ukraine. The studies of domestic and foreign scientists on the subject of research are analyzed in detail. The state of enterprises of the agricultural sector of Ukraine for the period 2013- 2020 has been determined. The study was carried out on the factors of providing agricultural producers with financial resources in terms of the size of the forms of management. The share of unprofitable enterprises in the industry for the same period is also analyzed. The achievements of the agricultural sector are described according to the statistical analysis of the state of socio-economic development of the regions in the period 2020-2021. The methodology for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of the state regional policy in accordance with legislative regulations is described. This made it possible to establish that at the present stage, the financial regulation of the agricultural sector of Ukraine is carried out without proper scientific justification and, as a rule, responds slowly to the requirements of economic practice, especially in the context of deepening the penetration of global processes into the national economy. Approaches to the assessment of the competitive environment of the agrarian sector of Ukraine and the direction of its state regulation are proposed. Theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of assessing the competitiveness of the sector are disclosed. The necessity and possibility of forming a competitive environment by fiscal policy measures, primarily budgetary regulation, is proved. The problems of forming a competitive environment in the context of the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the place of Ukraine in the world competitiveness ranking are identified, and methodological approaches to the development strategy are proposed. It is proved that the competitive strategy is based on the existing resources of the industry (material, financial and intellectual), the level of development of various forms of management, the structure of production, marketing, processing, the formation of value chains and a bilateral state-market regulator. The directions for improving the quality of the competitive environment, arising from the paradigm of innovative development of the agricultural sector, are summarized and provide for the stimulation of small business in niche and organic production and large-scale industrial production in terms of the main indicators of food security, as well as the development of land, financial, credit and resource markets and the formation of equal access to them all agricultural producers.

11.
Journal of Cultural Economics ; 46(2):205-389, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010709

ABSTRACT

This Special Issue seeks to address the perennial question of support options for the cultural and creative industries (exacerbated due to the impact of COVID-19) by bringing together articles that examine and explain various dynamics in CCI financing and funding. The articles in the Issue are diverse in their approaches, methods and data. They range from conceptual, qualitative, and case studies, to analyses based on survey data and granular 'big data'. The articles mainly address digital fundraising technologies and investment practices. Strikingly absent in this collection of studies are modes of funding in which governments and public providers occupy center stage. Innovation in financing and funding appears to be more the result of new modalities (i.e., technology-driven) than of fundamental shifts in thoughts about how the cultural economy could be approached and how the CCI should be financially sustained. The articles in the Issue suggest the emergence of a new funding paradigm, which steps away from a clear demarcation between public and private in terms of interests and financing modes. This new paradigm embraces collaborative funding mechanisms such as crowdfunding, incubator and accelerator finance, and other pooled investments, as well as digital fundraising technologies that facilitate new modes of asset finance and tokenized funding. Future research themes are being suggested: the merging of project funding with structural budgets, the emergence of new business models and improved labor market conditions due to technology-driven aids, shifts in transaction costs, and issues related to regulation and legislation.

12.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank 2022. (10080):40 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012695

ABSTRACT

This paper presents evidence on the extent to which a set of real-time indicators tracked changes in gross domestic product across 142 countries in 2020. The real-time indicators include Google mobility, Google search trends, food price information, nitrogen dioxide, and nighttime lights. Google mobility and staple food prices both declined sharply in March and April, followed by a rapid recovery that returned to baseline levels by July and August. Mobility and staple food prices fell less in low-income countries. Nitrogen dioxide levels show a similar pattern, with a steep fall and rapid recovery in high-income and upper-middle-income countries but not in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. In April and May, Google search terms reflecting economic distress and religiosity spiked in some regions but not others. Data on nighttime lights show no clear drop in March outside East Asia. Linear models selected using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator explain about a third of the variation in annual gross domestic product growth rates across 72 countries. In a smaller subset of higher income countries, real-time indicators explain about 40 percent of the variation in quarterly gross domestic product growth. Overall, mobility and food price data, as well as pollution data in more developed countries, appeared to be best at capturing the widespread economic disruption experienced during the summer of 2020. The results indicate that these real-time indicators can track a substantial percentage of both annual and quarterly changes in gross domestic product.

13.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):135-140, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012668

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to examine the effect of COVID 19 Lockdown among day Old Chick Producers and Marketers in Ibadan South West Local Government Area (Poultry hub) of Oyo State, through the administration of questionnaire and interpersonal interview to retrieve relevant research information. The socio-economic appraiser of the stakeholders revealed that participants are predominantly male(65%), married(61.0%), most are educated (88.0%) and were Christians (40.0%) and Muslims (60.0%) based on their religious faith. Effect of Lockdown on production (100%), reduction in price, cost of ingredients with consequential reduction in level of employment. The result also reveals that the cost of ingredients, was seriously affected before (80.0%), during (65.0%) and after (98.0%) COVID-19 pandemic respectively. The result shows that the mean of the total variable cost is N28325.98, the mean of the gross margin is also positive (N322307.44), the net income is (N 272380.21) while the mean of the total fixed cost is (N400428.00). This implies that the level of profitability of poultry production in the study area is profitable. Based on the findings, it has been identified that some factors are hindering the development of poultry farms as regards large production, which will cater for the entire population of the people in the study area and the nation entirely. It therefore recommends that government should improve on the loan credit guarantee schemes available for the public and ensure the availability of well-tested, highly productive machines and reduce cost of feed.

14.
Research Series - Economic Policy Research Centre 2022. (157):52 pp. 39 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011810

ABSTRACT

Background: Uganda's budget authority has faced increased fiscal pressure caused by a sudden drop in revenues from the economic slowdown and new expenditure pressures associated with COVID-19 impacts. Consequently, the country has responded by reprioritizing the budget towards 7 sectors, i.e., agriculture, health, education, trade and industry, social development, works and energy. These sectors respond to the government's objective of increasing household and firm production and productivity, providing jobs, reducing the health impacts of coronavirus, supporting poverty reduction efforts, promoting exports and enhancing economic growth. Methods and Data: This paper estimates public development budget allocative and technical efficiency for 7 priority sectors that address government policy objectives. Both allocative and technical efficiency are analysed using ratio calculation. However, for some cases, technical efficiency is analysed based on the difference between target and actual outcomes. We calculate the ratios for the 7 sectors based on the votes and outputs. Furthermore, we use a threshold of 80%, which we deem sufficient to determine whether a budget output is inefficient or not. Budget outputs below 80% are considered to be underperforming. Data on allocative efficiency was provided by MoFPED directorate of budget and that on technical efficiency from budget performance reports. The study period considered for this paper runs from 2016/17 to 2020/21. Findings: While we observe high allocative efficiency in a majority of the proposed reprioritisation sectors, there is much variation in budget funds and their utilisation due to: i. A missing link between policy objectives and budgets. Notably, there is a mismatch between wage and non-wage or capital expenditure (CAPEX) allocations, implying inadequate human resources are required to implement the policy objectives, consequently leading to poor outcomes despite the funding provided for CAPEX. This was endemic in the agriculture and health sectors. ii. Duplication of budget outputs reduces flexibility and accountability and increases monitoring costs. This calls for the consolidation of similar budget outputs, but this should be done with consultation from key stakeholders. iii. There are variations in utilisation of domestic relative to the external development financing with unmet outcomes. This could be a case of stringent donor monitoring requirements and delays in procurement. This calls for strict monitoring of the domestic development financing to ensure results. iv. Relatedly, health budgets exhibit an over-reliance on external financing. However, donor funds are largely not integrated into government budgets and may challenge any planned re-allocation. Hence, there is a need to open a discussion with the donors on the possibility of re-channelling financing to other key priority sectors/outputs in line with the country's short-term goals. v. Generally, as observed in the health and education sectors, budgeting is still based on the output/ institution-based system rather than service. This makes it complex to pool resources, spend and strategically purchase goods and services. There is a need to build stronger linkages between budget allocations and sector priorities. This can also enable the implementation of strategic purchasing and incentivize accountability for sector performance. vi. In addition, there is generally an absence of proper transition towards programme-based budgeting (PBB). For example, numerous budget outputs in the trade, tourism and industry sector do not have performance indicators that weaken the link between strategies, annual plans, sector policies and budgets. vii. Generally, we recommend that new road construction should be paused in the short term so that the available funds can be rechannelled to other urgent and critical areas.

15.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 34(8):3113-3142, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001556

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Indian hospitality and tourism industries, major economic growth drivers and employment generators, have been greatly affected by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In FY 2020, the Indian tourism sector created 39 million jobs and contributed nearly US$194.3bn, or 6.8%, to India's gross domestic product. The purpose of this study is to focus on ranking 22 listed hotels and 9 listed travel agencies in India based on their performance across 14 selected financial parameters in both the pre-COVID-19 year ending in March 2019 and the post-COVID-19 year ending in March 2021 to understand how the pandemic affected their businesses. Design/methodology/approach: This research proposes to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the financial performance of 22 listed Indian hotels and 9 listed travel agencies evaluated over 14 financial parameters using a pipeline of two recently developed multicriteria decision-making techniques, method based on the removal effects of criteria (MEREC) and grey-based combined compromised solution (CoCoSo). First, the criteria weights are objectively determined using MEREC, and then the financial performances of the selected companies in both the hospitality and tourism industries are separately assessed using CoCoSo to get their overall performance score, based on which the companies are ranked in order of preference. Findings: It was observed that Westlife Development, Lemon Tree Hotels, Indian Tourism Development Corporation, Royal Orchid and Country Club performed significantly poorer than their peers in the aftermath of the pandemic, whereas EIH, Advani Hotels and Resorts and TGB Banquets performed relatively better. Travel agencies Easy Trip and International Travel House performed particularly poorly because of the pandemic, but VMV Holidays performed relatively better in FY 2021. Practical implications: The findings of the analysis will aid portfolio construction, corporate investment decisions, competition research, government policymaking and industrial analysis. Originality/value: The proposed model is novel because it fills the research gap in the application of the integrated MEREC-CoCoSo method to study the impact of COVID-19 on the hospitality and tourism sectors in India.

16.
WIDER Working Papers 2022. (67):34 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965139

ABSTRACT

Tanzania has experienced relatively strong and stable economic growth accompanied by social stability over the past two decades. The country is also pursuing an ambitious development plan with significant employment objectives. For development to be fully inclusive, specific attention must be paid to the gendered dimensions of employment policy, in terms of both design and outcomes. This constitutes a key challenge in Tanzania, where women and female-headed households are constrained by lower levels of education and social capital, deeper levels of poverty, and limited access to assets-while also being impacted disproportionately by the economic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper interrogates Tanzania's employment policies from a gender perspective by adopting a functional approach. We examine policies with (1) a labour market entry-facilitating function, (2) an enterprise- and productivity-enhancing function, and (3) a job quality-enhancing function, through their effects on working-age women's employment in the 2000s. We also discuss the extent to which women's employment is considered in the broader development approach and social policy model in the country. The analysis draws on a desktop-based scoping review of diverse sources of evidence. The paper shows that several progressive policies have been introduced in the areas of financial services, labour market regulations, and entrepreneurship support, and women's labour market position has slightly improved in the new millennium. However, women remain at the margins of the broader development strategy, and much needs to be done to enhance women's access to assets, skills training, and better-quality employment. Further gender-responsive social policy investments would facilitate this process.

17.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (46):34 pp. 29 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965135

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we examine the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the livelihoods of the poor. We use an unusually rich data set from a 'financial diaries' study known as the Hrishipara Daily Diaries Project. The data set tracks the economic and financial transactions of 60 individuals and their families in a semi-rural setting in Bangladesh on a real-time basis from October 2019 to September 2020. We document individual diarists' behavioural responses to COVID-19, which reveal the varied experiences of the poor during the pandemic. We find that the pandemic and associated government lockdowns had significant negative effects on the livelihoods of the poor in our study, with financial inflows and outflows, incomes, and household expenditures below pre-pandemic levels during the pandemic period. To cope with the pandemic, households drew down on their cash reserves at home, as well as cutting down on non-food expenditures to protect their spending on food.

18.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (158):27 pp. many ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965133

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has escalated processes of labour transition from industrial work to the informal economy, which have always characterized the life of the working poor. Exploring urban-to-rural labour transitions through a feminist political economy lens and adopting a life-cycle approach to labour and social reproduction, this paper analyses the post-industrial livelihoods and experiences of former Indian garment workers leaving the National Capital Region and moving back to Bihar. Emphasis is placed on workers' reasons for leaving the industry and their current employment and reproductive strategies. Findings are based on a sample of 50 former workers, identified in urban industrial hamlets and traced back to their place of origin. Respondents' experiences are analysed based on semi-quantitative questionnaires and life histories. Findings reveal that upon leaving the factory, workers find alternative informal employment through caste or social networks while using land as safety net. Farming and informal work are not alternative but rather complementary income and work strategies. By adopting a life-cycle approach to studying labour transitions across formal and informal employment domains, this analysis contributes to policy debates on decent work.

19.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (94):34 pp. 44 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965131

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the state of emergency implemented by the Government of Mozambique on household consumption poverty. To predict changes in income and the associated effects on poverty and inequality, we rely on macroeconomic impacts estimated by Betho et al. (2021) using a social accounting multiplier model. We assume two main impact channels are at work leading to higher consumption poverty: direct income/wage and employment losses. To estimate the direct income/wage losses, we use the information from Betho et al. (2021) on the impact on wages, on gross domestic product by industry, and on household income;to estimate the employment losses, we use the information on the impact on employment from Betho et al. (2021). The two impact channels are then combined to assess the final impact on consumption and poverty. Our simulations suggest that consumption decreased by between 7.1 and 14.4 per cent, and that poverty increased by between 4.3 and 9.9 percentage points in 2020, depending on the specification. This corresponds to about 2 million people entering poverty in less than a year and to a reversal of the positive poverty reduction trend observed during the period 2008/09-2014/15. While the COVID-19 shock affected urban areas the most, our results indicate that rural areas experienced a higher increase in poverty rates due to the already low levels of consumption. Poverty most certainly increased in the pre-COVID 2015-20 period due to other shocks, so Mozambique finds itself in an intense and deepening struggle against poverty.

20.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (93):38 pp. many ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965130

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the economic costs of COVID-19 and the state of emergency implemented by the Government of Mozambique, relying on a social accounting matrix. It produces numerical results that represent the direct effect on (or 'shocks' to) the economy associated with the pandemic. We distinguish four channels-supply, demand, investment, and export-by which the state of emergency and other efforts influence economic activity. Our simulation suggests that the Mozambican economy lost a total of 3.6 per cent growth in 2020 and that total employment was 1.9 per cent down compared to a scenario without COVID-19. The main part of this loss is foreign-instigated, resulting from a demand reduction for Mozambican products by the rest of the world. The most heavily affected economic sectors are trade and accommodation and mining. Furthermore, our simulation implies that the production factors of capital and urban labour are more affected than rural labour. Moreover, the multisector multiplier analysis brings out the high dependence of Mozambique on a small number of export items (including tourism). Accordingly, Mozambique should promote economic diversification and explore the potential of reducing Mozambique's vulnerability to foreign shocks.

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