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1.
Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi / Periodic Epidemiology Journal ; 10(2):169-178, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026041

ABSTRACT

Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever cases increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic phase. Purpose: This study defines, describes, and evaluates the dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence in Bali Province from 2015 to 2020 and in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
PLoS Climate ; 1(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021470

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade many large world cities have scaled up efforts at climate adaptation, a primary focus of which is protecting population health. With extreme weather disasters increasing worldwide, public health agencies are among local institutions under greatest stress;the Covid-19 pandemic has only heightened pressure on these agencies. Yet the limited literature examining adaptation actions across world cities suggest few, mainly high-income cities report health-related adaptation, while city public health agency engagement in adaptation has received little research attention. In this comparative review, we aimed to characterize the public health role in the adaptation plans of 22 large cities pre-identified as highly health-adaptive, by examining five health-associated adaptation activities chosen as "promising practice" based on evidence synthesized from evaluation research and practical experience: (i) hazard and vulnerability mapping;(ii) extreme weather preparedness and response;(iii) extreme heat plans (including heat early warning);(iv) non-heat early warning (e.g., flooding, vector-borne disease);and (v) climate-health monitoring and outcome surveillance. We found most (90%) city adaptation plans reported actions in at least three of these five activity areas. However, only 73% of these health-focused plans reported involvement of a public health agency (though the share was higher for cities in low- and middle-income countries). We detected differences across the five activities, including an ascending pattern of public health engagement starting with heat plans and including activities such as preparedness and mapping as health agency involvement increased. We also identified substantial presence of other city agencies-notably urban planning, emergency management and public utilities-in implementing these health-associated activities. With every world region likely to experience more widespread and intensifying climate impacts, and growing pressure on local public health agencies in conjunction with the Covid-19 pandemic, we identify opportunities for enhancing public health engagement in climate adaptation in large cities with a view to scaling up their ability to contribute to climate adaptation goals.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1644), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021264

ABSTRACT

Background: Edo State Surveillance Unit observed the emergence of a disease with "no clear-cut-diagnosis", which affected peri-urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) from September 6 to November 1, 2018. On notification, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control deployed a Rapid Response Team (RRT) to support outbreak investigation and response activities in the State. This study describes the epidemiology of and response to a large yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Edo State.

4.
Current pharmaceutical design ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009796

ABSTRACT

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone protein that prevents many other proteins from aggregating by folding them in a certain way. Hsp90 consists of three structural domains: N-terminal, middle and C-terminal domains. Hsp90 has many activities in numerous proteins and signaling pathways like chimeric fusion proteins, steroid hormone receptors, tumor suppressor genes, and cell cycle regulatory proteins. The role of Hsp90 is not only in cancer but also in other diseases like COVID-19, leishmaniasis, diabetes, flavi virus, systemic sclerosis, grass carp reovirus, psoriasis, malaria, cardiac fibrosis, and alcohol-related liver diseases. This review is a compilation of the pharmacological profile of Hsp90 inhibitors, problems associated with them, and suggested remedies for the same.

5.
Microbiology spectrum ; : e0298922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008769

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in the Pacific islands in 2007 and spread to the Americas in 2015. The infection remains asymptomatic in most cases but can be associated with severe neurological disorders. Despite massive efforts, no specific drug or vaccine against ZIKV infection is available to date. Claudins are tight-junction proteins that favor the entry of several flaviviruses, including ZIKV. In this study, we identified two peptides derived from the N-terminal sequences of claudin-7 and claudin-1, named CL7.1 and CL1.1, respectively, that inhibited ZIKV infection in a panel of human cell lines. Using cell-to-cell fusion assays, we demonstrated that these peptides blocked the ZIKV E-mediated membrane fusion. A comparison of the antiviral efficacy of CL1.1 and CL7.1 pointed to the importance of the peptide amphipathicity. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that CL1.1 altered the ultrastructure of the viral particles likely by binding the virus lipid envelope. However, amphipathicity could not fully explain the antiviral activity of CL1.1. In silico docking simulations suggested that CL1.1 may also interact with the E protein, near its stem region. Overall, our data suggested that claudin-derived peptides inhibition may be linked to simultaneous interaction with the E protein and the viral lipid envelope. Finally, we found that CL1.1 also blocked infection by yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses but not by HIV-1 or SARS-CoV-2. Our results provide a basis for the future development of therapeutics against a wide range of endemic and emerging flaviviruses. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquito bites that have spread to the Pacific Islands and the Americas over the past decade. The infection remains asymptomatic in most cases but can cause severe neurological disorders. ZIKV is a major public health threat in areas of endemicity, and there is currently no specific antiviral drug or vaccine available. We identified two antiviral peptides deriving from the N-terminal sequences of claudin-7 and claudin-1 with the latter being the most effective. These peptides block the envelope-mediated membrane fusion. Our data suggested that the inhibition was likely achieved by simultaneously interacting with the viral lipid envelope and the E protein. The peptides also inhibited other flaviviruses. These results could provide the basis for the development of therapies that might target a wide array of flaviviruses from current epidemics and possibly future emergences.

6.
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003777

ABSTRACT

Disordered proteins serve a crucial part in many biological processes that go beyond the capabilities of ordered proteins. A large number of virus-encoded proteins have extremely condensed proteomes and genomes, which results in highly disordered proteins. The presence of these IDPs allows them to rapidly adapt to changes in their biological environment and play a significant role in viral replication and down-regulation of host defense mechanisms. Since viruses undergo rapid evolution and have a high rate of mutation and accumulation in their proteome, IDPs' insights into viruses are critical for understanding how viruses hijack cells and cause disease. There are many conformational changes that IDPs can adopt in order to interact with different protein partners and thus stabilize the particular fold and withstand high mutation rates. This chapter explains the molecular mechanism behind viral IDPs, as well as the significance of recent research in the field of IDPs, with the goal of gaining a deeper comprehension of the essential roles and functions played by viral proteins.

7.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):424-426, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994245

ABSTRACT

In March 2022, a total of 63 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 230 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (230), dengue fever (32), measles (29), chikungunya fever (10) and cholera (9). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (33.3%), Rift Valley fever (20.0%), Lassa fever (18.6%), yellow fever (11.3%) and monkeypox (5.5%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, measles, cholera and Lassa fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria, measles and poliomyelitis, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever and chikungunya fever, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe was COVID-19.

8.
mBio ; : e0202122, 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992943

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses include respiratory viruses, such as coronaviruses and influenza viruses, as well as vector-borne viruses, like dengue and West Nile virus. RNA viruses like these encounter various environments when they copy themselves and spread from cell to cell or host to host. Ex vivo differences, such as geographical location and humidity, affect their stability and transmission, while in vivo differences, such as pH and host gene expression, impact viral receptor binding, viral replication, and the host immune response against the viral infection. A critical factor affecting RNA viruses both ex vivo and in vivo, and defining the outcome of viral infections and the direction of viral evolution, is temperature. In this minireview, we discuss the impact of temperature on viral replication, stability, transmission, and adaptation, as well as the host innate immune response. Improving our understanding of how RNA viruses function, survive, and spread at different temperatures will improve our models of viral replication and transmission risk analyses.

9.
Antiviral Research ; : 105398, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1982555

ABSTRACT

A marked reorganization of internal membranes occurs in the cytoplasm of cells infected by single stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. Most cell compartments change their asset to provide lipids for membrane rearrangement into replication organelles, where to concentrate viral proteins and enzymes while hiding from pathogen pattern recognition molecules. Because the endoplasmic reticulum is a central hub for lipid metabolism, when viruses hijack the organelle to form their replication organelles, a cascade of events change the intracellular environment. This results in a marked increase in lipid consumption, both by lipolysis and lipophagy of lipid droplets. In addition, lipids are used to produce energy for viral replication. At the same time, inflammation is started by signalling lipids, where lysosomal processing plays a relevant role. This review is aimed at providing an overview on what takes place after human class IV viruses have released their genome into the host cell and the consequences on lipid metabolism, including lysosomes.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-279, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967267

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-COV-2 shedding in the stool long after clearance from the respiratory tract has been reported in several studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. This suggests a long tail of viral persistence in the GI tract even after a patient has tested negative via oronasal swabs. Most patients admitted to the ICU or wards for COVID-19 at Cedars-Sinai are placed on between 2-13 antimicrobials at admission in order to prevent secondary respiratory infections, leading us to question whether the effect of reducing or eliminating the gut microbiome during SARS-COV-2 infection may result in prolonged GI infection and longterm GI side-effects. Antibiotic pre-treatment in rodent studies has shown that flaviviruses persist longer in the GI tract in the absence of gut microbiota. Studies have also demonstrated that antibiotic pre-treatment attenuates the antibody responses to the flu vaccine in mice and humans. Collectively, this suggests a reduction or elimination of the gut the microbiota by antibiotics before or during viral infection can drive viral persistence in the GI tract. Methods: Longitudinal stool samples were collected from 29 COVID-19 in-patients (wards, n=12;ICU, n=17, n=79 stool samples total) and 9 non-COVID-19 in-patients admitted for other respiratory infections. Ten of 29 COVID-19 in-patients were antibiotic naive. Stool metagenomics, metabolomics, and SARS-COV-2 viral quantification by qPCR, and fecal calprotectin were measured and aligned with antibiotic exposure of each patient. Results: Our findings show that 72% of stool samples from COVID-19 patients that tested negative for SARS-COV-2 in the stool were never exposed to in-patient antibiotics. Fecal calprotectin was significantly higher in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients compared to those in the wards and non-COVID-19 controls. The highest fecal calprotectin levels corresponded to nine samples from three ICU patients, all of whom were on the heaviest regimen of antibiotics and were positive for SARS-COV-2 in the stool. Expectedly, gut microbiota variance was explained largely by antibiotic status, but also independently by stool SARS-COV-2 status. We recruited an additional 34 patients during the delta variant surge, and these samples are currently being analyzed along with fecal metabolomics. Conclusion: The heavy-dose antibiotic regimen administered to COVID-19 in-patients is associated with viral persistence of SARS-COV-2 in the GI tract, suggesting an important role of the gut microbiome in excluding SARS-COV-2 from the GI tract, perhaps by competitive exclusion or promoting interferon responses. Intestinal inflammation was significantly greater in COVID-19 ICU patients, with the highest levels of fecal calprotectin correlating to the heaviest dose of antibiotics and presence of SARS-COV-2 in the stool.

11.
Water Research ; : 118904, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956371

ABSTRACT

Arboviral diseases are caused by a group of viruses spread by the bite of infected arthropods. Amongst these, dengue, Zika, west nile fever and yellow fever cause the greatest economic and social impact. Arboviral epidemics have increased in frequency, magnitude and geographical extent over the past decades and are expected to continue increasing with climate change and expanding urbanisation. Arboviral prevalence is largely underestimated, as most infections are asymptomatic, nevertheless existing surveillance systems are based on passive reporting of loosely defined clinical syndromes with infrequent laboratory confirmation. Wastewater-based surveillance (WBS), which has been demonstrated to be useful for monitoring diseases with significant asymptomatic populations including COVID19 and polio, could be a useful complement to arboviral surveillance. We review the current state of knowledge and identify key factors that affect the feasibility of monitoring arboviral diseases by WBS to include viral shedding loads by infected persons, the persistence of shed arboviruses and the efficiency of their recovery from sewage. We provide a simple model on the volume of wastewater that needs to be processed for detection of arboviruses, in face of lower arboviral shedding rates. In all, this review serves to reflect on the key challenges that need to be addressed and overcome for successful implementation of arboviral WBS.

12.
Virologie ; 26(2):111, 2022.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913051

ABSTRACT

The interferon (IFN) response is a critical arm of the innate immune response and a major host defense mechanism against viral infections. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified and characterized. Using large-scale loss-of-function strategies, we screened siRNAs or gRNAs libraries targeting hundreds of IFNstimulated genes (ISGs) in IFN-treated cells infected with human RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, Zika virus or tick-borne encephalitis virus. We recovered previously unrecognized human genes able to modulate the replication of these RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent manner. For instance, we identified the chromatin remodeling protein MTA2 as a potent flavivirus-specific antiviral factor. Mechanistic studies to decipher the molecular mechanisms by which these novel antiviral genes are functioning are on-going. We are also expanding our studies to the identification and characterization of ISGs in animal species that serve as viral reservoirs, such as bats. Our work should open new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these emerging RNA viruses.

13.
Virologie ; 26(2):120, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912931

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state provides a crucial initial line of defense against viral infection. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we screened an original library of 1156 siRNAs targeting 386 individual curated human genes in stimulated microglial cells infected with Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genus. The screen recovered twenty-one potential host proteins that modulate ZIKV replication in an IFN-dependent manner, including the previously known IFITM3 and LY6E. Further characterization contributed to delineate the spectrum of action of these genes towards other pathogenic RNA viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2. Our data revealed that APOL3 acts as a proviral factor for ZIKV and several other related and unrelated RNA viruses. In addition, we showed that MTA2, a chromatin remodeling factor, possesses potent flavivirus-specific antiviral functions. We are currently investigating the molecular mechanisms behind IFN-dependent flaviviral restriction of MTA2. Our work identified previously unrecognized genes that modulate the replication of RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent way, opening new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these viruses.

14.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 9: 20499361221102664, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902328

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the challenges we face as a global society in preventing and containing emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Multiple intersecting factors, including environmental changes, host immunological factors, and pathogen dynamics, are intimately connected to the emergence and re-emergence of communicable diseases. There is a large and expanding list of communicable diseases that can cause neurological damage, either through direct or indirect routes. Novel pathogens of neurotropic potential have been identified through advanced diagnostic techniques, including metagenomic next-generation sequencing, but there are also known pathogens which have expanded their geographic distribution to infect non-immune individuals. Factors including population growth, climate change, the increase in animal and human interface, and an increase in international travel and trade are contributing to the expansion of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Challenges exist around antimicrobial misuse giving rise to antimicrobial-resistant infectious neurotropic organisms and increased susceptibility to infection related to the expanded use of immunomodulatory treatments. In this article, we will review key concepts around emerging and re-emerging pathogens and discuss factors associated with neurotropism and neuroinvasion. We highlight several neurotropic pathogens of interest, including West Nile virus (WNV), Zika Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus (TBEV). We emphasize neuroinfectious diseases which impact the central nervous system (CNS) and focus on flaviviruses, a group of vector-borne pathogens that have expanded globally in recent years and have proven capable of widespread outbreak.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2079323, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900986

ABSTRACT

Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that have been recently considered among the significant public health problems in defined geographical regions. In this line, there have been vaccines approved for some flaviviruses including dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), although the efficiency of such vaccines thought to be questionable. Surprisingly, there are no effective vaccine for many other hazardous flaviviruses, including West Nile and Zika viruses. Furthermore, in spite of approved vaccines for some flaviviruses, for example DENV, alternative prophylactic vaccines seem to be still needed for the protection of a broader population, and it originates from the unsatisfying safety, and the efficacy of vaccines that have been introduced. Thus, adenovirus vector-based vaccine candidates are suggested to be effective, safe, and reliable. Interestingly, recent widespread use of adenovirus vector-based vaccines for the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted the importance and feasibility of their widespread application. In this review, the applicability of adenovirus vector-based vaccines, as promising approaches to harness the diseases caused by Flaviviruses, is discussed.

16.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):102-103, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880510

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to severe disease. Prior immune responses to human coronaviruses may affect individual responses to SARS-CoV-2. We surveyed coronavirus responses pre-pandemic in individuals from Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Thailand;81% were people living with HIV. Methods: Specimens were screened for SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 subunit IgG responses. Selected samples were tested using a bead-based immunoassay that profiled the specificity, isotype and subclass of antibody responses to coronavirus, flavivirus and HIV antigens. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed to compare responses across antigens and participant group. Results: We screened 1,875 samples (one per individual) collected between 2013 and October 2019: 1,630 samples were from Africa (87%) and 245 from Thailand. 6.99% of participants (n=131, 116 from Africa (89%) and 15 from Thailand) showed responses above the naïve signal threshold and were further tested. Using a signal to noise ratio of >10 as a cut-off value, 44, 27 and 42 samples showed IgG responses to the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV respectively, while 7, 9 and 4 samples showed responses to Nucleocapsid for these same antigens. Some individuals had higher responses than those seen in SARS-CoV-2 convalescent individuals. We found a strikingly different pattern of reactivity in Africa compared to Thailand (Figure 1). Antibody responses were significantly higher in the African participants compared to Thai participants across antigens corresponding to SARS-CoV-2 (p<0.001), SARS-CoV-1 (p<0.001) and MERS-CoV (p<0.01). Similar patterns were seen for IgG subclasses, IgA and IgM. The difference was less pronounced for the four endemic coronaviruses, nonetheless anti-Spike responses were significantly higher in African participants for HKU1 and OC43 (p≤0.018). In addition, mapping responses to 21 flavivirus antigens showed the highest reactivity in Thailand and in Nigeria. Conclusion: Our serosurvey of pre-pandemic samples showed that there were significantly higher antibody responses against coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in Africa than in Thailand. Profiling flavivirus responses showed that the difference between the two regions was not due to a higher background reactivity across African samples. Further analysis is needed to explain pre-pandemic SARS-CoV-2-like antibody responses among African participants and explore implications for geographic diversity in disease severity.

17.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875770

ABSTRACT

Among emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus), West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that can be associated with severe neuroinvasive infections in humans. In 2018, the European WNV epidemic resulted in over 2000 cases, representing the most important arboviral epidemic in the European continent. Characterization of inflammation and neuronal biomarkers released during WNV infection, especially in the context of neuronal impairments, could provide insight into the development of predictive tools that could be beneficial for patient outcomes. We first analyzed the inflammatory signature in the serum of WNV-infected mice and found increased concentrations of several inflammatory cytokines. We next analyzed serum and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) samples from a cohort of patients infected by WNV between 2018 and 2019 in Hungary to quantify a large panel of inflammatory cytokines and neurological factors. We found higher levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL4, IL6, and IL10) and neuronal factors (e.g., BDNF, GFAP, MIF, TDP-43) in the sera of WNV-infected patients with neuroinvasive disease. Furthermore, the serum inflammatory profile of these patients persisted for several weeks after initial infection, potentially leading to long-term sequelae and having a deleterious effect on brain neurovasculature. This work suggests that early signs of increased serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and neuronal factors could be a signature underlying the development of severe neurological impairments. Biomarkers could play an important role in patient monitoring to improve care and prevent undesirable outcomes.


Subject(s)
West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Humans , Mice , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/virology , West Nile virus/physiology
18.
Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 13(1):9738-9751, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871583

ABSTRACT

Aim & objective: Study of incidence of malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya fevers among febrile patients visiting tertiary care hospital (King George hospital) in Visakhapatnam. Method: The study is conducted in-patients visiting King George Hospital, which is a Government General Hospital located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The hospital with 1237 beds serving the needs of north coastal Andhra Pradesh and adjacent Orissa for more than 150 years. Patients presenting to the health centre with some signs and symptoms compatible with the diagnosis of malaria, dengue and chikungunya (fever which can be recent or in evidence during the previous 2-4 days or/and other symptoms of febrile diseases such as chills, headache, joint, muscle and body pains).100 febrile patients shall be selected randomly at the age group of 13-60 years Patients shall also be selected on the basis of febrile and other symptoms such as chills, headache, joint, and muscle and body pains. Results and Conclusion: Age wise Distribution of Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya, number of patients n=100 were taken, total n=72 patients were positive for Malaria, n=24 patients were positive for Dengue and n=4 patients were Chikungunya. With the Mean of 10.6 and Standard Deviation are 6.1. From the age group of "36 to 50"years n=28 number of patients positive for both males and females, form this total n=12 positive for malaria with the percentage of 16.6% and Females were n=16 with the percentage of 22.2%. From the age group "51 to 65"years n=8 number of patients positive for malaria in both males and females, from this total the male patients were n=4 positive for malaria with the percentage of 5.6%. The age wise description of Dengue a total "n=24"number of patients are positive for Dengue in both males and females. From the total n=16 number of male patients which are positive for Dengue with the percentage of 66.6% with the Mean of 5.3 and Standard Deviation is 4.7.females were n=8 number of patients with the percentage of 33.3% and in the Mean of 11.1 with Standard Deviation is 2.4. The age wise description of Chikungunya fever of different age groups a total "n=4"number of patients are positive for Chikungunya fever in both males and females. From the total n=02 number of male patients which are positive for malaria with the percentage of 50% with the Mean of 0.6 and Standard Deviation is 0.5 females were n=02 number of patients with the percentage of 50% and in the Mean of 0.6 and Standard Deviation is 0.5. Chikungunya fever in both males and females, from the total male patients were n=0 positive for Chikungunya fever and females were n=1 number of patients positive for Chikungunya with the percentage of 25%. The maximum peaks are observed equally in the age of 36 to 50 years age group. The Month wise Description of Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya positive patients from the month of April 2017 to month of October 2017. To identify the seasonal variation of the disease, analysis of the data on monthly basis was done.

19.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869816

ABSTRACT

Pyridobenzothiazolone derivatives are a promising class of broad-spectrum antivirals. However, the mode of action of these compounds remains poorly understood. The HeE1-17Y derivative has already been shown to be a potent compound against a variety of flaviviruses of global relevance. In this work, the mode of action of HeE1-17Y has been studied for West Nile virus taking advantage of reporter replication particles (RRPs). Viral infectivity was drastically reduced by incubating the compound with the virus before infection, thus suggesting a direct interaction with the viral particles. Indeed, RRPs incubated with the inhibitor appeared to be severely compromised in electron microscopy analysis. HeE1-17Y is active against other enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, but not against two non-enveloped viruses, suggesting a virucidal mechanism that involves the alteration of the viral membrane.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavivirus , RNA Viruses , Viruses , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; 34(6):401-407, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863984

ABSTRACT

"Fuzheng Quxie" is an important theory of TCM related to prevention and cure of diseases. By enhancing the body immunity, Ganoderma (Lingzhi) indirectly inhibits the virus invasion, proliferation and destruction in the human body ("Fuzheng" means strengthening and consolidating body resistance). It can also directly inhibit and kill viruses ("Quxie" means dispelling evil). Lingzhi and its active components have antiviral effects on influenza virus, herpes virus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Newcastle disease virus, dengue virus and enterovirus. Lingzhi preparations alone or with antiviral drugs can treat hepatitis B, herpes zoster, recurrent genital herpes, condyloma acuminatum, infectious mononucleosis of children, cervical papillomavirus infection and AIDS. In addition, the possibility of preventing and treating COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) with Lingzhi was discussed.

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