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Therapeutic Delivery ; 12(6):427-442, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319896
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(11): e2220272120, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259802


T cells are present in early stages of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and play a major role in disease outcome and long-lasting immunity. Nasal administration of a fully human anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (Foralumab) reduced lung inflammation as well as serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein in moderate cases of COVID-19. Using serum proteomics and RNA-sequencing, we investigated the immune changes in patients treated with nasal Foralumab. In a randomized trial, mild to moderate COVID-19 outpatients received nasal Foralumab (100 µg/d) given for 10 consecutive days and were compared to patients that did not receive Foralumab. We found that naïve-like T cells were increased in Foralumab-treated subjects and NGK7+ effector T cells were reduced. CCL5, IL32, CST7, GZMH, GZMB, GZMA, PRF1, and CCL4 gene expression were downregulated in T cells and CASP1 was downregulated in T cells, monocytes, and B cells in subjects treated with Foralumab. In addition to the downregulation of effector features, an increase in TGFB1 gene expression in cell types with known effector function was observed in Foralumab-treated subjects. We also found increased expression of GTP-binding gene GIMAP7 in subjects treated with Foralumab. Rho/ROCK1, a downstream pathway of GTPases signaling was downregulated in Foralumab-treated individuals. TGFB1, GIMAP7, and NKG7 transcriptomic changes observed in Foralumab-treated COVID-19 subjects were also observed in healthy volunteers, MS subjects, and mice treated with nasal anti-CD3. Our findings demonstrate that nasal Foralumab modulates the inflammatory response in COVID-19 and provides a novel avenue to treat the disease.

Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , GTP-Binding Proteins , Membrane Proteins , rho-Associated Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics
J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 15(1): 37-42, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772266


Background: The primo vascular system can be viewed as a circulatory system that plays a therapeutic function in regenerating the body tissue. The anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody was used as an immunotherapeutic agent to treat the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Objectives: In this study, we observed the effect of injecting lymph nodes with Foralumab, an anti- human CD3 epsilon therapeutic monoclonal antibody, on primo vessels. Methods: The structure and atomic stoichiometry of the antibody were determined by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Alcian blue dying solution was injected into the lymph nodes of the abdominal vena cava of rabbits, and the solution further flowed into the lymph vessels. Results: A primo vessel with primo nodes stained with Alcian blue was clearly visible in the lymph vessel. By injecting Foralumab into lymph nodes of rabbits with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the floating primo vessel in the lymph vessel appeared thicker and was distinctly visible. Conclusion: The observation of the primo vessel post-treated with Foralumab in the inflamed lymphatic system suggests the possibility of a functional role of the primo vascular circulatory system in pathophysiological conditions.

COVID-19 , Lymphatic Vessels , Meridians , Alcian Blue/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Lymphatic Vessels/chemistry , Rabbits , Staining and Labeling
Front Immunol ; 12: 709861, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394760


BACKGROUND: Immune hyperactivity is an important contributing factor to the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 infection. Nasal administration of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody downregulates hyperactive immune responses in animal models of autoimmunity through its immunomodulatory properties. We performed a randomized pilot study of fully-human nasal anti-CD3 (Foralumab) in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine if its immunomodulatory properties had ameliorating effects on disease. METHODS: Thirty-nine outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were recruited at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Santos in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Patients were randomized to three cohorts: 1) Control, no Foralumab (n=16); 2) Nasal Foralumab (100ug/day) given for 10 consecutive days with 6 mg dexamethasone given on days 1-3 (n=11); and 3) Nasal Foralumab alone (100ug/day) given for 10 consecutive days (n=12). Patients continued standard of care medication. RESULTS: We observed reduction of serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein in Foralumab alone vs. untreated or Foralumab/Dexa treated patients. More rapid clearance of lung infiltrates as measured by chest CT was observed in Foralumab and Foralumab/Dexa treated subjects vs. those that did not receive Foralumab. Foralumab treatment was well-tolerated with no severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that nasal Foralumab is well tolerated and may be of benefit in treatment of immune hyperactivity and lung involvement in COVID-19 disease and that further studies are warranted.

Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumonia/therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Young Adult