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1.
Systems Research and Behavioral Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2041243

ABSTRACT

The severe restrictions placed upon face-to-face meetings during the Covid pandemic in 2020/2021 created new challenges for the on-going research into food systems in the Portsmouth community. The researchers had planned to use soft action research which involves participants meeting face-to-face. The restrictions that were imposed during the pandemic forbade such meetings and created a new set of issues for the researchers to overcome. In this paper, we describe how these shortcomings were addressed and introduce a novel way of adapting soft action research through the use of Information and Communication Technologies. The lessons learnt from our experiences will help inform researchers and professionals using Soft methods of inquiry and open opportunities for others to explore further the benefits and disadvantages of online investigation.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9715, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994199

ABSTRACT

Land-use transition is one of the most profound human-induced alterations of the Earth’s system. It can support better land management and decision-making for increasing the yield of food production to fulfill the food needs in a specific area. However, modeling land-use change involves the complexity of human drivers and natural or environmental constraints. This study develops an agent-based model (ABM) for land use transitions using critical indicators that contribute to food deserts. The model’s performance was evaluated using Guilford County, North Carolina, as a case study. The modeling inputs include land covers, climate variability (rainfall and temperature), soil quality, land-use-related policies, and population growth. Studying the interrelationships between these factors can improve the development of effective land-use policies and help responsible agencies and policymakers plan accordingly to improve food security. The agent-based model illustrates how and when individuals or communities could make specific land-cover transitions to fulfill the community’s food needs. The results indicate that the agent-based model could effectively monitor land use and environmental changes to visualize potential risks over time and help the affected communities plan accordingly.

3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(7): e34285, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The issue of food insecurity is becoming increasingly important to public health practitioners because of the adverse health outcomes and underlying racial disparities associated with insufficient access to healthy foods. Prior research has used data sources such as surveys, geographic information systems, and food store assessments to identify regions classified as food deserts but perhaps the individuals in these regions unknowingly provide their own accounts of food consumption and food insecurity through social media. Social media data have proved useful in answering questions related to public health; therefore, these data are a rich source for identifying food deserts in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop, from geotagged Twitter data, a predictive model for the identification of food deserts in the United States using the linguistic constructs found in food-related tweets. METHODS: Twitter's streaming application programming interface was used to collect a random 1% sample of public geolocated tweets across 25 major cities from March 2020 to December 2020. A total of 60,174 geolocated food-related tweets were collected across the 25 cities. Each geolocated tweet was mapped to its respective census tract using point-to-polygon mapping, which allowed us to develop census tract-level features derived from the linguistic constructs found in food-related tweets, such as tweet sentiment and average nutritional value of foods mentioned in the tweets. These features were then used to examine the associations between food desert status and the food ingestion language and sentiment of tweets in a census tract and to determine whether food-related tweets can be used to infer census tract-level food desert status. RESULTS: We found associations between a census tract being classified as a food desert and an increase in the number of tweets in a census tract that mentioned unhealthy foods (P=.03), including foods high in cholesterol (P=.02) or low in key nutrients such as potassium (P=.01). We also found an association between a census tract being classified as a food desert and an increase in the proportion of tweets that mentioned healthy foods (P=.03) and fast-food restaurants (P=.01) with positive sentiment. In addition, we found that including food ingestion language derived from tweets in classification models that predict food desert status improves model performance compared with baseline models that only include socioeconomic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Social media data have been increasingly used to answer questions related to health and well-being. Using Twitter data, we found that food-related tweets can be used to develop models for predicting census tract food desert status with high accuracy and improve over baseline models. Food ingestion language found in tweets, such as census tract-level measures of food sentiment and healthiness, are associated with census tract-level food desert status.


Subject(s)
Census Tract , Food Deserts , Social Media , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infodemiology/methods , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
4.
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences ; 113(4):16-22, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934668

ABSTRACT

According to the USDA Economic Research Service (2019), 12.8 % of people across the U.S. live in low-access and low-income census (LALI) tracts that have less access to affordable, nutritious foods. According to Patrick and Nicklas (2005), "children are more likely to eat foods that are available and easily accessible" (p. 83). Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals know that diets high in fruits and vegetables have been linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease, an increase in satiety, improved health, and maintenance of a healthy weight (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2010). Child nutrition programs (e.g., school lunch, breakfast, healthy snack programs, other governmental sponsored programs like Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and commodities) are directly targeted at families to address nutritional needs (USDA Food and Nutrition, 2020).

5.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(7):962-964, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1904845

ABSTRACT

[...]we have substantial information across multiple disciplines on the drivers and consequences of food insecurity. According to the US Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service, food insecurity among US households with children increased from 13.6% in 2019 to 14.8% in 2020, and this increase was greater in communities of color.1 For example, Dubowitz et al. found that low-income African Americans residing in food desert neighborhoods experienced greater increases in food insecurity between 2018 and 2020, from 20.7% to 36.9%, compared with the general population.2 The impact of food insecurity on health care utilization during the pandemic is equally disturbing. [...]supporting local farmers markets that accept produce vouchers will, in addition to increasing access to food banks and mobile pantries for older adults and individuals with limited mobility, enable local communities to meet and sustain local needs in providing healthy produce.

6.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(7-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1857178

ABSTRACT

The study looks at participants' knowledge and perceptions about nutrition and healthy food availability in urban low-income areas in Southern California by using Albert Bandura's (1998) social cognitive theory as it relates to health promotion. Exploratory analyses of this study indicate that majority of participants presented to have knowledge of nutrition and its importance to health and prevention of chronic illnesses. Majority of the participants' perceptions of healthy food access, regardless of income level, were that fresh produce and foods are costly and require a time commitment to prepare. Individuals in the lower income brackets tend to purchase food based on what they can afford, and which items are on sale. When it comes to effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on food consumption, many participants' included aspects of mental health, changed eating habits from pandemic induced stress and less grocery trips resulting in increased purchasing of nonperishable foods. This study highlights how food consumption may be affected by the increasing socioeconomic gap and contributes to social equality through nutrition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 1012-1025, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This research offers an alternative to the singular focus on improving health services to the African American community to increase their resilience to health-related co-morbidities associated with Covid-19 deaths. METHODS: This study employs a participatory action research (PAR) approach, where local non-profit organizations and researchers partnered with a challenged community in a self-study of intergenerational poverty related to health issues and the various obstacles to breaking this cycle. RESULTS: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of interview and focus group data suggests that the majority of those living in poor neighborhoods report reducing intersectional factors that are the cause and function of intergenerational poverty would reduce poverty and by extension increase African Americans' resilience to health-related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of data related to overlapping obstacles like lack of access to safe housing and quality health services offers both context and insight about how policies addressing poverty reduction may offer pathways for reducing the co-morbidities associated with pandemic risk for African Americans.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Poverty/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Housing/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Safety , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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