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1.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S251-S252, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057929

ABSTRACT

Background: In Colorado, food insecurity affects about 10% of patients with celiac disease and is associated with decreased adherence to gluten-free diet. With the COVID-19 pandemic, demand for gluten-free foods from food banks increased. We sought to assess the availability of gluten-free foods at food banks in Colorado during the pandemic. Method(s): Food banks in Colorado were asked to complete a survey about general understanding of celiac disease and identifying perceived barriers to providing gluten-free foods to people with celiac disease and food insecurity. In-person visits with additional predefined questions for the director were planned. Result(s): Of the 63 food banks contacted, 27 (43%) responded and 15 (24%) completed questionnaires (Table). Some in the Denver Metro area reported no barriers as they felt well equipped with resources and information related to celiac disease. The most common barrier reported was access to gluten-free foods from both donors and from mass suppliers. The next most common barriers were volunteer training and lack of celiac community advocacy about need. Of 16 providing written responses, 8 requested written resources and 3 indicated a separate area for those with food restrictions and adequate supply of gluten-free foods. Only one food bank was visited. The others were inaccessible due to lack of resources or capacity due to the pandemic or lack of communication. The food bank visited was Integrated Family Community Services, a social service whose mission is to alleviate hunger and empower people to make health adjustments. This food bank works with hospitals and the community to support low-income families in Englewood CO, an area with population at high risk of food insecurity. The director at this food bank reported knowing what celiac disease and gluten-free are, as well as trying to provide food for those with specific food restrictions. Prior to COVID, recipients could select the food items they wanted, and gluten-free pastas, flours, breads were separated, as were low glycemic foods for those with diabetes and low sodium foods for those with hypertension. However, due to COVID restrictions, this was no longer possible;volunteers put together pre-made boxes, but not gluten-free boxes. Conclusion(s): During the COVID-19 pandemic, demand for gluten-free food items increased;however, not only was there diminished supply of gluten-free foods to food banks by large and small donors, food banks also were reduced in their capacity to sort and deliver the gluten-free foods to those in need. In addition, there was little awareness of the need for gluten-free donations and the need for volunteers at the food banks. Food insecurity is a contributing factor in adverse health outcomes for celiac disease. Discussion(s): Food insecurity is common, impacting 10%-20% of families with celiac disease and is associated with rural communities, reduced adherence to the gluten-free diet, and the burden of the higher cost of gluten-free foods on low income families. Recognizing the impact on social determinants of health, the US Preventive Services Task Force is developing a research agenda for food insecurity. Strategies celiac centers could adapt to improve access include 1) focused advocacy to increase donations to food banks by gluten-free food producers, 2) creation of areas within food pantries for special dietary needs, 3) provide expert dietitian support to food banks, 4) develop written resources about gluten-free foods, labelling and recipes for food banks, and 5) improve staffing by promoting volunteering. Limitations of this study include low participation rate by food pantries, inability to visit more than one pantry during this study, and extrapolation of findings to other areas outside Colorado. Future directions could include studies to increase health care systems awareness of and screening for food insecurity (demand side), as well as partnering with food banks and gluten free food manufacturers and suppliers to enhance the availability of these foods (supply side) and then assess any impact on health outcomes. (Table Presented).

2.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics ; 122(10):A109-A109, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2047212
3.
Food Research ; 6(4):407-412, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044349

ABSTRACT

Nutritional labelling is the nutritional description of the food on the label to help the consumer in food selection. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices adopted by the subjects and correlate them to have a better understanding of their nutritional background. Nutrition labels are a prominent first-glance article that needs to be very catchy and easy to interpret. The organizations responsible for formulating the rules and regulations must keep them updated and devise new formats of the display to enhance the usage of food labels up to the maximum possible level. A cross-sectional research study on 100 working women of Varanasi, aged between 20-50 years was conducted through a self-structured questionnaire to evaluate their KAP level. In view of the COVID-19 pandemic, the questionnaire was administered to the respondents through the online medium using Google forms. It can be inferred from the study that 58 % of the total respondents surveyed were aware of the labels, 61% of them had a positive attitude towards its usage but only 52% practised healthy shopping more often. About 70% of the participants preferred back-of-pack labelling rather than front-of-pack because the former provides elaborative information. The factors like qualification and occupation of women participants had negative associations with the satisfaction of the display format. The women having knowledge regarding traffic light labelling showed a positive association with the usefulness of the same. The average practice percentage adopted by the consumers had a negative association with factors like qualification, income, and occupation. The need for simplifying the display format and providing basic nutrition information to the population is highlighted in this study.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043912

ABSTRACT

Consumers are now more concerned about food safety and hygiene following the COVID-19 pandemic. Antimicrobial packaging has attracted increased interest by reducing contamination of food surfaces to deliver quality and safe food while maintaining shelf life. Active packaging materials to reduce contamination or inhibit viral activity in packaged foods and on packaging surfaces are mostly prepared using solvent casting, but very few materials demonstrate antiviral activity on foods of animal origin, which are important in the human diet. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles, essential oils and natural plant extracts as antimicrobial agents in/on polymeric matrices provides improved antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties. This paper reviews recent developments in antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral packaging incorporating natural or synthetic compounds using preparation methods including extrusion, solvent casting and surface modification treatment for surface coating and their applications in several foods (i.e., bakery products, fruits and vegetables, meat and meat products, fish and seafood and milk and dairy foods). Findings showed that antimicrobial material as films, coated films, coating and pouches exhibited efficient antimicrobial activity in vitro but lower activity in real food systems. Antimicrobial activity depends on (i) polar or non-polar food components, (ii) interactions between antimicrobial compounds and the polymer materials and (iii) interactions between environmental conditions and active films (i.e., relative humidity, oxygen and water vapor permeability and temperature) that impact the migration or diffusion of active compounds in foods. Knowledge gained from the plethora of existing studies on antimicrobial polymers can be effectively utilized to develop multifunctional antimicrobial materials that can protect food products and packaging surfaces from SARS-CoV-2 contamination.

5.
Reference Module in Food Science ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041388

ABSTRACT

Concerns over whether people can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 from food and packaging have caused significant disruption to global food trade. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can remain infectious and detectable on packaging or some foods under certain cold-chain conditions. However, there is minimal evidence that people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 from packaging or from foodborne transmission. Cooking of food will inactivate the virus. Any infectious SARS-CoV-2 present in consumed food would likely be inactivated by stomach acid. Nonetheless, good food hygiene practices are sensible precautions to minimize any possibility of food or packaging acting as a vector for SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Energies ; 15(16):5894, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023305

ABSTRACT

The study concerns the preparation of post-consumer food packaging for selective collection that takes place in households. The previously reported results suggested that the economic cost of washing the packaging exceeded the value of recyclable materials. A shortage of up-to-date papers on the economic balance of packaging washing, taking into account current trends in the increase of prices of materials and energy carriers, has been identified. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the application of particular heat sources on the total cost of preparing the glass and plastic packaging for selective collection, as well as to compare the cost with the economic value of recyclables. Over the last ten years, a drop in the purchase price of glass cullet and post-consumer plastic, as well as an increase in the cost of cold and hot water, have been reported. Accordingly, the profit of packaging cleaning, defined as the difference between the value of recyclable materials and the cost of washing them, has decreased. The energy consumed for water heating was identified as the most relevant factor affecting the entire economic balance. Even assuming the most efficient water heating solutions, the pre-treatment of the post-consumer food packaging turned out to be unprofitable. The conclusion reached in the previously published study has been confirmed.

7.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; 49(8):3220, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012955

ABSTRACT

[Background] The epidemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019 brought challenges to food safety. 【Objective】To evaluate the contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork sold in the post-epidemic era. [Methods] During the epidemic period from 2020 to 2021, fresh pork from different locations, different packaging methods and different seasons were selected to analyze the contamination rate and contamination level of Listeria monocytogenes, and the epidemiological characteristics of the isolated strains were analyzed. [Results] The contamination rate of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork was 15.28% (77/504), and the contamination rate in pork direct-sale stores and farmers' markets was higher than that in supermarkets. Among different packaging methods, the contamination rates of pre-packaging and simple packaging were higher than those of bulk samples, and there were significant differences in the contamination rates in different quarters, with the highest contamination rate in the third quarter, which was 27.78%. Quantitative results found that 40.26% exceeded 10 MPN/g (MPN: most probable number), and 3 samples had contamination levels over 100 MPN/g. The results of serotype analysis showed that 1/2a-3a (48.05%) and 1/2c-3c (44.16%) were the main serotypes. The results of drug resistance test showed that 19.50% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, 2 (2.60%) were sensitive to all antibiotics, 68 (88.30%) were resistant to oxacillin, and 46 (59.70%) were resistant to oxacillin. Ampicillin-resistant, 45 strains (58.40%) were resistant to cefotaxime. 【Conclusion】In the post-epidemic era, there are different degrees of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the marketed fresh pork in different locations, different packaging methods and different seasons. The contamination level of individual products is high, and the serum distribution and drug resistance characteristics are diverse. It is necessary to strengthen food safety supervision to reduce the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

8.
Ceram Int ; 48(23): 34148-34168, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003921

ABSTRACT

Food packages have been detected carrying novel coronavirus in multi-locations since the outbreak of COVID-19, causing major concern in the field of food safety. Metal-based supported materials are widely used for sterilization due to their excellent antibacterial properties as well as low biological resistance. As the principal part of antibacterial materials, the active component, commonly referred to Ag, Cu, Zn, etc., plays the main role in inhibiting and killing pathogenic microorganisms by destroying the structure of cells. As another composition of metal-based antibacterial materials, the carrier could support and disperse the active component, which on one hand, could effectively decrease the usage amount of active component, on the other hand, could be processed into various forms to broaden the application range of antibacterial materials. Different from other metal-based antibacterial reviews, in order to highlight the detailed function of various carriers, we divided the carriers into biocompatible and adsorptable types and discussed their different antibacterial effects. Moreover, a novel substitution antibacterial mechanism was proposed. The coating and shaping techniques of metal-based antibacterial materials as well as their applications in food storage at ambient and low temperatures are also comprehensively summarized. This review aims to provide a theoretical basis and reference for researchers in this field to develop new metal-based antibacterial materials.

9.
Berichte Geographie und Landeskunde ; 95(2):184-206, 2022.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964999

ABSTRACT

The contact restrictions and hygiene measures in the Corona pandemic have posed challenges to many people's supply practices. To date, research on impacts of the Corona pandemic on sustainable consumption practices, such as buying products with less packaging, is still in its infancy. Based on qualitative interviews and a standardized customer survey, this article examines how shopping practices and supply routines have changed during the Corona pandemic, also in relation to alternative ways of consumption, such as unpackaged shopping. The article concludes with reflection on the implications the Corona pandemic has for sustainable consumption. © 2022 Zentralausschus fur Deutsche Landeskunde. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting ; 38(3):339-340, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1951011
11.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 977(1):012106, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1948113

ABSTRACT

This study identifies and quantifies floating macro litter and macro plastic from Deli River Medan during pandemic Covid-19. Macro litter transport consists of floating items at surface, suspended in water column and transport over on riverbed. Litter was collected from 5 location along 11.6 km using static trawls with a height of 150 cm and width of 300 cm with a square mesh size of 0.5 cm. Sampling was done in July, and during selection, 40 cm of net’s height was constantly submerged for one hour. This study found that macro litter was 19.26 kg/h with 65.2% as anthropogenic waste, 34.3% as macro plastic, 0.3% as metal, and 0.15% as medical waste. The composition of macro plastic has various variants, namely food containers, plastic bags, food packaging, sanitary packaging, and mineral water packaging with percentages of 10.21%, 67.89%, 8.35%, 4.36%, and 9.18%. The macro plastic abundance was obtained at 2,476 x 10-4 kg/m3. This study showed a significant increase in plastic consumption during the pandemic, especially plastic bags because it is dominated in all locations.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(13):8045, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934252

ABSTRACT

The paper proposes a comprehensive and operational definition of Sustainable Food Packaging (SFP). Sustainability is a multifaceted concept, yet most SFP conversations decline it as a mere material substitution issue. The efforts of regulators, packaging producers, food companies, and consumers towards the design and adoption of SFP products are likely to fail without a common understanding of the multiple means by which food packaging contributes to sustainability. Based on an extensive literature review and the contributions of SFP innovation experts, the paper builds a Food Packaging Sustainability Framework (FPSF) that encompasses the three main dimensions of SFP, namely environmental conservation, food safety, and social value, and operationalizes them in terms of objectives and activable levers. The framework can be used as a tool to search and evaluate food packaging products, a conceptual guide for SFP design, and a narrative platform for coordinating supply chain actors, including consumers. The experimental activities applying FPSF gathered the different actors in the supply chain to jointly adopt the integrated model that distributes environmental, social, and economic benefits along the entire production chain.

13.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(5):397-403, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924837

ABSTRACT

Since July 2020, nucleic acids of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were frequently detected in cold chain food imported to China, making imported food being a potential risk to the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, imported cold-chain food and their packaging may become the carriers of SARS-CoV-2 in long-distance cross-border transportation. In each aspect of stakeholders including governmental supervision, manufacturers and consumers, China should strengthen the risk management of imported cold-chain food to ensure the safety, especially pay attention to the health protection of industry workers in close contact with cold -chain food.

14.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(22): 465-470, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879866

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Current evidence shows that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is neither a food safety issue nor a foodborne disease. However, the outbreaks of this disease in workers of meat- or poultry-processing plants and food markets have been reported in many countries. Systematic reports on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contamination in food-related samples worldwide are lacking so far. This study aimed to survey and monitor SARS-CoV-2 contamination in samples of foods or their packaging, storage environment, and employees, as well as explore the possible potential for virus transmission via frozen foods. Methods: Swabs of frozen food-related samples were collected between July 2020 and July 2021 in 31 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs) and Xinjiang Construction Corps in China. The SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were extracted and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the commercially available SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test kit. Results: More than 55.83 million samples were analyzed, and 1,455 (0.26 per 10,000) were found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Among the virus-positive samples, 96.41% (1,398/1,450) and 3.59% (52/1,450) were food/food packaging materials and environment, respectively. As for 1,398 SARS-CoV-2-positive food and food packaging materials, 99.50%, (1,391/1,398) were imported and 7 were domestic. The outer packaging of food was frequently contaminated by the virus 78.75% ( 1,101/1,398). Conclusions: Our study supported speculation that cold-chain foods might act as the SARS-CoV-2 carrier, and food handlers/operators were at high risk of exposure to the virus. It is necessary to carry out a comprehensive mass testing for SARS-CoV-2 nuclei acid, along with contact tracing and symptom screening in cold-chain food handlers and processors so as to identify high proportions of asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic infections. Meanwhile, research and development of effective self-protection equipment available at a temperature below -18 ℃ is urgent.

15.
Nutrition and Food Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878939

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Unsafe food can lead to various foodborne diseases and even death, especially among children. This paper aims to assess food safety knowledge and changes in practices and concerns among adults ≥ 18 years during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted among 325 adults living in Northern India. Demographic data and information regarding their knowledge, practices and concerns about various food safety issues were collected to see if there were any changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings: The results showed that the participants had slightly higher than average knowledge and good food safety practices with mean scores of 9.75 ± 2.23 and 24.87 ± 2.28, respectively. Contracting COVID-19 from food and food packaging materials was of high concern for more than 70% of the participants. Majority (> 80%) of them reported an increase in the frequency of handwashing. About 16% of the participants used chemical disinfectants for washing fruits and vegetables. An increase (57.5%) in the frequency of food label reading was also noted during the pandemic. Freshness and the general quality of food items (49.5%), safety of food (30.8%) and cost (18.2%) were the top drivers that influenced the purchase decision. Originality/value: This study highlighted the need to send out clear messages on safe food handling practices and keeping the tempo up for sustaining good hygienic practices. This will help in reducing the risk of foodborne diseases. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(10):6366, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871345

ABSTRACT

This article provides a systematic literature review on the integrated approach of bio-based plastic food packaging in a circular economy. It focuses on the following key areas: (1) the role of bio-based plastic food packaging in a circular product design strategy and material choice in the preproduction life cycle stage;(2) the role of bio-based plastic food packaging in circular resource management systems and the product disposal life cycle stage;and (3) an optimal bio-based plastic food packaging application in regard to prioritising end-of-life treatment. While there are dedicated publications on the role of packaging in a circular economy, circular packaging design, packaging waste management, and bio-origin plastic applications in food packaging, this article aims to provide an integrated review and recommendations on the best bio-based plastic food packaging material selection, applications based on a circular economy, and scenarios on waste/resource management that prioritise end-of-life treatment. Three of the current most popular bio-based plastic materials in the flexible and rigid food packaging categories were selected: starch blends, bio-PE, and PLA for flexible food packaging and PLA, bio-PET, and bio-PE for rigid packaging. This article highlights the fact that a smart material choice in the circular design strategy is a key factor that has a direct impact on the last packaging life cycle stage (disposal), and concludes that bio-based plastic materials are a way to close the food packaging loop, either by re-use or recycling. This article also provides recommendations on the best bio-based plastic food packaging material selection, and applications based on the circular economy and waste management that prioritise end-of-life treatment. The research results indicate a research niche for the application of re-usable biodegradable materials in food packaging. The findings of this research allow product designers and packaging companies to advance the understanding of the most efficient bio-based plastic food packaging integration into the circular economy via decision making of product material choice and end-of-life treatment. Based on the results of this article, scholars can develop new themes for further research.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(10):6146, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871295

ABSTRACT

Plastic in the linear consumption model is frequently manufactured and disposed of, leading to the creation of excessive plastic waste, which has significant consequences for the environment. Single-use food packaging waste is a large constituent of plastic waste that needs to be addressed urgently. The implementation of reusable packaging systems (RPSs) to close the loop of consumption appears to be promising, but the insights into consumers’ willingness to accept them are limited. This research investigates the aspect of consumers’ adoption of RPSs by identifying the particular user acceptance issues and eventually providing a set of design recommendations to address them. The data collection methods are remote interviews, engaging with 42 participants in three iterations, to evaluate three user experiences of RPSs in order to identify the user acceptance issues. After the user acceptance issues are identified in each iteration, the Theory of Attitude-Behaviour-Context is employed to advance the understanding of the acceptance issues. In order to continuously refine the user experiences, insights from design for sustainable behaviour are applied to address the user acceptance issues. The research results include three refined user experiences, four user acceptance issues—namely hygiene, usability, finance and motivation—and design recommendations to address those user acceptance issues. This research may be of interest to packaging professionals, and could be used to design and refine the RPSs to induce consumers’ adoption.

18.
Applied Sciences ; 12(10):5122, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870863

ABSTRACT

This study took food-grade polypropylene packaging products as the research project and discussed how to control the polypropylene extrusion sheet thickness and vacuum thermoforming quality and weight. The research objective was to find the key factors for reducing costs and energy consumption. The key aspects that may influence the polypropylene extrusion molding quality control were analyzed using literature and in-depth interviews with scholars and experts. These four main aspects are (1) key factors of polypropylene extrusion sheet production, (2) key factors of the extrusion line design, (3) key factors of polypropylene forming and mold manufacturing, and (4) key factors of mold and thermoforming line equipment design. These were revised and complemented by the scholar and expert group. There are 49 subitems for discussion. Thirteen scholars and experts were invited to use qualitative and quantitative research methods. A Delphi questionnaire survey team was organized to perform three Delphi questionnaire interviews. The statistical analyses of encoded data such as the mean (M), mode (Mo), and standard deviation (SD) of various survey options were calculated. Seeking a more cautious research theory and result, the K-S simple sample test was used to review the fitness and consistency of the scholars’ and experts’ opinions on key subitem factors. There are ten key factors in the production quality, including “A. Main screw pressure”, “B. Polymer temperature”, “C. T-die lips adjustment thickness”, “D. Cooling rolls pressing stability”, “E. Cooling rolls temperature stability”, “F. Extruder main screw geometric design”, “G. Heating controller is stable”, “H. Thermostatic control”, “I. Vacuum pressure”, and “J. Mold forming area design”. The key factors are not just applicable to classical polypropylene extrusion sheet and thermoforming production but also to related process of extrusion and thermoforming techniques in expanded polypropylene (EPP) sheets and polylactic acid (PLA). This study aims to provide a key technical reference for enterprises to improve quality to enhance the competitiveness of products, reduce production costs, and achieve sustainable development, energy savings, and carbon reductions.

19.
www.amfiteatrueconomic.ro ; 24(60):395-409, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1865710

ABSTRACT

Sustainability has become one of the constant concerns of active participants in the food chain: producers, traders, consumers, and regulators. The paper aims to identify consumers' perceptions of the use of sustainable food packaging, in an exploratory survey of a sample of 280 respondents, knowing the importance of recycling to create a healthy and sustainable environment. The relevance of the research derives from the need to know the behavior of consumers in a certain geographical area, with regard to the aspects related to the recycling and sustainability of packaging. This is a component of green marketing that involves the management of activities related to the reconsideration of products and production processes, as well as the use of eco-sustainable packaging. The validation of the research hypotheses was done with methods of non-parametric analysis of the interdependencies between the identified variables, the results obtained highlighting the need to study this issue on a representative sample, using a more complex questionnaire. 81% of the study respondents identified as the main benefit for the use of sustainable packaging the possibility of living in a less polluted environment, an essential component of the development of ecological and sustainable food systems, being identified in the ability of producers and traders to communicate the placement on the market of sustainable packaging for marketed products.

20.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5607, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837374

ABSTRACT

Public schools in the U.S. generate about 14,500 tons of municipal solid waste daily, and approximately 42% of that is food packaging generated by school foodservice, contributing significantly to the global packaging waste crisis. This literature review summarizes methods used to evaluate food packaging waste in school foodservice. This review has two objectives: first, to understand which methodologies currently exist to evaluate food packaging waste generation and disposal in school foodservice;and second, to describe the creation of and share a practical standardized instrument to evaluate food packaging waste generation and disposal in school foodservice. A systematic review was conducted using the following search terms: solid waste, school, cafeteria and food packaging, waste, and school. The final review included 24 studies conducted in school environments (kindergarten through twelfth grade or college/university), 16 of which took place in the U.S. Food packaging waste evaluations included objective methods of waste audits, models, and secondary data as well as subjective methods of qualitative observations, questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups. Large variation exists in the settings, participants, designs, and methodologies for evaluating school foodservice packaging waste. Lack of standardization was observed even within each methodology (e.g., waste audit). A new instrument is proposed to support comprehensive and replicable data collection, to further the understanding of school foodservice food packaging waste in the U.S., and to reduce environmental harms.

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