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1.
Agriculture & Food Security ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2153681

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 led to the implementation of lockdowns and social distancing regulations to curb the spread of infections. Consequently, the lockdowns impeded the movement of smallholder farmers, agricultural inputs, and food products thereby disrupting the food supply chains in SSA. Therefore, this paper examines the relationship between food security indicators (accessibility, availability, utilization, stability) and COVID-19. This study uses ordinary least square regression (OLS) models to study the relationship between the food security indicators and COVID-19. The study considers 9 out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal) due to data availability restrictions. The result of the analysis indicated that a rise in COVID-19 levels negatively impacts all the 4 indicators of food security without exception. This paper underscores the need to consider the disruptions of food security indicators such as diet, nutritional content, access and availability, affordability, and food supply chains. Moreover, the paper discusses mitigating strategies that may alleviate SSA’s food security amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We recommend that SSA countries invest in quality agricultural and food production infrastructure and supporting industries that contribute directly to the food supply chain, such as agro-processing, fertilizer production and transport. Another important dimension of the COVID-19 and food insecurity syndemic is the income shocks that occurred as a consequence of the COVID-19 outbreak. Like many factories, companies, and service providers closed shop (especially the informal sector), people lost their incomes as a result of loss of employment and, in many instances, no social protection. Therefore, we recommend that SSA governments develop affordable, sustainable, and targeted social protection/insurance systems that extend to the informal sector of the economy.

2.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; : 103490, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149841

ABSTRACT

Purchasing food from community-level grassroots organizations was a novel and unforgettable experience for Wuhan residents during the COVID-19 lockdown, but little attention was paid to it. The study examined the relationship between community-level grassroots organizations and household food insecurity based on an online survey of household food insecurity in Wuhan in March 2020. The study found that problems in all three domains of food insecurity including food anxiety, food quality and food quantity existed but were uneven. The COVID-19 epidemic affected household food quality the most, while it had the least impact on household food quantity. Community-level grassroots organizations played an important role in promoting food security including reducing worries about food supply and providing enough food intake, but did not ensure households had adequate food quality due to increasing food prices, fewer varieties of food and decreased food freshness. Compared to other grassroots organizations, the community committee had actually become an extension of the government to run administrative grassroots affairs before the epidemic, so its tight relationship with local government made it become the major grassroots power in ensuring household food security at the residential community level.

3.
Processes ; 10(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071692

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in public health measures concerning food quality and drug safety in supply chains and logistics operations. Against this backdrop, this study systematically reviewed the extant literature to identify gaps in studying food quality and drug safety, the proposed solutions to these issues, and potential future research directions. This study utilized content analysis. The objectives of the review were to (1) identify the factors affecting food quality and possible solutions to improve results, (2) analyze the factors that affect drug safety and identify ways to mitigate them through proper management;and (3) establish integrated supply chains for food and drugs by implementing modern technologies, followed by one another to ensure a multi-layered cross-verification cascade and resource management at the different phases to ensure quality, safety, and sustainability for the benefit of public health. This review investigated and identified the most recent trends and technologies used for successfully integrated supply chains that can guarantee food quality and drug safety. Using appropriate keywords, 298 articles were identified, and 205 were shortlisted for the analysis. All analysis and conclusions are based on the available literature. The outcomes of this paper identify new research directions in public health and supply chain management.

4.
Future Foods ; 6: 100198, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068999

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic COVID-19 has led to an increase in the number of people purchasing food online, which has brought to a higher demand on the food supply chain. Such as the need to collect more information related to food safety and quality in real-time. Strengthening management of food logistics information flow can reduce food loss and waste and bring better quality and safety of food to consumers. In this review, the importance and applicability of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to smart food packaging are described. This study emphasizes the recent advancement of the RFID tags in humidity, temperature, gas, pH, integrity, and traceability sensor applications in connection with food packaging. RFID sensors are more suitable for smart packaging both in terms of sensing ability and data transmission. A simpler, low-cost, more robust and less power-demanding sensors network is the development direction of smart packaging in the future. Chipless RFID sensors have the potential to achieve these functions. But it still faces many challenges to be overcome. For example, biocompatible, cost, reading range, multi-tag collision, multi-parameter sensors, recycling issues, security and privacy of RFID system should be solved.

5.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 307(7953), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065001
6.
The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 7(10):912, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062056
7.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S412-S413, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058683

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease that consists of Crohn's Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD is thought to result from an environmental trigger, one of which could be diet, in a genetically susceptible host. Food insecurity is defined as limited or uncertain access to enough food. It is estimated that 1 in 7 children in the United States experience food insecurity which is estimated to be about 13 million children. This number has increased since the COVID pandemic to 1 in 4. Louisiana has one of the higher rates of food insecurity in the country with an estimate of over 249,000 children affected. Food insecurity is higher in African American and Hispanic households. Despite nutrition playing a significant role in IBD, there is limited data on food insecurity and IBD. Only one adult study identified that adult IBD patients had 69% higher odds of being food insecure compared to peers without IBD. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if pediatric patients with IBD are food insecure. Our hypothesis is that newly diagnosed pediatric IBD patients who are food insecure have worse clinical outcomes than those who are food secure 6 months after diagnosis. The primary aim will be to assess if food insecurity is associated with escalations in therapy within the first 6 months of diagnosis. Secondary aim of the study is to determine if food insecurity is associated with other clinical outcomes. Food access will also be evaluated to see if patients who are food insecure live in areas defined as a food desert, decrease access to nearby grocery stores, or food swamps, defined as adequate access to food but mostly higher calorie food options over healthy food options. Method(s): This is a prospective study of newly diagnosed pediatric IBD patients seen in the Louisiana State University Health Science Center Pediatric Gastroenterology Division at Children's Hospital New Orleans. Patients were screened for food insecurity using the United States Department of Agriculture's food insecurity screening and the American Academy of Pediatrics' Food Insecurity 2-Question Screen. Data was collected including escalations in medication, hospitalizations, surgeries, emergency room visits and nutritional data over the first 6 months of diagnosis. To determine diet quality, food journals were completed, or comprehensive diet recalls were performed then analyzed by a licensed dietitian. Result(s): There are currently 13 patients enrolled in this ongoing study. All patients have Crohn's Disease and receive maintenance therapy with TNF alpha antagonist (infliximab or biosimilar). Most patients are female (69%), Medicaid insurer (54%), with approximately half identifying as white race (46%) and half identifying as African American (46%). The average age at diagnosis was 14.4 years (+/- 2.7 years). Nine of the patients (69%) have no grocery stores within 1 mile of their home. Three patients lived in a food swamp (23%), 1 of which also had low food security. There was one patient who did not live in a food desert or food swamp but identified as having low food security. The average BMI was 19.4 and 3 had a BMI z-score less than -1 at diagnosis. Two parents were identified as having low food security and 2 patients screened positive for low food security. Only one survey matched low food security for both parent and child. For transportation, many traveled to appointments by automobile but were not owners of the automobile. At one month after diagnosis, there was 1 medication change due to the development of antibodies, 2 courses of oral steroids, 2 patients had an additional medication added (methotrexate for both), 3 hospitalizations, 1 surgery;however, none of the patients fit criteria for low food security. There were 2 emergency room visits, 1 of 2 were food insecure. Weight gain in one month ranged from 0.3 to 10.4 kilograms. One food insecure patient lost 0.8 kilograms at 1 month. Conclusion(s): While there were few patients identified as food insecure, each patient had relatively poor access to healthy food options. Every patient in the study either fell into the category of having no grocery stores within a mile of their home, living in a food swamp or having low food security. Establishment of additional surrogates for food insecurity may be warranted to better assess the association of food insecurity with IBD. The significance of food insecurity in pediatric IBD remains unclear. However, longer follow-up is planned to further assess the relationship between food insecurity and clinical and nutritional outcomes. Additional studies are forthcoming to evaluate the impact food quality within the diet of pediatric IBD patients has on short-term and long-term health outcomes.

8.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(6), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046435

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented nature of covid -19 pandemic has put off a long-lasting impact on both consumers and the business ecosystem. It has also changed the consumption pattern of consumers of fast-food business with new digital platforms that has now been extensively used by many individuals specifically the young population of the country. It has been observed that the way the consumers were purchasing earlier has changed and the retailers are curious to know in what ways they can improve the overall customer experience and to be mindful to undergo structural changes. This study tries to focus on understanding the consumer sentiment and behaviours while purchasing from QSR’s during the pandemic. Appropriate statistical tools like chi square, logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To find the pertinency of the factors, logistic regression approach was used. The findings of the research would help the restaurants to identify the weaknesses and revisit their existing business models to maintain significant and withstand future disruptions. Those companies who wants to outlive must shorten their ranges, innovate themselves, and alter promotion strategies to accommodate the changing consumer preferences. The study also proves that companies that wish to stay pertinent through the catastrophe and handle the future, must be bold about the intensity and stride of their own transformation.

9.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(S5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045558

ABSTRACT

This study is an attempt to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, which essentially demands social distancing, on growing culture of eating out in consumers and determinants of food choices/ restaurant selection. The present study contributes to the changing sensory priorities and eating out habits due to the COVID-19 pandemic, using the data from frequent diners, academicians and industry practitioners. A sample of 304 respondents from Pune City and Mumbai MMR actively participated in an online survey. A random sampling method was used for this survey due to pandemic lockdown Major revolutions have been emerged in the dining habits of food lovers such as, zero touch points, contactless deliveries etc.‘Taste and flavor of the product’ was most preferable sensory priority for food selection before pandemic. However, this priority has been replaced by ‘hygiene, cleanliness, zero touch points and contactless order due to COVID-19 pandemic. Newly emerged most preferred food choice variables include touch less consumer experience, sanitized restaurants, food safety certifications, contactless order, health and hygiene. This indicates that restaurants need to reframe, restructure their SOPs and strategies to gain the confidence of the customers as COVID-19 may have a long-lasting effect and show repercussion in many more ways than thought.

10.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 81(OCE1):E1-E58, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044707

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 48 articles that discuss development and validation of a novel quality assessment tool to measure the quality of nutrition information online;longitudinal association between takeaway food environment and secondary school adolescents BMI and body fat percentage;dietary practices, beliefs, and behaviours among adults with inflammatory bowel disease;postpartum depression in Irish mothers and associations with infant feeding practices;the impact of dietary saturated fat replacement with unsaturated fat on the plasma lipidome and cardiometabolic disease risk;ole of brain serotonin in age-related decline in physical activity in mice;ey stakeholder perceptions of food allergies within the airline industry;sleep quality of higher education students during COVID-19 and its association with diet quality and lifestyle behaviours.

11.
Food Control ; : 109401, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041758

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the fact that frozen foods can carry the relevant virus raises concerns about the microbial safety of cold-chain foods. As a non-thermal processing technology, high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is a potential method to reduce microbial load on cold-chain foods. In this study, we explored the microbial inactivation of low temperature (5-10 °C) HPCD (LT-HPCD) and evaluated its effect on the quality of prawn during freeze-chilled and frozen storage. LT-HPCD treatment at 6.5 MPa and 10 °C for 15 min could effectively inactivate E. coli (99.45%) and S. aureus (94.6%) suspended in 0.85% NaCl, SARS-CoV-2 Spike pseudovirus (>99%) and human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) (>1-log virus tilter reduction) suspended in DMEM medium. The inactivation effect of LT-HPCD was weakened but still significant when the microorganisms were inoculated on the surface of food or package. LT-HPCD treatment at 6.5 MPa and 10 °C for 15 min achieved about 60% inactivation of total aerobic count while could maintain frozen state and quality of prawn. Moreover, LT-HPCD treated prawn exhibited significant slower microbial proliferation and no occurrence of melanosis compared with the untreated samples during chilled storage. A comprehensive quality investigation indicated that LT-HPCD treatment could maintain the color, texture and sensory of prawn during chilled or frozen storage. Consequently, LT-HPCD could improve the microbial safety of frozen prawn while maintaining its original quality, and could be a potential method for food industry to improve the microbial safety of cold-chain foods.

12.
Food Science & Technology ; 35(1):28-31, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034779

ABSTRACT

The aim of the article was to provide an update on recommendations made in a IUFoST study on the contribution of food science and technology to sustainable nutrition. The added immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is also examined, as well as providing update of the previous recommendations for action within the food chain to improve global diet and health via innovation in food manufacture and distribution. The arrival of the global COVID-19 pandemic has changed the expected routes for their implementation but has accelerated the need for these actions. However, they do not believe that their long-term overall importance has been changed. Global harmonisation will be necessary and should probably relate to the nutrient availability within foods, not just their type or brand. Like manufacturing, distribution also benefits from economies of scale and responds to consumer demand. There are already signs that manufacturers and retailers of finished foods will drive future branding via health benefits as well as the eating quality and cost. The pandemic is accelerating these trends, and it is likely that legislation will devote greater attention to nutrient values.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10917, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024210

ABSTRACT

Rice is the staple food for 2.5 billion people worldwide and most farmers depend solely on rice for their livelihood. This study estimates how paddy ecosystem elasticity and external human activity affect paddy ecosystem sustainable food supply. In particular, we analyzed how sustainable food supply is affected by three key domains of external factors—ecological factors, including the proportion of paddy Area (Are), per capita cultivated land area (Lan), and annual wastewater discharge per capita (Was);economic factors, including the agricultural economy level (Inv) and urbanization rate (Urb);and social factors, including the education of farmers (Edu) and rural medical level (Med). We use ANEV, or net paddy ecosystem services value per unit area, to assess the sustainable food supply, which not only represents the food supply quantity and quality, but also the sustainability of the food supply. Results from our panel and threshold regressions suggest that Lan and Urb have a threshold effect on paddy ANEV;Are, Was, Inv, and Edu have a linear negative correlation with ANEV;and Med has a positive linear correlation with ANEV. Based on our findings, we lay out a series of recommendations that may guide future formulation of policies on paddy ecosystem protection and sustainable food supply.

14.
British Food Journal ; 124(10):3133-3151, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2001552

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study explored the relationship between local food consumption value and satisfaction with local food, leading to behavioral intention. Moreover, tourist's involvement is used as a mediator, and COVID-19 fear moderates between satisfaction with local food and behavioral intention.Design/methodology/approach>Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique presents researchers with extra flexibility and better research conclusions. This study used Partial Equation Modeling SEM to test the proposed hypotheses. The convenience sampling technique was used to collect data, and 339 questionnaires were part of the final analysis.Findings>The results reveal that local food consumption value is positively associated with local food satisfaction except for emotional value. Satisfaction on local food significantly determined tourist's involvement and behavioral intention. Tourist's involvement is positively related to behavioral intention. Despite this, COVID-19 fear significantly decreases behavioral intention. Tourist's involvement significantly mediates, and COVID-19 fear moderates between satisfaction with local food and behavioral intention significantly.Practical implications>The results of our research will support scholars and practitioners to recognize the importance of factors that influence people's intention to eat local food. Besides, our research offers a significant policy to get maximum benefits for the tourism industry in Pakistan.Originality/value>To the author's knowledge, our study initially incorporates a research model in the COVID-19 pandemic and covers local food consumption value, satisfaction on local food, tourist's involvement and COVID-19 fear to determine the behavioral intention of people to eat local food. Besides, consumption value theory was used to build a research framework.

15.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 718, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1998231

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains 96 papers on ocean biodiversity;breeding, reproduction, feeding and diseases of aquacultured fish and shellfish;water quality;fishery management, seafood preservation and quality;aquaculture and fishery economics and the impact of COVID-19 on aquaculture and fishery production.

16.
International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997108

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to augment the perceived service quality (PSQ) dimensions as well as evaluate the effects of pandemic susceptibility and severity by appending crucial enablers of customer satisfaction (CS) in the restaurant industry (RI). Design/methodology/approach The top 10 restaurants from Mumbai and Kolkata were selected based on the Conde Nast Traveller Magazine List, 2020. The study used a cross-sectional design to collect responses from 840 respondents across the two major metropolitans of India after the second wave of COVID-19 by employing a structured questionnaire. The proffered hypotheses in this study were validated using factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques. Findings This research espies pivotal facilitators of CS and customers' perceived value (CPV). The results divulge that food quality (FQ) and tangibility dimensions markedly enhance CS while the FQ and digital technologies (DT) dimensions augment CPV in Indian restaurants. The study asserts that CPV acts as a partial mediator between FQ and DT on the one hand and CS on the other. In addition, perceived pandemic susceptibility (PPSU) and perceived pandemic severity (PPSE) moderate the association between CPV and CS in restaurants. Research limitations/implications This study exemplifies the critical enablers of CS and CPV that may invigorate restaurant owners, managers and policymakers to prioritize the identified dimensions to aggrandize CS and CPV quotients. Originality/value The study enriches the literature by assimilating DT and CPV dimensions in a comprehensive theoretical framework. The research is unique in attempting to unfurl the moderating effects of PPSU and PPSE in the RI.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9715, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994199

ABSTRACT

Land-use transition is one of the most profound human-induced alterations of the Earth’s system. It can support better land management and decision-making for increasing the yield of food production to fulfill the food needs in a specific area. However, modeling land-use change involves the complexity of human drivers and natural or environmental constraints. This study develops an agent-based model (ABM) for land use transitions using critical indicators that contribute to food deserts. The model’s performance was evaluated using Guilford County, North Carolina, as a case study. The modeling inputs include land covers, climate variability (rainfall and temperature), soil quality, land-use-related policies, and population growth. Studying the interrelationships between these factors can improve the development of effective land-use policies and help responsible agencies and policymakers plan accordingly to improve food security. The agent-based model illustrates how and when individuals or communities could make specific land-cover transitions to fulfill the community’s food needs. The results indicate that the agent-based model could effectively monitor land use and environmental changes to visualize potential risks over time and help the affected communities plan accordingly.

18.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 33, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The confinement by COVID-19 has affected the food chain and environments, which added to factors such as anxiety, frustration, fear and stress have modified the quality of the diet in the population around the world. The purpose of this study was to explore diet quality during the COVID-19 pandemic in 11 Latin American countries. METHODOLOGY: Multicentric, cross-sectional study. An online survey was applied to residents of 11 Latin-American countries, during April and May 2020, when confinement was mandatory. Diet quality was evaluated using a validated questionnaire. RESULT: 10,573 people participated in the study. The quality of the food by country shows that Colombia presented the best quality, while Chile and Paraguay presented the lowest. When comparing the overall results of diet quality by gender, schooling and age, women, people with more schooling and people under 30 years of age, presented better diet quality. The regression model showed that the variables associated with diet quality were: age (df = 3, F = 4. 57, p < 0.001), sex (df = 1, F = 131.01, p < 0.001), level of education (df = 1, F = 38.29, p < 0.001), perception of weight change (df = 2, F = 135.31, p < 0.001), basis services (df = 1, F = 8.63, p = 0.003), and quarantine (df = 1, F = 12.14, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: It is necessary for governments to intervene to reverse these indicators, considering that inadequate feeding favors the appearance of no communicable diseases, which favor a higher risk of infection and worse prognosis with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , United States
19.
Agriculture ; 12(7):1018, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963662

ABSTRACT

Context: Food safety is essential for every human. It determines public health, nutrition, elimination of hunger, and the promotion of sustainable agriculture. It is crucial for sustainable production, consumption, and international food trade. Ensuring food safety is the fundamental challenge of the 21st century. Food safety is often related to food defense and includes protection against intentional contamination with various chemical, biological, or other harmful substances. By introducing food protection tools and methods, any company reduces risk and creates an opportunity to generate more significant and reliable profits and improved production for society. One such method could be the CARVER+Shock. The method is an offensive targeting prioritization tool that has been adapted for use in the food sector. Objective: The article aims to present the experience of the first implementation of CARVER+Shock in a Polish primary production company, to improve the approach to food safety and food defense. Methods: The article is a case study. Descriptive analysis was performed to analyze legal acts and safety management standards in food defense. The authors used the CARVER+Shock expert method to estimate companies’ vulnerability. CARVER is an acronym for Criticality, Accessibility, Recoverability, Vulnerability, Effect, Recognizability. The visualization and risk analysis were made using business process management and business process modeling (VACD diagram) Results and conclusions: Primary production enterprise dealing with the cultivation and confectioning of the pre-treatment and sale of peeled onions for further processing purposes was examined. Five essential stages of the production process were assessed, and risks were assigned. Recognizability and criticality turned out to be the most crucial attribute of CARVER+Shock. Overall, the study showed that the company was not fully prepared for the threat posed by food terrorism. The organization did not have any procedures describing how to proceed during deliberate attacks. In addition, workers had low awareness of food defense throughout the food chain. Based on these conclusions, several detailed improvement actions were formulated. The results obtained from the pioneering application of the CARVER+Shock method for a Polish primary production company may constitute a benchmark for other sectors of the food industry, both domestically and abroad. Significance: The article describes the results of the first Polish attempts to use CARVER+Shock and business process management to improve the approach to food safety in a primary production enterprise.

20.
Foods ; 11(14)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938752

ABSTRACT

Food is one of the most traded goods, and the conflict in Ukraine, one of the European breadbaskets, has triggered a significant additional disruption in the global food supply chains after the COVID-19 impact. The disruption to food output, supply chains, availability, and affordability could have a long-standing impact. As a result, the availability and supply of a wide range of food raw materials and finished food products are under threat, and global markets have seen recent increases in food prices. Furthermore, the Russian-Ukrainian conflict has adversely affected food supply chains, with significant effects on production, sourcing, manufacturing, processing, logistics, and significant shifts in demand between nations reliant on imports from Ukraine. This paper aims to analyze the impacts of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine on the effectiveness and responsiveness of the global food supply chains. A PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) approach, including grey literature, was deployed to investigate six key areas of the food supply chains that would be impacted most due to the ongoing war. Findings include solutions and strategies to mitigate supply chain impacts such as alternative food raw materials, suppliers and supply chain partners supported by technological innovations to ensure food safety and quality in warlike situations.

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