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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2039439

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to represent an ongoing global health issue given the potential for new variants, vaccine escape and the low likelihood of eliminating all reservoirs of the disease. Whilst diagnostic testing has progressed at a fast pace, the metabolic drivers of outcomes–and whether markers can be found in different biofluids–are not well understood. Recent research has shown that serum metabolomics has potential for prognosis of disease progression. In a hospital setting, collection of saliva samples is more convenient for both staff and patients, and therefore offers an alternative sampling matrix to serum. Methods Saliva samples were collected from hospitalised patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19, alongside clinical metadata. COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed using RT-PCR testing, and COVID-19 severity was classified using clinical descriptors (respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation score and C-reactive protein levels). Metabolites were extracted and analysed using high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting peak area matrix was analysed using multivariate techniques. Results Positive percent agreement of 1.00 between a partial least squares–discriminant analysis metabolomics model employing a panel of 6 features (5 of which were amino acids, one that could be identified by formula only) and the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 severity was achieved. The negative percent agreement with the clinical severity diagnosis was also 1.00, leading to an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 1.00 for the panel of features identified. Conclusions In this exploratory work, we found that saliva metabolomics and in particular amino acids can be capable of separating high severity COVID-19 patients from low severity COVID-19 patients. This expands the atlas of COVID-19 metabolic dysregulation and could in future offer the basis of a quick and non-invasive means of sampling patients, intended to supplement existing clinical tests, with the goal of offering timely treatment to patients with potentially poor outcomes.

2.
Systematic Reviews ; 11:1-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038920

ABSTRACT

Background With the exponential growth of published systematic reviews (SR), there is a high potential for overlapping and redundant duplication of work. Prospective protocol registration gives the opportunity to assess the added value of a new study or review, thereby potentially reducing research waste and simultaneously increasing transparency and research quality. The PROSPERO database for SR protocol registration was launched 10 years ago. This study aims to assess the proportion SRs of intervention studies with a protocol registration (or publication) and explore associations of SR characteristics with protocol registration status. Methods PubMed was searched for SRs of human intervention studies published in January 2020 and January 2021. After random-stratified sampling and eligibility screening, data extraction on publication and journal characteristics, and protocol registration status, was performed. Both descriptive and multivariable comparative statistical analyses were performed. Results A total of 357 SRs (2020: n = 163;2021: n = 194) were included from a random sample of 1267 publications. Of the published SRs, 38% had a protocol. SRs that reported using PRISMA as a reporting guideline had higher odds of having a protocol than publications that did not report PRISMA (OR 2.71;95% CI: 1.21 to 6.09). SRs with a higher journal impact factor had higher odds of having a protocol (OR 1.12;95% CI 1.04 to 1.25). Publications from Asia had a lower odds of having a protocol (OR 0.43;95% CI 0.23 to 0.80, reference category = Europe). Of the 33 SRs published in journals that endorse PROSPERO, 45% did not have a protocol. Most SR protocols were registered in PROSPERO (n = 129;96%). Conclusions We found that 38% of recently published SRs of interventions reported a registered or published protocol. Protocol registration was significantly associated with a higher impact factor of the journal publishing the SR and a more frequent self-reported use of the PRISMA guidelines. In some parts of the world, SR protocols are more often registered or published than others. To guide strategies to increase the uptake of SR protocol registration, further research is needed to gain understanding of the benefits and informativeness of SRs protocols among different stakeholders. Systematic review registration osf.io/9kj7r/

3.
Systematic Reviews ; 11:1-9, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038919

ABSTRACT

Background Systematic reviews (SRs) provide the highest level of evidence and inform evidence-based decision making in health care. Earlier studies found association with industry to be negatively associated with methodological quality of SRs. However, this has not been investigated in SRs on vaccines. Methods We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE and EMBASE in March 2020. The results were restricted to those published between 2016 and 2019 with no language restrictions. Study characteristics were extracted by one person and checked by an experienced reviewer. The methodological quality of the SRs was assessed with the AMSTAR 2 tool by multiple reviewers after a calibration exercise was performed. A summary score for each SR was calculated. The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test were performed to compare both groups. Results Out of 185 SRs that met all inclusion criteria, 27 SRs were industry funded. Those were matched with 30 non-industry funded SRs resulting in a total sample size of 57. The mean AMSTAR 2 summary score across all SRs was 0.49. Overall, the median AMSTAR 2 summary score was higher for the non-industry funded SRs than for the industry-funded SRs (0.62 vs. 0.36;p < .00001). Lower ratings for industry funded SRs were consistent across all but one AMSTAR 2 item, though significantly lower only for three specific items. Conclusion The methodological quality of SRs in vaccination is comparable to SRs in other fields, while it is still suboptimal. We are not able to provide a satisfactory explanation why industry funded SRs had a lower methodological quality than non-industry funded SRs over recent years. Industry funding is an important indicator of methodological quality for vaccine SRs and should be carefully considered when appraising SR quality.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22:1-15, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038699

ABSTRACT

Objective Latino populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by substance use, HIV/AIDS, violence, and mental health issues (SAVAME). A growing body of evidence demonstrates the syndemic nature of SAVAME and the need for integrated strategies to reduce their impact. This study sought to understand the network of SAVAME services for Latino immigrants in Philadelphia to inform future interventions for SAVAME prevention and mitigation. Methodology Key informant interviews (N = 30) were conducted with providers working in Latino-serving organizations providing SAVAME services. Interviews were analyzed using thematic coding and grounded theory. Results Latino-serving providers perceived a large need for, and important limitations in the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of SAVAME services for Latino immigrants. Gaps were seen as especially acute for mental health and substance use services, partly because of insufficient funding for these services. Latino immigrants’ lack of health insurance, immigration status, limited English proficiency (LEP), stigma surrounding SAVAME issues, and limited knowledge of available services were identified as significant barriers preventing access to services. Providers noted that scarcity of well-trained, culturally competent, and ethnically concordant providers reduced the adequacy of SAVAME services for Latino immigrant clients. The small size, low levels of infrastructure, and limited capacity were reported as additional factors limiting the ability of many Latino-serving organizations to adopt a syndemic approach in the prevention and treatment of SAVAME services. Conclusions The results call for changes in the structure of funding streams and communitywide strategies to foster collaboration across SAVAME providers working with Latino immigrant clients.

5.
BMJ ; 378:o2287, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2038289
6.
The Lancet ; 400(10357):993-995, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2036630

ABSTRACT

Previous UK data have reported on inequalities of COVID-19 vaccination coverage, with considerably lower uptake among some groups.4 Notably, although increasing age and presence of comorbidities are among the most widely recognised risk factors for COVID-19 mortality,5–7 people with a substantial number of comorbidities remained at increased risk of being unvaccinated. The limitations of our approach include a lack of ethnicity data, which are important because variations in vaccine uptake among different ethnic groups are known.8 Additionally, although our approach minimises false inflation of the number of unvaccinated people, some of these individuals will have had no recent interaction with the health-care system and so will remain undetected. The funding source had no involvement in data collection, study design, data analysis, interpretation of findings, or the decision to publish this Correspondence.

7.
Child Abuse Review ; 31(5):1-29, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2034730

ABSTRACT

While child welfare scholars and caseworkers have acquired a better understanding of risk factors associated with occurrences of child fatalities due to maltreatment over the past 20 years, little is known about the organisational and system‐level characteristics that impact efforts to prevent or intervene in these cases. As part of a collaborative agreement between a university‐affiliated centre and a state child welfare agency, we conducted interviews by phone with 19 case managers, middle managers and regional leaders who were assigned to manage or oversee a near fatality or fatality case. They illuminated five major themes: 1) their perceived stressors and sources of support;2) client and perpetrator risk factors;3) system‐level risk and protective factors;4) case descriptions;and 5) lessons learned. Relying upon their lived experiences, we offer practice and policy recommendations to Child Abuse Review to support their efforts to prevent and respond to child fatality cases. Efforts should be devoted to evaluating strategies to reduce risk for all families before the child welfare system is involved, supporting workers when they are assigned to fatality cases by reducing caseloads and preparing them for the fatality review process, and embracing a culture of collaboration across and within child‐serving systems. Key Practitioner Messages: To respond effectively to child fatality and near fatality cases, child welfare caseworkers and leaders should be assigned fewer cases in the interim, and receive guidance, consultation, and time to prepare for the fatality review process.Embracing a culture of collaboration across and within child‐serving systems may also prevent fatalities and facilitate an efficient investigative process if/when they do occur.

8.
Advanced Intelligent Systems ; 4(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034701

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, digital medicine technologies are being developed at a rapid rate. While these digital medicine technologies offer the potential to transform and revolutionize health care, many are at risk of stalling and remaining in the pilot stage, known as “pilotitis,” thus never reaching true potential. Therefore, overcoming “pilotitis” to increase the uptake of digital medicine technologies is a global concern. To date, several authors have proposed solutions to overcome various barriers owing to the “pilotitis” of digital medicine technologies, such as regulatory frameworks and patients’ data ownership;however, many areas require further consideration. This perspective piece identifies three barriers to the adoption and implementation of digital medicine technologies and proposes approaches for how to overcome them. Addressing such barriers may provide a pathway to success for digital medicine technologies to improve patient outcomes and increase the efficiency of healthcare delivery.

9.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(10):1374-1378, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033786

ABSTRACT

According to a detailed analysis of state health spending over five years,7 US states devoted $236 billion (60%) of their health budgets to clinical services (Box 1 ).4 Only $28.6 billion (7%) of the public health spending activity of states was in foundational capabilities, whereas $101.4 billion (28%) was spent on public health areas.4 Because we know more about what states-as opposed to counties-spend their money on, we can assess how spe-cific types of spending are associated with capacity to control the spread of the pandemic. Because funding for clinical service personnel was contractually tied to specific services, program officers for the contracts had to agree to release workers tied to prior grants (e.g., grants for behavioral health services). "14,15 Deevolution is how organizations survive financial starvation, by sloughing off functions that are not explicitly paid for by grants or fees for services. [...]starving health departments have no choice but to eliminate their local epidemiologists, policy analysts, and community organizers unless these roles can be justified as line items in an earmarked program. Neither the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) nor the National Institutes of Health (NIH) offer programmatic research funding to support the systematic study of public health functions and foundational capacity in localities across the United States.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica ; 91(3-4):106-107, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033588

ABSTRACT

ATMPs - a new era A boy from Hungary, Zente, was one and a half years old when the crowd-funding campaign to finance his life-saving medicine Zolgensma concluded with a happy end. He was the third European patient that received the new gene therapy, which replaces the function of the missing or nonworking survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene with a new, working copy of a human SMN gene that helps motor neuron cells work properly and survive. From a European perspective, it has been almost 15 years by now since regulatory framework for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) had been established to ensure the free movement of these medicines within the European Union, to facilitate their access to the EU market, and to foster the competitiveness of European pharmaceutical companies in the field. Zolgensma has been approved in the EU in May 2020. The FDA expects it will be reviewing and approving up to 20 cell and gene therapies each year until 2025. Rapid development of technology and better understanding of the manufacturing challenges are not the only prerequisites of the growth. Assessment of products like Zolgensma requires very specific knowledge and often an adaptive approach from regulators. They have to gain enough experience and need to be able to summarize knowledge in guidelines that would help developers of products that are substantially different from traditional medicines. FDA issued seven new guidelines in January 2020, in which, for example, they highlight the importance of long-term follow-up for gene therapies that offer one-time fix for inherited diseases and where pre-market studies may have limited value. 2. Regulatory tools These examples may already show that rapid change in technology leads to new kinds of medicines that require a properly adapted regulatory system. Patients would expect state-of-the-art medicines within the shortest possible time frame, however, authorities are traditionally more cautious. Still, there are several various initiatives from the EMA and the FDA to foster early access to medicines. Some of these have been available for a longer time. EMA's accelerated assessment reduces the timeframe for review of innovative applications of medicines with major public health interest. Conditional marketing authorisation grants authorization before a complete dataset is available, and compassionate use allows the use of an unauthorized medicine for patients with an unmet medical need. A more recent regulatory tool of EMA is the priority medicines scheme (PRIME) that aims to enhance support for the development of medicines that are expected to make a real difference to patients. Early dialogue between EMA and the developers is a crucial part of the tool, together with accelerated assessment and continuous scientific advice and protocol assistance. Up to now, 282 applications for PRIME eligibility have been assessed by the CHMP of which 95 have received a green light. Most of the applicants are small and medium size enterprises, and the major therapeutic area is oncology. FDA has similar programs, such as the Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy and Priority Review designations, and is also aiming to facilitate and accelerate development and marketing authorization of key medicines. By 2018, about 70% of new drug approvals by the FDA were expedited, compared to about 50% in 2010. The result is a growing pro-portion of medicines authorized with less premarket evidence, a trade-off, that most patients with fatal or debilitating disease would likely accept. Nevertheless, conditional approval requires a strong post-marketing attention from regulators, and lack of enough evidence sometimes leads to difficult decisions. In April 2019 a fast-tracked cancer drug, Lartruvo was withdrawn because a large study was not able to prove a favourable benefit-risk profile, which was established previously on a smaller patient population. The regulators approach is not expected to be changed, but experience from such cases would gradually be built into the decision-making process. In addition to this real world evidence (RWE) and patient recorded outcomes may also help in decision making. 3. Digital revolution The rapid development of biotechnology is not the only area where an adaptive regulatory approach is needed. Digital medicine is a new field, as smartphones and sensors open up new ways of generating data. For example, collecting and analysing RWE seems to be a good solution for single arm studies where randomized trials are not feasible. FDA has approved easy-to-use devices that are able to track several physiological systems of our body, which in turn can give a boost to developments in this field. In addition to these simpler devices, digital revolution in terms of artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive machine learning is another challenge that our regulatory systems should tackle. It has been recently announced that a new drug candidate, a long-acting and potent serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist, which was created using an artificial intelligence platform, will enter into clinical study. There are also numerous radiological applications based on AI, including computer aideddetection and diagnosis software, where images are analysed, and clinically relevant findings suggested to aid diagnostic decisions. Many of these new developments require a tailored approach from regulators to find a way for authorization within the existing regulatory framework. The fact, that many of these new developments are carried out by academic research groups or small companies without extensive regulatory experience, adds an extra layer of difficulty. To meet this challenge, EMA and the Heads of Medicines Agencies have established the EU-Innovation Network, to support medicine innovation and early development. As a milestone of its function, beginning in 1 February 2020 a pilot for simultaneous scientific advice is starting, where the applicants will receive a consolidated advice from the participating agencies. Innovative products often require specific expertise;therefore this new form of advice is also extremely beneficial for regulators as they are able to learn from each other and broaden their knowledge. 4. Conclusions The rapid development of pharmaceutical and digital technology requires a concerted action from all stakeholders. Or, as we all experience, a global pandemic can be an important driving force of the evolution of regulatory policies. Appropriate usage of currently available regulatory tools and a continuous discussion between academia, industry and regulators would be the only way to ensure quick access to state-of-the-art, safe and efficacious medicines, and medical devices. It is clearly shown currently by the concerted action of various stakeholders and series of rolling reviews which led to the expedited authorization of COVID-19 vaccines.

11.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A82, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032528

ABSTRACT

Project ECHO is an innovative tele-mentoring programme designed to create virtual communities of learners by bringing together health care providers and subject matter experts using videoconference technology, brief lecture presentations, casebased learning, fostering an 'all teach, all learn' approach. In April 2020 a six-month pilot of Project ECHO was commenced to support end-of -life care education in primary care as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A scoping exercise was undertaken with the multidisciplinary primary care team across a defined geographical area. Following the scoping exercise a curriculum was devised. Speakers were arranged which included a palliative care medical consultant, a specialist pharmacist and speciality doctor who led the taught aspects of each of the six sessions drawing on their clinical expertise and previous teaching experience. The attendees had the opportunity to submit a case study for discussion during each ECHO session, the case studies were used to evoke discussion, promote shared learning and develop a community of practice. During the pandemic this format also created an opportunity for peer supervision and sharing of clinical knowledge and experience across a wider network of practitioners. Considering the project took place during a pandemic there was 83% attendance from those that had booked onto the sessions. At the end of each session an instant poll was available to be completed by the attendees to evaluate the session. Attendees fed-back how valuable they found the sessions especially the opportunity to discuss case studies, share best practice and debrief during what has been a particularly difficult time for the primary care sector. The online format allowed more people to attend than would normally be achieved in face-to-face training. Due to the project's success further funding was agreed to extend the project beyond the original sixmonth pilot.

12.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A36, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032469

ABSTRACT

Background St Oswald's provides a large and specialist Lymphoedema Service which has traditionally been predominantly clinic-based at their main hospice site. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the service had to quickly pivot to provide much more domiciliary based care - to adhere to new infection control measures and respond to shielding patients' needs. To adhere to the practical nature of the care as well as safeguarding regulations, the domiciliary visits had to be carried out by two lymphoedema nurses and it became apparent that recruitment of additional volunteers would be extremely beneficial and allow more patients to benefit from care. Aims To increase the number of volunteers recruited and inducted into their role to allow the lymphoedema service to maintain services during the pandemic. Methods To respond to an increased need for domiciliary care, in April 2020 St Oswald's Hospice begun recruitment by advertising the volunteer role on social media. Following recruitment, volunteers were inducted and trained. During this time, staff engagement sessions were carried out and a clinical Volunteering Steering Group was set up to review and evaluate the project. Results Over 40 new volunteers recruited, with 20-30 currently volunteering in the service. Other benefits have included: meaningful collaboration between a lymphoedema service and volunteering department, funding sourced for a volunteer coordinator for lymphoedema service to continue to build on this success, and reaching new volunteer audiences as the role engaged a much younger cohort of volunteers than traditional volunteers. Conclusion The rapid flexing of the service supported by the Volunteering Department allowed services to be maintained, patients continued to receive assessment and treatment at home, which many prefer. In addition an unseen benefit has been volunteer enjoyment and a reporting that the experience of volunteering has been beneficial in particular in seeking university and other employment placements.

13.
J Hosp Infect ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031453

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The role of fomites in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. Our objective was to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through fomites, using evidence from viral culture studies. METHODS: We conducted searches in the WHO Covid-19 Database, PubMed, LitCovid, medRxiv, and Google Scholar to 31 December 2021. We included studies that investigated fomite transmission and performed viral culture to assess the cytopathic effect (CPE) of positive fomite samples and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 as the cause of the CPE. We assessed the risk of bias using a checklist modified from the QUADAS-2 criteria. RESULTS: We included 23 studies. The overall risk of bias was moderate. Five studies demonstrated replication-competent virus from fomite cultures and three used genome sequencing to match fomite samples with human clinical specimens. The mean Ct of samples with positive viral culture was significantly lower compared with cultured samples that returned negative results: SMD -1.45, 95%CI -2.00 to -0.90, I(2)=0%;P<0.00001. The likelihood of isolating replication-competent virus was significantly greater when the Ct was <30: RR 3.10 (95%CI 1.32 to 7.31, I(2)=71%, P=0.01). Infectious specimens were mostly detected within 7 days of symptom onset. One study showed possible transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from fomites to humans. CONCLUSION: The evidence from published studies suggests that replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 is present on fomites. Replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 is significantly more likely when the PCR Ct for clinical specimens and fomite samples is <30. Further studies should investigate the duration of infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 and the frequency of transmission from fomites.

14.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology ; 87(3):AB166, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031392

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diversity and Community Engagement (DCE) residency positions have recently emerged to promote diversity and encourage academic investigation in caring for underserved populations. DCE residents pursue traditional medical and surgical residency training plus scholarly work and leadership in diversity, equity, inclusion, and community engagement. We describe DCE dermatology residency positions to provide a roadmap for educators who are interested in creating similar positions. Methods: Websites of 138 ACGME-accredited dermatology residency programs were reviewed, which revealed DCE residency positions affiliated with Duke School of Medicine and University of Pennsylvania. Semistructured interviews were held with key faculty members at these institutions to discuss program vision and to identify associated benefits and challenges. Results: The vision of these programs was to prioritize increasing DCE initiatives by recruiting residents who had sustained interest in research, educational programs, and/or community service specific to diversity and inclusion. DCE residents were encouraged to pursue their interests through clinical electives and scholarly work;many completed research projects on diseases that disproportionately affect people of color. Key benefits of these positions include expanded curriculum on diversity and inclusion and increased community outreach efforts by all faculty and residents. Other benefits include demonstrated department commitment to diversity and community engagement, which contributed to increased underrepresented in medicine residency applicants. Challenges include initial conceptualization of program funding and maintaining community outreach initiatives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Discussion: DCE residency positions provide personalized graduate medical education and may foster the next generation of leaders who are dedicated to caring for underserved populations.

15.
Heliyon ; : e10583, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031297

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccination is one of the pivotal key tools against the ongoing pandemic, but its acceptance relies on efficacy and safety data among various populations, including patients with cancers. However, there is limited data on seroconversion rates, efficacy, and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in patients with cancer. Breakthrough infections after vaccination have also been reported, which could further strengthen the refusal behavior of specific populations to be immunized. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in real-world patients with advanced genitourinary cancers. Methods and results: A retrospective study of the 738 patients with advanced metastatic genitourinary malignancy was conducted at our genitourinary oncology clinic from October 2020 to September 2021, out of which 462 patients (62.6%) were vaccinated. During the study period, two vaccinated, and six unvaccinated patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (breakthrough infection rate: 0.4% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.027). Vaccine protection against infection was 81.8% (95% CI: 0.04-0.98). One vaccinated and 4 unvaccinated patients were hospitalized due to COVID-19 (0.2% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.048). Vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalization was 85.7% (95% CI: 0.02-1.33). Within one month of vaccination, 1.5% of patients (n = 7) had emergency visits, 0.8% (n = 4) were hospitalized for any reason, and of these, 3 (0.6%) experienced a delay in the receipt of their cancer therapy. Conclusion: In our hypothesis-generating data among patients with advanced genitourinary cancers, COVID-19 vaccination was efficacious and safe and was rarely associated with treatment disruptions. These data should help improve the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in the general population and patients with cancer. The vaccine effectiveness in our patients is comparable with existing published data without cancer.

16.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031240

ABSTRACT

This study explores the relationship between the business environment, economic growth, and funding sources of Chinese small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to determine the relevance of the business environment for technological SMEs. The agency theory was used as a theoretical framework to describe how asymmetric information among SMEs and borrowers affects SMEs’ financial decisions as well as China’s investment climate and GDP growth. A binary logistic test was used to assess the financing of SMEs and business development for economic recovery after the pandemic in China. Data from the World Economic Forum and Development Bank were examined. According to the results, funding (e.g., formal and informal) under the banking structure and tax regulation may potentially boost standard credit choices and lower casual credit choices. Consequently, it has demonstrated a considerable impact on GDP growth for technologically small and medium-sized enterprises. This study is the first to examine the asymmetric information and institutional theory regarding funding a café. These findings are essential for business leaders and policymakers concerned with the financial health of small and medium-sized enterprises. Policy implications for important stakeholders are also included in this study.

17.
Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research ; 11(2):8-11, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030587

ABSTRACT

Nonprofit organizations in Canada were significantly impacted by COVID-19, including lost revenue and needing to adjust the program delivery. The lack of technology capacity in the nonprofit sector is a key barrier for many nonprofit organizations to adapt to delivering programs online. Momentum, a Calgary-based nonprofit organization, experienced both financial and programmatic challenges due to COVID-19. Momentum pivoted program delivery to provide supports during the COVID-19 lockdown and developed innovative approaches to online programming. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Momentum was able to rapidly develop its capacity to use technology for online programming with the support of critical new funding. Many nonprofits will have to transform their business models to not only survive but thrive in the post-COVID world. © 2020, University of Alberta Library. All rights reserved.

18.
Montenegrin Journal of Economics ; 18(4):81-94, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030367

ABSTRACT

Our study aims to fill the gap in estimating the impacts of political connections and bank funding diversity on the risk-taking behaviors of Vietnamese commercial banks. By employing the Bayesian methodology, our paper can overcome the small sample issues to reduce the bias in estimation results. We construct a data sample that includes 38 commercial banks in Vietnam from 2003 to 2020. Our results suggest several findings in the Vietnamese banking sector. Firstly, our findings suggest that politically connected banks have 0.4% non-performing loans higher than unconnected peers. Secondly, we find a positive relationship between funding diversity and non-performing loans of commercial banks in Vietnam. Interestingly, our findings report that the commercial banks, especially the politically connected banks, reduced non-performing loans by 0.2% and 0.4% for a year before the recent two National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, respectively. It could be due to the notion that the bank managers secure their job and political promotions by reducing non-performing loans before the National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Finally, our study argues that the commercial bank had a lower level of non-performing loans during the Covid19 pandemic because the government offered stimulus supports to the local economy. Our study has substantial implications for bank managers and authorities in emerging markets. © 2022, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research. All rights reserved.

19.
Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2028969

ABSTRACT

The confluence of the two major challenges has combined to create special challenges for rural nonprofits serving victims of crime: the fluctuation of federal funding, and the Covid-19 pandemic. We discuss the challenges faced by Child Advocacy Centers in northwestern South Carolina in the context of these shifting challenges. From qualitative interviews conducted at 14 centers in this primarily rural region, we explain the challenges they face and the potential effects on the communities they serve interpreted through the lens of Resource Dependence Theory, which predicts that organizations reduce uncertainty of funding through increasing their partnership bonds with cooperative entities. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
Nature Reviews. Materials ; 7(9):675-676, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2028681

ABSTRACT

We popularize scientific topics through the 26-episode film series Science in the City, which depicts the perception of science in Africa. We campaign in African schools, universities and public events to initiate debates on science, inviting actors and scientists to engage with audiences.

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