Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 88
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshu. B1, Suikogaku = Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Ser. B1, Hydraulic Engineering ; 77(1), 2021.
Article in Japanese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162821

ABSTRACT

In July 2020, the Kyushu region experienced record-breaking heavy rains from July 4-7, causing extreme floods in the Kuma and Chikugo Rivers. This was followed by atmospheric instability over a wide area from western Japan to the Tohoku region, resulting in heavy rainfall on July 13-14 in the Chugoku region, and on July 27-28 in the Tohoku region, and flooding of large rivers including the Go River and the Mogami River. In recent years, record-breaking torrential rainfall disasters have been occurring every year, and the heavy precipitation scale as well as the rainfall intensity has been increasing in space and time, resulting in spatio-temporal expansion of the damage. Furthermore, in 2020, the disaster occurred while the social activities had been restricted due to COVID-19 pandemic. The compilation and dissemination of disaster survey data and lessons are essential toward the sustainable development of society. Therefore, JSCE has planned a special issue on the July 2020 torrential rain disaster in order to share and disseminate disaster information and to contribute to the advancement of technology and science related to disaster prevention and mitigation.抄録 令和2年7月,九州地方では4日から7日にかけて記録的な大雨となり,球磨川や筑後川では記録的な洪水が発生した.その後も西日本から東北地方の広い範囲で大気が不安定となり,江の川,最上川など大河川においても氾濫が相次いだ.近年では,毎年のように記録的な豪雨災害が発生しており,降雨強度だけでなく降雨のスケールが時空間的に大きくなっており,被害が時空間的に拡大している.さらに,令和2年度は新型コロナウィルスによる感染症対策のため,人々の活動が制限される中での災害となった.災害調査データを取り纏め,情報発信することは今後の持続可能な社会を検討する上で不可欠である.土木学会論文集では,災害情報を共有・発信し,防災に関する技術および学術分野の進展に資するために令和2年7月豪雨災害に関する特集を企画した.

2.
Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 2022, ADIPEC 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162749

ABSTRACT

A novel solution was proposed in Ecuador to transition from reactive to a proactive way of working into a collaborative environment. This new workflow is supported by a portfolio of three production technologies that integrates live and historical information by combining the edge intelligence strength (for each production element connected to IoT platform) and the cloud insight to enhance the field operational efficiency. Technology that reduces carbon footprint and increases people's efficiency through automation of repetitive tasks. The main challenge that required an integrated and smart solution was the existence of silos, meaning that all production chain elements were disconnected. The solution consisted of a portfolio of three technologies. First, connecting all production chain elements to one unique gateway and Edge platform: all data were consolidated to perform asset surveillance, monitoring, and controlling of electrical submersible pump (ESP) parameters from any vendor. Second, creation of an autonomous system aiming to avoid gas blockage on ESPs. Third, deployment of Production Engineering Orchestrator, fully completed and in continuous improvement, easing collaborative, day-to-day analysis for production, operations, and exploitation engineers We achieved remarkable results with Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud insights implementation;for instance, travel reduction of 18%, personnel efficiency increase (production operations 7% and surveillance engineers 25%), 47% events detection increase, 32% well uptime increase, and 2.14 t carbon dioxide emissions reduction (22.6%). Because of the outstanding results achieved from IoT adoption, new applications were deployed in other projects. With automated annular gas handling, production challenges related to high gas/oil ratio wells were solved. Solution consisted in delivering an automated ESP gas-handling process by using a securely connected, solar-powered skid to optimize well performance, production was increased by 12%, field visits reduced by 94%, and valves manipulation decreased by 97%. Other applications are also running in parallel, to expand the concept of intelligent asset solution. For the production engineering workflows orchestrator, the native implementation is completed, where the highest business impact workflows are included, such as smart production surveillance, waterflooding optimization and ESP surveillance. Insights are shown in "production overview". It is also possible to follow up oil and water producing wells, task modules, customized maps and graphs, sanity check processes, and well model calibration (including the paraffin curves). The integration of these three digital production technologies to improve artificial lift surveillance, production surveillance, and waterflooding optimization workflows is already deployed and showing tangible benefits. Currently, a mature field project is currently working in a collaborative environment, promoting a new proactive operational philosophy that avoids early pump failures, reduces downtime, field trips, personnel exposure due to the COVID-19 pandemic and supports the environmental commitment towards the carbon footprint reduction. Copyright © 2022, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

3.
Business Strategy and the Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2148278

ABSTRACT

As a result of recurring natural disasters caused by climate change, firms are under enormous pressure to reconsider their environmental footprints. However, whether or not investors reward firms' climate change actions remains a topic of considerable debate. Using a sample of S&P 500 companies over the period 2005-2020, we hypothesise and find a significant negative relationship between climate change actions and the cost of debt, indicating that investors indeed reward corporate climate efforts in the form of lower cost funds. This relationship exists in both environmentally sensitive and non-sensitive industries and remains negative and statistically significant even after controlling for the impact of the ongoing pandemic (COVID-19). The findings are robust to the use of alternative measures for our variables, alternative estimation methods and after controlling for endogeneity issues. We interpret our findings within the decision-usefulness and stakeholder-agency theories that suggest that non-financial information on firms' environmental performance is becoming increasingly important when borrowers' creditworthiness is assessed. Our study offers important regulatory and academic policy implications.

4.
Journal of Building Engineering ; 63, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2131620

ABSTRACT

With the urgent demand for ultralow-temperature refrigerators worldwide, the operation reliability and stability of the refrigeration system becomes greatly crucial. In this study, a -80 oC ultralow-temperature cascade refrigeration system (CRS) is developed. From aspects of global warming potential (GWP) and ozone depletion potential (ODP), the environmentally friendly refrigerants R290 and R170 are utilized in the high-temperature cycle and low-temperature cycle of CRS. The experimental measurement is conducted in a Type-laboratory with a dry bulb temperature of 25.0 °C and a wet bulb temperature of 20.2 °C. The pull-down and stable operation performance of the CRS freezer are experimentally investigated. Both the inlet and outlet temperature and pressure of two compressors are monitored, and the operation characteristic of the CRS is analyzed. With some temperature test points arranged in the freezer, the temperature drop and temperature fluctuation variation of air are assessed. The operation power consumption of the CRS is also measured during the whole process. It shows that the −80 °C temperature can be generated and realized by the developed ultralow-temperature freezer. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

5.
International Journal of Global Warming ; 28(4):311-324, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2126943

ABSTRACT

It is analysed that the urban disaster with pandemic and its related consequences are associated with the global warming induced by the carbon-emitted fossil fuels. In 'urban disaster', the result is shown as a stepwise form in which the effectiveness of urban disaster increases. In addition, 'energy-mix' and 'energy' decrease in their effectiveness, although 'traffic, communication, etc.', 'health, quarantine, etc.', and 'resilience' increase in their effectiveness. This means that three variables, 'traffic, communication, etc.', 'health, quarantine, etc.', and 'resilience', affect the 'energy-mix' and 'energy' as the feedback algorithm. It is analysed for urban disasters with ecological pandemic situations where the social distancing is very important in the urban places due to the higher population density than the rural areas. In this work, the prospects of pandemic society incorporated with the climate change mitigating by energy-mix policy are investigated.

6.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2064328

ABSTRACT

With the complex presence of important natural reserves, energy is considered as the main key ingredient to facilitate economic development in the Middle East, GCC, and Maghreb regions. Expectations for a rapidly growing economy in the next decade will likely cause an increase in the fraction of energy consumed domestically, limiting what is available for export. Considered as the home of global oil and gas reserves, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the cornerstone of the global energy architecture, and the global low-carbon energy transition poses critical questions to MENA oil and gas producers. Unfortunately, as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic sweeps across the world, growth in the MENA region was projected to fall to 2.8% in 2020, lower than the growth rates during the 2008 global financial crisis and the 2015 oil price shock. Before the coronavirus (COVID-2019), the sharp drop in oil and gas prices that began in 2015 fostered MENA hydrocarbon producers to launch ambitious economic reform programs in all regions. The main goal of these programs was not only to increase the diversification of investment sectors to boost national and regional economies but also to encourage the development of the nonhydrocarbon sector. This article argues for a new challenge investigation and analysis to figure out with current MENA policy options and future prospects, as well as the present impact of COVID-19, in addition to the public policies that encourage diversification economy sector to avoid entire dependence on oil and gas in export are dressed. It also deals with the investigation of the pressing need to create job opportunities for a large and youthful population and the new definition of the possibility of the world moving more aggressively towards low-carbon integration. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials ; 45(9):S60-S61, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063017

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our radiation oncology department was forced to rapidly integrate telemedicine into its practice. While there has been investigation into the implementation, effectiveness, cost, and perceptions of telemedicine, the environmental impact of telemedicine within radiation oncology has not yet been established. This is particularly relevant as climate change is recognized as one of the largest threats to human health, including oncologic outcomes. Yet, the healthcare sector significantly contributes to global carbon emissions, in part due to patient travel. Objective(s): The aim of this study was to assess the impact of telemedicine on travel-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a large, academic radiation oncology outpatient clinic located in a densely population suburban setting. Method(s): All in-person and telehealth visits over a consecutive 7-day period in June 2021 scheduled at our main outpatient clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Care visits with patients who resided outside of the state were excluded. Travel distance for in-person visits and miles saved for virtual visits was estimated based on patients' reported home address in the electronic medical record. Associated GHG emissions were calculated with the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation tool (https://greet.es.anl. gov) using a well-to-wheel model, which accounts for all emissions related to fuel (ie. gas, electricity) production and use. Gas, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicle utilization were accounted for per published statewide vehicle registration statistics. GHG emissions were converted into carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) using 100-year global warming potentials. Result(s): A total of 158 clinic visits were conducted over the time period. Table 1 describes visit type, telemedicine status, and primary cancer site of the included patients. Total miles traveled for in-person visits was 5,775 miles and an estimated 13,892 potential miles saved were attributed to telemedicine visits. On average, 118 travel miles were saved per telemedicine visit (CO2e, 55 kg). The forecasted annual savings of CO2e attributed to telemedicine visits is 339 metric tons, the equivalent emissions of 61.6 homes' electricity use for one year. Conclusion(s): The integration of telemedicine within a radiation oncology outpatient clinic reduces the environmental impact of patient care. Telemedicine should be considered where feasible and appropriate to establish and promote environmentally sustainable practices within the field.

8.
Biofuel Research Journal ; 9(3):1697-1706, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056660

ABSTRACT

The pressing global challenges, including global warming and climate change, the Russia-Ukraine war, and the Covid-19 pandemic, all are indicative of the necessity of a transition from fossil-based systems toward bioenergy and bioproduct to ensure our plans for sustainable development. Such a transition, however, should be thoroughly engineered, considering the sustainability of the different elements of these systems. Advanced sustainability tools are instrumental in realizing this important objective. The present work critically reviews these tools, including techno-economic, life cycle assessment, emergy, energy, and exergy analyses, within the context of the bioenergy and bioproduct systems. The principles behind these methods are briefly explained, and then their pros and cons in designing, analyzing, and optimizing bioenergy and bioproduct systems are highlighted. Overall, it can be concluded that despite the promises held by these tools, they cannot be regarded as perfect solutions to address all the issues involved in realizing bioenergy and bioproduct systems, and integration of these tools can provide more reliable and accurate results than single approaches. © 2022 BRTeam. All rights reserved.

9.
6th International Conference on Management in Emerging Markets, ICMEM 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052010

ABSTRACT

As people spend more time at home during the COVID-19 pandemic, residential electricity consumption is increasing. To prevent global warming, the increased electricity consumption should be covered by renewable energy, e.g. photovoltaic (PV) power generation. However, PV systems are unstable power sources due to weather conditions;it is necessary to stabilize the residential PV power supply by using batteries. Now, electric vehicles (EV) are beginning to spread, especially in emerging countries. The EV batteries are useful for stabilizing the residential PV power supply. The idea of V2X, using EVs as batteries for buildings, is well-known but still a work in progress. Instead of V2X, we started an experiment based on another idea that we use the secondhand EV lithiumion batteries to stabilize the residential PV power supply. Since 2017, the experiment has been conducted in Yamaguchi in order to evaluate the self-sufficiency of a PV system with the stationary battery, which reused secondhand EV lithium-ion batteries as its components. Analysis of the experimental data revealed that the self-sufficiency of PV system was improved by up to 1.75 times with the stationary storage battery compared to the case without the stationary storage battery. © 2021 IEEE.

10.
Journal of International Entrepreneurship ; 20(3):345-374, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2048386

ABSTRACT

The relationship between entrepreneurial orientations and internationalization has been examined extensively, but the recent developments in the rapidly changing environment point to the need for further examination of international entrepreneurs’ orientations in their own embedding contexts and beyond. There is ample evidence suggesting a positive relationship between the firm’s combined overall international entrepreneurial orientation, its extent of innovativeness, export (or international marketing), collaborative, and socio-cultural orientations and the scope and speed of its internationalization. The aim of this article is to examine the challenges and developments among the integral components of international entrepreneurial orientations and their associated activities, strategies, and resources to integrate their interactive impacts for better understanding of the broader concepts of international entrepreneurship orientations and international entrepreneurship capital in the increasing complexities of entrepreneurial internationalization processes.

11.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S241-S244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2047012

ABSTRACT

Public health Is Increasingly threatened by global warming, land use, and changing wildfire patterns that shape vegetation type, structure, and biodiversity and ultimately affect ecosystem services and our society.1 Uncontrolled large wildfires emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that induce direct and indirect climate feedback through radiative forcing in the atmosphere2 and irreversible changes of natural vegetation, thereby further accelerating climate change and associated fire risks.3 Wildfires are also harmful to human health because they create high pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter that are 2.5 micrometers or smaller (PM2.5) and concentrations of coarse particulate matter that are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size. When inhaled, particulate matter significantly increases a myriad of health outcomes, including overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and emergency department visits for respiratory morbidity, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and angina.4,5 Between July and October 2020, high PM2.5 concentrations from massive wildfires surrounding a large regional hospital in the western United States were associated with a 6% increase in COVID-19 cases.6 Risks for developing adverse health effects from wildfire smoke are greatest among people who are living with chronic conditions;who are experiencing intergenerational racial, economic, and housing discrimination;and who are facing social inequities from the COVID-19 pandemic.4The unprecedented recent wildfires in the western United States and their ill effects on human health and society, as well as the multiple other threats to people and places brought about by climate change, draw attention to the increasing urgency of developing new public health approaches and long-term adaptation strategies to support future population health. Observational fire data covering the past few decades give valuable information on current wildfire events.1 However, these data hardly capture long-term trends (i.e., centennial to millennial time scales) of wildfires and associated atmospheric emissions that may help to improve future fire models and thereby provide the base to adapt public health systems.3 To understand long-term trends, natural archives preserve fire history on a wide range ofspatial scales in the past beyond the period of observational fire data;examples include polar and highalpine ice cores;lake, peat, and marine sediment cores.3,8,9 Such paleofire records are based on measurements of the gaseous tracers ammonium and nitrate or particulate matter, such as levoglucosan and black carbon, and charcoal that reflect different components of wildfire-induced atmospheric smoke pollution.8,9 These paleofire records have previously identified complex regional interactions of humans, ecosystems, and climate change.3 Submicron-sized (100-500 nm in diameter) black carbon particles from wildfires and fossil fuel during the industrial era (i.e., the past 250 years) measured in ice cores and lake sediments can be used as a direct tracer for the release of harmful PM2.5 to the atmosphere.8,10 Such paleo black carbon records have been established from both polar and high-alpine glaciers on several continents and are recently developed from lake sediments.10 These found significant changes of fire activity in response to climate and human impact and enhanced pollution levels varying both in time and space. With public health nurses being well positioned to understand population health needs, planetary health, and the health consequences of wildfires, public health nurses can improve upon wildfire adaptation planning and essential public health services by understanding historical perspectives from past fires.9,11,13 Paleofire data provide direct estimates of historical atmospheric emissions from past wildfires and associated harmful concentrations of particulate matter over long distances.

12.
Rethinking Ecology ; 6(1-47):1-47, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040017

ABSTRACT

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) was first observed in September 2014 near Virginia Key, Florida. In roughly six years, the disease spread throughout Florida and into the greater Caribbean basin. The high prevalence of SCTLD and high resulting mortality in coral populations, and the large number of susceptible species affected, suggest that this outbreak is one of the most lethal ever recorded. The initial recognition and management response to this catastrophic disease in Florida was slow, which delayed the start of monitoring programs and prevented coordinated research programs by at least two years. The slow management response was a result of several factors that operated concurrently. First, the Port Miami dredging project was ongoing during the coral disease epidemic and dredging rather than SCTLD was blamed by some managers and local environmental groups for the extreme coral losses reported in the project's compliance monitoring program. Second, this blame was amplified in the media because dredging projects are intuitively assumed to be bad for coral reefs. Third, during this same time State of Florida policy prohibited government employees to acknowledge global warming in their work. This was problematic because ocean warming is a proximal cause of many coral diseases. As a result, the well-known links between warming and coral disease were ignored. A consequence of this policy was that the dredging project provided an easy target to blame for the coral mortality noted in the monitoring program, despite convincing data that suggested otherwise. Specifically, results from the intensive compliance monitoring program, conducted by trained scientific divers, were clear. SCTLD that was killing massive numbers of corals throughout Florida was also killing corals at the dredge site - and in the same proportions and among the same suite of species. While eradication of the disease was never a possibility, early control measures may have slowed its spread or allowed for the rescue of significant numbers of large colonies of iconic species. This coral disease outbreak has similarities to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and there are lessons learned from both that will improve disease response outcomes in the future, to the benefit of coral reefs and human populations.

13.
Nano-enabled Agrochemicals in Agriculture ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035538

ABSTRACT

There are two major challenging problems facing humanity today which are the ongoing Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic started in late 2019 and the environmental crisis due to fossil fuels combustion causing over increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. While the first problem seems to be a temporary remedy for the second one due to less travels by individuals, actual solution of both problems may require comprehensive scientific, technological, and socioeconomic decisions. In this chapter we look at the role of nanotechnology and nano-scale materials towards the solution of these two major challenges. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14.
20th International Conference on e-Society, ES 2022 and 18th International Conference on Mobile Learning, ML 2022 ; : 179-186, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2034363

ABSTRACT

Food waste is an important issue in the global warming debate. In this study, a virtual reality (VR) application was built from the insights and requirements of a focus group. The VR prototype was then validated using A/B-testing in an online experiment due to COVID-19 restrictions. VR is considered suitable for transferring information and building awareness regarding the topic of food waste. However, it is necessary to maintain the right balance between an informative and a serious gaming application. VR scenarios that people enjoy using have positive learning effects. Furthermore, scenarios that feature gamification elements are rated more highly regarding intention to use, which, in turn, benefits learning. © 2022 IADIS Press. All rights reserved.

15.
ISES Solar World Congress 2021 ; : 43-56, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025889

ABSTRACT

The paper presents a regional case study of the European Union's clean energy policy impact on the European electricity market transformation reaching a tremendous milestone for the EU as confirmed by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Energy (ENER) on 9th April 2021 - the renewable energy sources for the first time in the history overcoming the combined fossil fuels in electrical energy generation mix of the year 2020. This achievement, although influenced by exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemics and the electricity demand shock, is primarily an effect of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package implementing the European Green Deal strategy designed to position the EU as a global leader in the green transformation, leading by example and turning climate challenges into a growth opportunity, as such presenting optimistic policy perspective for a global transformation towards a 100% renewable energy world, thus mitigating dire threats of the global warming by drastically cutting greenhouse gases emissions. © 2021. The Authors. Published by International Solar Energy Society Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Scientific Committee.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10724, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024194

ABSTRACT

Road freight transportation is already contributing significantly to global warming, and its emissions are predicted to grow dramatically in the following years. Carbon footprint calculation can be used to assess CO2e emissions to understand how an organization’s activities impact global sustainability. To this end, the main objective of this paper is initially to assess the impact of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions stemming from road freight transportation. Subsequently, we adopt the EN 16258 standard to calculate the carbon footprint of a truck fleet of a freight transport operator in Greece. Based on the obtained results, we assess the performance of the company’s fleet by adopting relevant sustainability indicators. We also evaluate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel and its impact on CO2e emissions and operational costs. The paper concludes with a list of additional measures toward further reduction and offsetting of CO2e emissions.

17.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 378, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019998

ABSTRACT

helen@altitudeconsulting.com.au I commend Buse and colleagues’ call for systems level thinking about health and global warming.1 Illness results from interacting factors that can only be properly understood by engaging methodically with their complexity. Mental health is particularly sensitive to adversity, including from global warming.234 In my own country, Australia, record breaking floods have drenched east coast communities four times this year, displacing thousands. BMJ 2022;378: o1656. 10.1136/bmj.o1656 35790224 2 Berry HL Bowen K Kjellstrom T. Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework.

18.
2nd International Conference on Materials Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, CONF-MCEE 2022 ; 12326, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2019670

ABSTRACT

Global warming will result in the melting of glaciers and frozen soil, as well as increasing sea levels, endangering not only natural ecosystems but also humanity's survival. Therefore, the world should speed up its response to climate change and low-carbon transition. However, there are conflicts of interest between developed and developing countries, and some contradictions are deep-rooted. In order to find the future survival path of humanity, all countries need to make concessions to realise joint cooperation. The article studied the two significant issues facing international cooperation to achieve low-carbon and examined the difficulties faced by the world's top ten greenhouse gas emitting developed and developing countries in the process of the low-carbon transition. Based on the research analyse and Covid-19 impact, some feasible suggestions for individuals and countries are put forward to achieve decarbonisation. © 2022 SPIE.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(14): 9851-9853, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004737
20.
Citrus Fruit (Second Edition) ; : 763-789, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003775

ABSTRACT

Long-term shifts in weather of a particular region refers to climate change. Now the climate change is no longer a regional phenomenon. It has assumed global proportions and all countries are affected. These shifts may be natural, such as through variations in the solar cycle. But mainly since the 1800s, human activities, growing population and industrialization have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas on one hand and destroying green cover/vegetation/forests on the other. US Environmental Protection Agency defines carbon sequestration as the process through which carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is absorbed by trees, plants and crops through photosynthesis, and stored as carbon in tree trunks, branches, foliage and roots (biomass) and also in soils. The term “sinks” is also used to refer to forests, croplands, and grazing lands, and their ability to sequester carbon. Agriculture and forestry activities can also release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, a carbon sink occurs when carbon sequestration is higher than carbon released during the same period. Technologies for climate change mitigation and adaptation is the need of the hour. Covid-19 pandemic disrupted citrus production and trade but citrus fruit and juice consumption has increased.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL