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IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1102(1):012030, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2151798


Airline industries have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has spread to nearly every country worldwide. Multiple countries have imposed travel restrictions to halt this virus’s spread. This precarious situation has significantly impacted the airline industry, reducing passenger volume, flight frequency, and airline flow patterns. Although most scholars have examined changes in passenger volume before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, none of it has been done in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on airline passengers’ willingness to pay for carbon offset decisions and the value of willingness to pay among Malaysians. The research employed a scenario-based experiment with 150 respondents as the samples. Convenience sampling was adopted and was analyzed using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) via STATA version 16. The results showed that Malaysian airline passengers are willing to pay for carbon offset even as many have stopped flying due to COVID-19, with a mean value of RM20.68. This study also revealed that most passengers are still aware of climate change, even though not many are flying during the endemic. The psychological changes in air travelers caused by the pandemic are examined, with managerial and policy implications for the pandemic’s normalization of the pandemic and the airline market’s recovery in the post-pandemic period.

ASHRAE Transactions ; 128:340-347, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970581


The wavelength band of200-280 nm of UV-C radiation generated by the Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) system can destroy the reproduction ability of microorganisms. Severalfactors related to UVfixtures, HVAC layout, and the resulting airflow flow patterns can affect the performance of upper-room UVGI applications. With the help of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses, this study systematically evaluates the impact of UV-C intensities on the effectiveness of an upper room UVGI system. It shows that the addition of even a small amount of UV-C energy in the upper region of space can significantly reduce the probability of infection as predicted by the Wells-Riley model. Increasing the UV-C output shows a further reduction in the infection probability, although with a diminishing impact. A further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of airflow patterns on the performance of UVGI systems. These studies demonstrate that CFD analyses can help optimize the performance of UVGI systems to minimize the probability of infection in indoor spaces.