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1.
Italian Journal of Food Science ; 33(3):14-24, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2081114

ABSTRACT

Due to the highly infectious virus known as COVID-19 impacting the lives of the populace, more than any other event in recent memory, there is a pandemic in the world. In order to determine food purchasing behavior and eating habits, food preservation techniques and source of knowledge about COVID-19, 992 consumers living in Ístanbul, the most populous city in Turkey, were surveyed. The questionnaire was disseminated to participants via an online platform. Thirty questions, including the demographics of participants, changes in purchasing behavior, knowledge, and attitudes about food preservation techniques, changes in eating habits, and source of knowledge about COVID-19, were asked. The results of this study surveyed that COVID-19 has changed food purchasing and eating habits of Turkish consumers significantly (p < 0.05). During the survey in late March of 2020 and late December of 2020, about 65% of respondents have tried to consume more food that boost the immune system and 58% of the respondents have been more willing to buy fresh products. Consumers have greatly adopted preserving of food stuffs by freezing during quarantine days. This survey revealed that the effective use of media tools could increase awareness and lead to behavioral changes that can reduce the spread of COVID-19, especially in consumers aged over 65 years.

2.
Food Studies ; 13(1):1-23, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030452

ABSTRACT

The present paper investigates the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer behavior related to local food products (LFPs). The study relies on the interpretation of in-depth interviews (N = 26) conducted through phone calls in Tehran, Iran, between September 23 to October 27, 2020. The results reveal substantial changes in buying behavior and food habits. Our findings present four behavioral categories with different underlying motivational factors: (1) ceased consumption, (2) reduced consumption, (3) unchanged consumption, and (4) increased consumption of LFPs. The results show that reduced accessibility during the lockdowns inhibited some respondents from acquiring the products they wanted. Moreover, health concerns due to distrust of food safety made some consumers hesitant about local food consumption. Our findings enhance understanding of how and why pandemics like COVID-19 may affect food habits and, consequently, attitudes and behaviors toward local food consumption. As consumption is constrained by time and place, the study contributes by bringing a localized perspective into consumers’ understanding of “local” products and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Tehran.

3.
Gastronomica ; 22(3):81-84, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2022070
4.
British Food Journal ; 124(10):3133-3151, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2001552

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study explored the relationship between local food consumption value and satisfaction with local food, leading to behavioral intention. Moreover, tourist's involvement is used as a mediator, and COVID-19 fear moderates between satisfaction with local food and behavioral intention.Design/methodology/approach>Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique presents researchers with extra flexibility and better research conclusions. This study used Partial Equation Modeling SEM to test the proposed hypotheses. The convenience sampling technique was used to collect data, and 339 questionnaires were part of the final analysis.Findings>The results reveal that local food consumption value is positively associated with local food satisfaction except for emotional value. Satisfaction on local food significantly determined tourist's involvement and behavioral intention. Tourist's involvement is positively related to behavioral intention. Despite this, COVID-19 fear significantly decreases behavioral intention. Tourist's involvement significantly mediates, and COVID-19 fear moderates between satisfaction with local food and behavioral intention significantly.Practical implications>The results of our research will support scholars and practitioners to recognize the importance of factors that influence people's intention to eat local food. Besides, our research offers a significant policy to get maximum benefits for the tourism industry in Pakistan.Originality/value>To the author's knowledge, our study initially incorporates a research model in the COVID-19 pandemic and covers local food consumption value, satisfaction on local food, tourist's involvement and COVID-19 fear to determine the behavioral intention of people to eat local food. Besides, consumption value theory was used to build a research framework.

5.
British Food Journal ; 124(10):3220-3235, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2001548

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this pilot-scale study was to compare the quality of traditionally manufactured butters from local, small British producers with the quality of butters that are produced industrially.Design/methodology/approach>Butter samples were obtained after supervised site inspections of three traditional-butter manufacturers and one large-scale butter producer. The samples were subject to initial microbiological, chemical and sensory testing, followed by a refrigerated shelf-life study over 24 weeks.Findings>Traditional butters matched or exceeded the sensory quality of industrial butters, but spoilage microorganisms tended to grow faster on traditional butters. This seemed to be related to poorer water droplet dispersion in the manufacture of some of the traditionally made butters. Visible mould appeared on two of the traditional butters after eight weeks, but this occurred well after the nominal “best before” date.Originality/value>Prolonged lockdowns due to the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic pose a threat to the food supply chain, and food produced by local manufacturers may become increasingly important. However, are foods produced by local small-scale manufacturers of a quality comparable to that produced using large-scale production facilities? To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparative study of the quality and shelf-life of traditionally-produced and industrially-produced butters. The current work presents such a comparison together with an outline of how the process of traditional butter-making differs from commercial production in Britain.

6.
British Food Journal ; 124(8):2429-2433, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1985242

ABSTRACT

According to Ammar et al. [...]their paper draws the attention of food loss and waste policymakers, practitioners, and researchers to implement suitable food loss and waste prevention strategies in developing and developed countries. SDG 12 “Responsible Consumption and Production”, which focuses on eliminating food waste from the food chain production process, and SDG 14 “Life Below Water”, as the reduction and elimination of plastic waste from the F&B sector, will surely have a positive effect on rivers, lakes and oceans. [...]marketing managers should indicate the benefit regarding the functionality of the packaging instead of over-enhancing sustainable aspects.

7.
British Food Journal ; 124(9):2705-2721, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1985241

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Data from the Northern Ireland (NI) Health Survey 2014/15 (n = 2,231) were statistically analysed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity according to both indicators. Pearson's X2 test for association and logistic regressions were used to examine associations between food security status and predictor variables.Design/methodology/approach>Household food insecurity has been identified as a significant societal issue in both developed and developing nations, but there exists no universal indicator to approximate its prevalence. In NI, two indicators (United States Household Food Security Survey Module [HFSSM] and the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions [EU-SILC] food deprivation questions) have been used. This study examines how both indicators differ in their classification of food insecurity prevalence in a population sample and also examines the relationship between various demographic and household factors and food security status.Findings>According to the EU-SILC food deprivation questions, 8.3% (n = 185) were indicated to be food insecure, while according to the HFSSM, 6.5% (n = 146) were indicated to be food insecure. The HFSSM and EU-SILC regression models differed in the underlying variables they identified as significant predictors of food insecurity. Significant variables common to both modules were tenure, employment status, health status, anxiety/depression and receipt of benefits.Originality/value>Findings can inform policy action with regards to targeting the key contributors and can inform policy decisions in NI and elsewhere with regards to choosing the most appropriate food insecurity indicator.

8.
British Food Journal ; 124(9):2857-2876, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1973369

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper analyses the impact of digitalization in the marketing of geographic indication (GI) products. Specifically, the objective is to provide a systemic and comprehensive view of marketing issues and challenges arising from evolving digitalization in the agriculture sector.Design/methodology/approach>The authors employed an explorative cognitive mapping technique on a sample of key informants among Italian companies and a consortium of registered food, spirits and wine products.Findings>This study describes the key concepts dominant in the discourse of informants concerning digitalization and its influence on the GI market. Three clusters and two loops were also identified to explain the relationship among key concepts, which stress changes regarding the relationship with the consumer, product experience and innovation, and the integration between physical and virtual space.Research limitations/implications>This is the first attempt to apply cognitive maps to GIs. However, the study does have limitations: it was conducted on a small number of producers and was restricted to only Italy. Another limitation is that interviews were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.Practical implications>The results suggest important practical implications that stress the need for learning and increased digital competences for the efficient embedding of digital technologies in all business areas, increase product value and innovation, and the need for governance in support of digital transformation.Originality/value>This work creates the new and valuable literature on food marketing and, specifically, on a changing market environment resulting from digitalization, by providing a holistic overview of digitalization in reference to the marketing of GIs.

9.
British Food Journal ; 124(9):2980-2992, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1973368

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between social media addiction and eating behavior, eating disorder risk, body weight and life satisfaction in university students during pandemic period.Design/methodology/approach>The sample consists of 1,411 university students. Data were collected using online questionnaire and Scale of Social Media Usage Motives, Social Media Addiction Scale-Student Form, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), SCOFF Eating Disorders Scale and Life Assessment Scale were used in the study.Findings>Of the participants, 79.7% had different levels of social media addiction. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) values of those with high social media addiction were significantly higher than those in the non- and low-addicted group (p < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between social media addiction and duration of social media use, social media addiction and emotional and external eating behaviors and a negative relationship between social media addiction and life satisfaction (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in eating disorder risk according to social media addiction groups (p = 0.823). Individuals in the nonaddicted social media group had the highest Life Assessment Scale score (p < 0.01).Originality/value>Social media addiction was prevalent among university students, and it was related to BMI, eating behavior and life satisfaction. It is necessary to be more careful in the use of social media, which has increased in the pandemic period. Trainings to reduce the use of social media can positively affect eating behavior and contribute to the prevention of obesity and increasing life satisfaction.

10.
Táplálkozásmarketing ; 9(1):55-70, 2022.
Article in Hungarian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964902

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has led to many drastic changes worldwide, not only in the economy, but amongst others, in the structure of people’s daily routines as well. Some developments have been involuntary – as social distancing, wearing masks, restrictions on travel, etc., but for others, it has merely accelerated the adoption of behaviors already gaining traction, such as the digitalization of shopping and more. Consequences of subsequent lockdowns and their effect on the consumers’ grocery purchasing habits and their implications for food retail had been investigated in our research with a particular focus on regions of South Slovakia and West Hungary in a period ranging from November 2020 till April 2021. The constructed online questionnaire chosen for data collection aimed to identify specific ways in which consumers changed their grocery shopping behavior during the lockdown (e.g., frequency of shopping trips, time spent in stores, the aim of shopping, purchase of ingredients, online shopping). The results of the online questionnaire underlined the main regional differences between the two countries. The overall outcome of our research showed the moderate reduction in grocery shopping frequency, minor changes in shopping location and partially increase in online shopping. Our results showed that although the proportion of online purchases has increased, such a crisis does not seem to be sufficient to overcome barriers to shopping, such as the purchase of a new, unknown product. But changes that provide positive experiences are likely to last longer, particularly those driven by convenience and well-being, such as digital adoption, value-based purchasing, and increased health awareness. This provides an opportunity for companies to offer innovative, value-based, and integrated products or services to meet customer needs. Companies and retailers will need to adapt fast, understand consumers’ preferences, and stay relevant. JEL Codes: D12, D91Alternate : A COVID-19 pandémia megjelenése és gyors terjedése gazdasági sokkhatást okozott, amely változást eredményezett az emberek mindennapi életének szerkezetében, valamint a fogyasztói magatartásban is. A világjárvány, az ebből fakadó korlátozások következtében megváltoztak a fogyasztók munkavégzéssel, kapcsolattartással, étkezéssel, kapcsolatos szokásai. A koronavírus-járvány miatt bevezetett társadalmi távolságtartás az élelmiszer-vásárlási szokások terén is változással járt. Tanulmányunkban megvizsgáltuk, milyen hatással van a COVID-19 két szomszédos ország – Magyarország és Szlovákia két régiójának élelmiszer-vásárlással kapcsolatos fogyasztói magatartására, valamint hogyan változtatta meg az élelmiszervásárlással kapcsolatos döntési tényezőket. Kutatásunk a pandémia második szakaszában, 2020 novemberében kezdődött és 2021 áprilisában fejeződött be. Online kérdőíves felmérést végeztünk levelezőlista, valamint a közösségi média felhasználásával. Hosszú távú trendek vizsgálata ebben a kezdeti időszakban még nem volt lehetséges, így csak a rövid távú hatásokra helyezzük a hangsúlyt. Délnyugat – Szlovákiában, konkrétan a pozsonyi – dunaszerdahelyi – komáromi régióban, Magyarországon pedig a Nyugat - dunántúli régióban (Győr – Moson - Sopron megye) végeztük a felmérést. Több jellegzetesség, magatartási eltérés volt fellelhető a két régió/ország között. Az online élelmiszer-vásárlás olyan általános trend, amely mindkét régióban tapasztalható volt, ezt a pandémiás helyzet némileg tovább fokozta. Kiderült, hogy az online élelmiszervásárlás még nem vált általánosan elterjedtté, a magyar, valamint a szlovák lakosság továbbra is ragaszkodik az élelmiszerek boltban történő vásárlásához. Eredményeink alapján látható, hogy bár nőtt az online vásárlások aránya, mégsem tűnik elegendőnek a válsághelyzet ahhoz, hogy a vásárlókban kialakult rutint, vagy a korlátokat, például az online vásárlással kapcsolatos bizonytalanságot, vagy az új, ezidáig nem ismert termék vásárlását teljesen feloldja. A pozitív tapasztalatokat biztosító változások azonban valószínűleg hosszabb ideig tartanak, különösen azok, amelyek a kényelem és a jólét által vezéreltek, mint például a digitális átvétel, az értékalapú vásárlás és a megnövekedett egészségtudatosság. Ez lehetőséget kínál a vállalatok számára, hogy innovatív, értékalapú és integrált termékeket vagy szolgáltatásokat kínáljanak a vásárlói igények kielégítésére. JEL- kódok: D12, D91

11.
Táplálkozásmarketing ; 9(1):39-53, 2022.
Article in Hungarian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964901

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the daily lives of the population, primarily due to the disease control measures. The focus has shifted to health protective factors, with a healthy diet playing a key role in increasing the human body's resistance to pathogens. In addition, being overweight has a negative impact on the course of the disease, making the virus an even greater threat to our society. Our aim was to examine how the pandemic has changed our daily diet, with a particular focus on fruit and vegetable consumption. Data collection included both secondary and primary research. With 242 responses, our primary analysis was conducted using an online questionnaire. The results showed, that half of the respondents had changed their eating habits and one third had gained extra weight during the pandemic. A higher percentage regard their fruit and vegetable consumption as sufficient enough, while only 29.6% think they are eating the daily recommended amount. The results showed that there is a lack of awareness among respondents of the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables, which is a fundamental problem in terms of dietary health. JEL Code: I12Alternate : A COVID-19 fertőzés jelentős mértékben hatott a lakosság mindennapi életvitelére, melynek oka elsődlegesen a járványellenes megszorító intézkedések voltak. Előtérbe kerültek az egészséget védő tényezők, melyek közül az egészséges táplálkozásnak kiemelt szerepe van az emberi szervezet kórokozókkal szembeni ellenállás fokozásában. Ezen kívül a túlsúly kedvezőtlenül befolyásolja a betegség lefolyását, így társadalmunkra még nagyobb veszélyt jelent a vírus. Célunk volt vizsgálni, hogy milyen változásokat hozott a pandémia a mindennapi étkezésünkben, kiemelten a zöldség és gyümölcs fogyasztást. Az adatgyűjtés során szekunder és primer kutatást is végeztünk. Primer vizsgálatunkat online kérdőív segítségével végeztük, melyre 242 válasz érkezett. Megállapítottuk, hogy a megkérdezettek felénél változtak a táplálkozási szokások és egy harmada plusz kilókkal küzd a pandémia alatt. Nagyobb százalékban gondolják azt, hogy elegendő zöldség/gyümölcs fogyasztásuk, míg a napi ajánlott mennyiség bevitele már csak 29,6%-ra jellemző. Az eredmények rámutatnak arra, hogy a napi ajánlott zöldség/gyümölcs mennyiségével nincsenek tisztába a megkérdezettek, amely az egészséges táplálkozás szempontjából is alapvető problémaként tekinthető. JEL kód: I12

12.
Journal of Food Quality ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1932849

ABSTRACT

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the food industry has received increasing attention in recent years. Many scholars have paid attention to case studies and other empirical analyses in this field, but there is no systematic or scientific literature review. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the knowledge structure, research hotspots, and development history in CSR in the food industry. After searching, screening, and commenting, 498 articles were left for citation analysis, co-citation analysis, and co-word analysis. The main findings of the research are as follows: (1) The overall development status of the research in the field. The analysis of the three fields that constitute the knowledge structure. (2) Research in this field has become a hot spot, but the research is rather scattered, and the scholars and experts do not have a special research core. (3) The keywords’ cluster results in 9 clustering tags, which are further grouped into 7 groups. The research of the scholars focuses on the food supply chain, consumer perception, and social media communication. (4) The research topics in this field focus on environmental responsibility, nutrition and health, and food safety. The research results show that future research should be more in-depth and reflect the new characteristics of the Internet, digitalization, and big data.

13.
British Food Journal ; 124(7):2061-2095, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878868

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The main intention of this paper is to analyze various factors hindering the growth of the agricultural supply chain and several industry 4.0 technologies to eliminate the same. In addition to a detailed assessment on the implementation of these technologies in agriculture, this manuscript also presents a priority list providing a rank to them based on the relative efficiency of these advancements in addressing these obstacles.Design/methodology/approach>This research proceeds with a two-step process. The particular barriers in the agriculture supply chain and industry 4.0 technologies are determined in the first step. Next, the proposed framework, a combination of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), i.e. DEA-AHP, is used to determine a hierarchical structure for the factors and the relative productive efficiencies of the alternatives. The DEA methodology gives a performance analysis of various decision-making units. At the same time, AHP helps in evaluating alternatives weights based on numerous criteria, allowing us to categorize their importance further.Findings>This study reveals how the involvement of technological advancements in agriculture can help manage the supply chain more efficiently. It also justifies how the large quantities of data generated can handle these increasing challenges in the agricultural supply chain.Practical implications>The results of this study provide a priority list of alternatives based on their final weights. This ranking system can help farmers and the government select the best-suited technology for bringing automation into the agricultural supply chain.Originality/value>This research is unique as it analyes the general factors hindering the development of the agriculture supply chain while simultaneously providing a list of alternatives based on their relative efficiencies. The study enriches existing literature by providing an analytic approach to determine the weightage of various critical success factors that can help improvise and entrust the real and undeniable requirements of consumers, suppliers and producers.

14.
British Food Journal ; 124(7):2096-2113, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878867

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper investigates the relationship between agricultural entrepreneurship (AE) and new technologies using academic and practitioners' perspectives to understand how new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning and augmented reality can promote agri-businesses.Design/methodology/approach>The paper adopts a content and thematic analysis of 325 academic sources extracted from the Scopus database and 683 patents retrieved from the European Patent Office (EPO) dataset. Additionally, the research applies the Kruskal–Wallis test as a non-parametric test for evaluating differences in the main concepts discussed in the two sources.Findings>The academic and practitioners' debate highlights a trading zone among the two streams. patents' analysis from the EPO reveals four main common themes as a new business that benefits from AI in weather predictions, new smart and intelligent ways to monitor crops, new businesses that use clouds to control plant's humidity. The analysis of Scopus's sources demonstrates theoretical approaches related to the technology acceptance model (TAM) and practical strategies in terms of entrepreneurial skills to support the agricultural sector. However, barriers among the two streams of sources exist in innovation management and scale-up entrepreneurial initiatives.Research limitations/implications>Regarding implications, the authors aim to connect academic and practitioners' views by understanding the new potential innovation applications and the connected new research avenues. Limitations might arise from the sources used to develop our analysis.Originality/value>The paper is novel because it investigates the issues arising from the relationship between AE and new technologies by examining original validated patents released by practitioners and approved by the EPO, rather than reviewing blogs or the financial press. This leads to a holistic understanding of the impact of tangible practices among agricultural entrepreneurs. The results support the view that new trading zones and case studies are needed to highlight and show the positive impact of technologies in this field. The authors argue that practitioners require scholars to reduce the ambiguity between AE and its expected results, leading to investments to boost new agricultural business ideas.

15.
British Food Journal ; 124(7):2239-2261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878866

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper aims to explore the literature on vertical farming to define key elements to outline a business model for entrepreneurs. The research aims to stimulate entrepreneurship for vertical farming in a smart cities' context, recognising urban agriculture as technology to satisfy increasing food needs.Design/methodology/approach>The research conducts a structured literature review on 186 articles on vertical farming extracted from the Scopus. Moreover, the bibliometric analysis revealed the descriptive statistics on this field and the main themes through the authors' keywords.Findings>Different perspectives showed the multidisciplinary nature of the topic and how the intersection of different skills is necessary to understand the subject entirely. The keywords analysis allowed for identifying the topics covered by the authors and the business model's elements.Research limitations/implications>The research explores a topic in the embryonic stage to define key strands of literature. It provides business model insights extending George and Bock's (2011) research to stimulate entrepreneurship in vertical farming. Limitations arise from the sources used to develop our analysis and how the topic appears as a frontier innovation.Originality/value>Originality is the integration of literature strands related to vertical farming, highlighting its multidisciplinary nature to provide a holistic understanding of the themes. In smart cities' context, innovations allow traditional business models to be interpreted in a novel perspective and revealed the elements for transforming vertical farming from innovative technology to an effective source of food sustenance. Finally, the paper suggests a new methodology application for the analysis of word clusters by integrating correspondence analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis.

16.
British Food Journal ; 124(7):2012-2038, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878865

ABSTRACT

Purpose>International collaboration is a crucial requirement of entrepreneurship, particularly in developing emerging economies. This collaboration seems so necessary in the food industry as a major contributor to environmental, social and economic problems. This paper aims to identify, analyse the influential network relationship and prioritise the key success factors (KSFs) of international collaboration formation in the entrepreneurial food industry with a case study on Iran's emerging economy.Design/methodology/approach>To identify a list of KSFs, a qualitative method, literature review, is initially used. A quantitative method, fuzzy-Delphi, then is employed to finalise the main KSFs based on the entrepreneurial food industry experts' opinion. To analyse the causal relationship, and prioritise the KSFs, a fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)-analytic network process (ANP) methodology, i.e. FDANP, is applied. At the first stage, the cause–effect diagram of KSFs is extracted using fuzzy DEMATEL and then, the KSFs weights and priorities are evaluated using a fuzzy ANP.Findings>The results illustrate that the characteristics of effective development workers are the leading dimension of a successful international collaboration that directly affects other dimensions. On the other hand, increased marketing and trading is the most important KSF that is directly related to international entrepreneurial collaboration team capabilities and professionalism. The leading and casual role of team members also plays a vital role in strategic and communication issues affecting the collaboration success, e.g. market research and new product development. Availability of financial resources and the ability of partners in continuous financing is also a crucial and required factor for a successful collaboration.Originality/value>Using an extensive review of the literature to extract the KSFs of international entrepreneurial collaboration and finalising them using a fuzzy-Delphi method and examining the cause-effect relations between them, as well as prioritising the KSFs are the main contributions of this paper.

17.
EFSA Journal ; 19(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1875329

ABSTRACT

This report evaluates the training courses delivered under the contract OC/EFSA/SCN1 -https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/vIJ9N?_a=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%3D%3D&_s=2ZOX7J4w4lftnvbm53vy0sKE9lQ%3D ER/2017/01 ‐ Lot 1. Within the period of January 2018 to February 2022 a total of 21 training courses were provided, eight on‐site training courses in Parma at EFSA, six virtual training courses during the Covid‐19 pandemic and seven eLearning courses comprising various numbers of modules.The courses covered different aspects of chemical and biological risk assessment and related tools, namely i) harmonisation of risk assessment methodologies for human health and ecological risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (mixture assessment), ii) risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in agro/food/feed (nanotoxicity);iii) science‐based criteria for identifying endocrine disruptors in the context of EU legislation on pesticides and biocides (endocrine disruption);iv) principles on genotoxicity on scientific assessment (genotoxicity) and v) computational toxicology approaches and tools (in silico). All tutors were experts in their field and had previously performed training courses on these topics.The target participants of the training courses were members of EFSA’s Scientific Committee/Panels and their working groups as well as employees from national and international regulatory agencies associated with risk assessment of feed and food compounds. Members of the EFSA Networks as well as EFSA scientific staff also participated in the training courses.Courses were evaluated based on the feedback of participants and continuously improved also by integrating updated or new EFSA guidance documents.

18.
Journal of Food Quality ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871766

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Currently, Ethiopia, in particular, the rural areas of Ethiopia, faces high levels of food insecurity. In spite of the fact that there have been many studies on food security, most of them have been conducted in specific national settings. Hence, the determinants of food insecurity should be assessed at the national level. Therefore, this study was primarily aimed to identify the determinant factors of household food insecurity in rural Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional Ethiopian socioeconomic survey (ESS) data collected from September 2018 to August 2019 was utilized. A sample of 3115 households was selected from 316 clusters across rural Ethiopia using a two-stage probability sampling technique. To identify the determinants of food insecurity, logistic regression was applied. Results. Among 3,115 households, 50.05% of them were food insecure. Factors such as the household head being aged from 30 to 64 (AOR = 0.786, 95% CI: [0.635, 0.973]), widowed, divorced, or separated (AOR = 1.588, 95%CI: [1.001, 2.518]), literate (AOR = 0.702, 95%CI: [0.590, 0.834]), household aid (AOR = 1.339, 95%CI: [1.089, 1.648]), drought-affected (AOR = 0.640, 95%CI: [0.507, 0.808]), nonagricultural business (AOR = 0.655, 95%CI: [0.472, 0.908]), dependency ratio from 50 to 75% (AOR = 0.680, 95%CI: [0.534, 0.867]), having 6 to 10 livestock (AOR = 0.644, 95%CI: [0.496, 0.836]), and more than 10 livestock (AOR = 0.362, 95% CI: [0.284, 0.461]) were found to be significantly associated with the household’s food insecurity at 5% level of significance. Conclusion. The household head’s age from 30 to 64, being literate, drought-affected, having nonagricultural business, dependency ratio from 50 to 75%, and owning more than 10 livestock have been negatively affecting food insecurity. While supporting households, a “widowed, divorced, or separated” household head has had a positive effect on food insecurity in rural Ethiopia positively influencing food insecurity in rural Ethiopia. Policymakers need to pay special attention to very young and old-aged household heads, adult education, household self-help, livestock improvement, and entrepreneurship while implementing poverty reduction programs.

19.
Foods ; 11(10):1452, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871540

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents and have multiple potential health applications. Moringa oleifera is globally recognized for its nutritional and pharmacological properties, correlated to the high flavonoid content in its leaves. However, the bioactive compounds found in plants may vary according to the cultivation, origin, season, and extraction process used, making it difficult to extract reliable raw material. Hence, this study aimed to standardize the best cultivation and harvest season in Brazil and the best extraction process conditions to obtain a flavonoid-rich extract from M. oleifera as a final product. Firstly, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized to reach the highest flavonoid content by three-level factorial planning and response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal cultivation condition was mineral soil fertilizer in the drought season, and the optimized extraction was with 80% ethanol and 13.4 min of extraction time. The flavonoid-rich extract was safe and significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Lastly, the major flavonoids characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTRAP-MS/MS were compounds derived from apigenin, quercetin, and kaempferol glycosides. The results confirmed that it was possible to standardize the flavonoid-rich extract leading to a standardized and reliable raw material extracted from M. oleifera leaves.

20.
International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics ; 10(2):131-141, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871471

ABSTRACT

The main objective of our study is to analyse the influence of human capital on agricultural cereal production in the CEMAC countries. To achieve this, we use a set data from World Bank (WDI) publications from the period of 2001 to 2017. These data are analysed by the fixed effects model following the ordinary least squares method. The given results show that an increase of one-unit in the total primary school enrolment variable leads to an increase of a 0.672-unit in cereal production. A one-unit increase in public spending on health leads to a 0.048-unit increase in cereal production. This means that human capital positively influences cereal agricultural production in the CEMAC countries. It is commend that producers be trained and supervised on appropriate seed techniques and that an observatory be set up to monitor and evaluate the training and supervision of farmers.

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