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Energies ; 15(11):4066, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892783


Residential biomass combustion has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of atmospheric pollutants. Rising awareness of the environmental effects of residential biomass combustion emissions boosted the development of different emission reduction devices that are currently available on the market for small-scale appliances. However, detailed studies on the efficiency of these devices in different combustion systems available in Southern European countries are lacking. In this study, two pollution control devices (catalytic converter and electrostatic precipitator) were tested in two different combustion systems (batch mode operated woodstove and automatically fed pellet stove) in order to assess the emission reduction potential of the devices. Pine firewood was used to fuel the woodstove. One commercial brand of pellets and an agricultural fuel (olive pit) were taken for the experiments in the pellet stove. While the efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator in reducing PM10 was only recorded for woodstove emissions (29%), the effect of the catalyst in decreasing gaseous emissions was only visible when applied to the pellet stove flue gas. For wood pellet combustion, reductions of CO and TOC emissions were in the range of 60–62% and 74–77%, respectively. For olive pit combustion, a lower decrease of 59–60% and 64% in CO and TOC emissions, respectively, was recorded.

Energies ; 15(10):3753, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871473


The rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere emphasises the need for improving the current carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. A conventional absorption method that utilises amine-based solvent is known to cause corrosion to process equipment. The solvent is easily degraded and has high energy requirement for regeneration. Amino acids are suitable candidates to replace traditional alkanolamines attributed to their identical amino functional group. In addition, amino acid salt is a green material due to its extremely low toxicity, low volatility, less corrosive, and high efficiency to capture CO2. Previous studies have shown promising results in CO2 capture using amino acids salts solutions and amino acid ionic liquids. Currently, amino acid solvents are also utilised to enhance the adsorption capacity of solid sorbents. This systematic review is the first to summarise the currently available amino acid-based adsorbents for CO2 capture using PRISMA method. Physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents that contribute to effective CO2 capture are thoroughly discussed. A total of four categories of amino acid-based adsorbents are evaluated for their CO2 adsorption capacities. The regeneration studies are briefly discussed and several limitations associated with amino acid-based adsorbents for CO2 capture are presented before the conclusion.

Atmosphere ; 13(4):513, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809676


The objective of this research was to investigate the behavior and conditions for CO2 adsorption using a mixture of CO2/N2 over a fixed-bed column of zeolite 5A. The study was performed with a variation in gas composition of CO2/N2 as a 20/80, 50/50, and 80/20 volume %, the adsorption temperatures as 298, 333, and 373 K and the total feed flow rates as 1, 2, and 4 L/h under 100 kPa pressure. The Bohart–Adams, Yoon–Nelson, and Thomas models were used to predict the breakthrough behavior of CO2 adsorption in a fixed column. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism has been investigated using the kinetics adsorption of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Boyd model, and intraparticle model. Increasing the CO2 composition of a gas mixture resulted in a high CO2 adsorption capacity because of the high partial pressure of CO2. The capacity of CO2 adsorption was decreased with increasing temperature because of physical adsorption with an exothermic reaction. The CO2 adsorption capacity was also decreased with increasing feed flow rates with inadequate time for CO2 adsorbates diffusion into the pores of the adsorbent before exiting the packed bed. The CO2 adsorption by zeolite 5A confirmed that the physical adsorption with intraparticle diffusion was the rate-controlling step of the whole process.

Energies ; 15(2):544, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1632225


The net greenhouse gas emissions need to become zero or even negative beyond 2050 to comply with the Paris Agreement and keep global warming well-below 1.5–2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels [2]. [...]in the oxy-combustion systems, the combustion of the fuel takes place with pure oxygen rather than air, giving as a result a virtually pure CO2 stream due to the absence of nitrogen in the incoming comburent gas. [...]it is expected that energy demand grows strongly in the developing countries in coming decades, and therefore, about 70% of CCS development should be carried out in these regions in order to meet the long-term climate targets included in the 1.5–2 °C global emission scenario [2]. [...]progress in CCS deployment must be accelerated in developing countries. Rich nations need to provide developing regions with not only financial support to facilitate the transition to low-carbon economy but also the experience gained in successful large-scale operating projects to reduce costs and risks in future scaling up of CCS technologies in the developing countries.

Sustainability ; 13(23):13061, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1559984


The rising concentration of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has severely affected our planet’s homeostasis. Efforts are being made worldwide to curb carbon dioxide emissions, but there is still no strategy or technology available to date that is widely accepted. Two basic strategies are employed for reducing CO2 emissions, viz. (i) a decrease in fossil fuel use, and increased use of renewable energy sources;and (ii) carbon sequestration by various biological, chemical, or physical methods. This review has explored microalgae’s role in carbon sequestration, the physiological apparatus, with special emphasis on the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM). A CCM is a specialized mechanism of microalgae. In this process, a sub-cellular organelle known as pyrenoid, containing a high concentration of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), helps in the fixation of CO2. One type of carbon concentration mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the association of pyrenoid tubules with thylakoids membrane is represented through a typical graphical model. Various environmental factors influencing carbon sequestration in microalgae and associated techno-economic challenges are analyzed critically.