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1.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1102(1):012057, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2151801

ABSTRACT

Dairy production has a considerable effect on climate change due to emissions of greenhouse gases, but dairy products are meals that are well-known for their pleasant taste and nutritional value. During the Covid-19 outbreak, there were shortages of dairy goods on the shelves of grocery stores. This study investigated the consumption patterns of dairy products in Sabah. Using a pre-tested questionnaire, data were collected through online survey during Covid-19 outbreaks from 64 households comprising 16 from rural, 25 from town and 23 from city areas. The surveyed households were classified into 5 groups based on monthly household income: (i) ≤RM2000, (ii) RM2001-RM3000, (iii) RM3001-RM4000 and (iv) >RM4000. Among the participated households, 75% of respondents were female and 25% were male. There was a significant relationship among household income groups for fresh milk consumption. Regardless of areas and household incomes, the average monthly consumption for evaporated milk, fresh milk, condensed milk, powder milk, sweetmeats, yogurt, butter and ice cream per household were 1018g, 1425ml, 978g, 815g, 527g, 468g, 522g, and 650g, respectively. 28% of respondents monthly consumed 0.5-1.0 L fresh milk per household. 42%, 39%, 39%, 63%, 58%, 64% and 50% of respondents-- respectively-- monthly consumed evaporated milk, condensed milk, powder milk, sweetmeats, yogurt, butter and ice cream, where the amount of each component was not more than 500g per household. Results showed that 38% of respondents liked more on butter followed by cheese (30%), yogurt (20%), cream (9%) and condensed milk (3%). The 25% and 45% of respondents had reduced their consumption and expenditure behaviour, respectively. Results indicated that individual of city areas consumed more dairy products. Although cows add methane to our environment, organic dairy farming and husbandry methods can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission.

2.
Netherlands Journal of Critical Care ; 30(5):156-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058310

ABSTRACT

In the last two years we have experienced the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in our lives and hospitals. Pandemics are part of the history of humanity and we can be certain that in the future new pandemics will appear. In fact, due to the growth in the human population, increased travel and global warming, it is to be expected that new pandemic pathogens will arise more frequently than before. Additionally, decreased barriers between animals and humans will give rise to spillover events, which will result in the introduction of new zoonotic pathogens in humans. In each of the parts of this series we will, in a short format, highlight a potential pandemic pathogen and describe its characteristics, history and potential for global pandemics. This part of the series focusses on MERS-CoV infection which, up until now, has been fairly contained in a small part of the world but definitely has traits that make it a pathogen to watch. As in previous parts of this series, we will highlight its clinical picture and explain why it should not be underestimated.

3.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S241-S244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2047012

ABSTRACT

Public health Is Increasingly threatened by global warming, land use, and changing wildfire patterns that shape vegetation type, structure, and biodiversity and ultimately affect ecosystem services and our society.1 Uncontrolled large wildfires emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that induce direct and indirect climate feedback through radiative forcing in the atmosphere2 and irreversible changes of natural vegetation, thereby further accelerating climate change and associated fire risks.3 Wildfires are also harmful to human health because they create high pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter that are 2.5 micrometers or smaller (PM2.5) and concentrations of coarse particulate matter that are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size. When inhaled, particulate matter significantly increases a myriad of health outcomes, including overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and emergency department visits for respiratory morbidity, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and angina.4,5 Between July and October 2020, high PM2.5 concentrations from massive wildfires surrounding a large regional hospital in the western United States were associated with a 6% increase in COVID-19 cases.6 Risks for developing adverse health effects from wildfire smoke are greatest among people who are living with chronic conditions;who are experiencing intergenerational racial, economic, and housing discrimination;and who are facing social inequities from the COVID-19 pandemic.4The unprecedented recent wildfires in the western United States and their ill effects on human health and society, as well as the multiple other threats to people and places brought about by climate change, draw attention to the increasing urgency of developing new public health approaches and long-term adaptation strategies to support future population health. Observational fire data covering the past few decades give valuable information on current wildfire events.1 However, these data hardly capture long-term trends (i.e., centennial to millennial time scales) of wildfires and associated atmospheric emissions that may help to improve future fire models and thereby provide the base to adapt public health systems.3 To understand long-term trends, natural archives preserve fire history on a wide range ofspatial scales in the past beyond the period of observational fire data;examples include polar and highalpine ice cores;lake, peat, and marine sediment cores.3,8,9 Such paleofire records are based on measurements of the gaseous tracers ammonium and nitrate or particulate matter, such as levoglucosan and black carbon, and charcoal that reflect different components of wildfire-induced atmospheric smoke pollution.8,9 These paleofire records have previously identified complex regional interactions of humans, ecosystems, and climate change.3 Submicron-sized (100-500 nm in diameter) black carbon particles from wildfires and fossil fuel during the industrial era (i.e., the past 250 years) measured in ice cores and lake sediments can be used as a direct tracer for the release of harmful PM2.5 to the atmosphere.8,10 Such paleo black carbon records have been established from both polar and high-alpine glaciers on several continents and are recently developed from lake sediments.10 These found significant changes of fire activity in response to climate and human impact and enhanced pollution levels varying both in time and space. With public health nurses being well positioned to understand population health needs, planetary health, and the health consequences of wildfires, public health nurses can improve upon wildfire adaptation planning and essential public health services by understanding historical perspectives from past fires.9,11,13 Paleofire data provide direct estimates of historical atmospheric emissions from past wildfires and associated harmful concentrations of particulate matter over long distances.

4.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1054(1):012015, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037332

ABSTRACT

Sustainable design strategies focus on architectural design considerations which assures the welfare, in addition to cohabitation of inanimate elements, and existing creatures that constitute the ecosystem. Sustainable architecture for public spaces, in addition to energy efficiency and zero greenhouse gas emission, needs to adopt approaches that lessen the effect of communicable diseases. Often, the primarily focus of architects is the aesthetics of buildings, there is no cognizant method for sustainable infection prevention and control mostly in the planning/production phase of public buildings. The paper aims to assess and identify how the public space can be safer in a pandemic from the vantage point of built environment professionals with the view of evolving strategies for policymakers with emphasis on the duties of the architect in mitigating the spread of viruses. The steps taken were to assess the relationship amongst environmental space and infectious diseases and propose practical steps to limit infection prevention and control (IPC) in public buildings. The paper is based on works of literature and consultations. The paper concluded that design approaches perform a substantial part in prevention and control of infections in public spaces, as well as healthcare facilities. Hence, sustainable design strategies may well be a remedy for mitigating the spread of coronavirus in public buildings.

5.
Amfiteatru Economic ; 24(61):683-700, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030563

ABSTRACT

Tackling climate change is one of the highest challenges which the world economy is currently facing. The European Green Deal, adopted in 2019, sets the European roadmap towards a net-zero greenhouse gas emissions economy. The food system is heavily responsible for greenhouse gas emissions and environmental degradation. Against this backdrop, the aim of the paper is to assess the way retail managers perceive the financial and competitive implications of the Green Deal in the activity of their companies. To achieve this goal, we have conducted qualitative research in the form of in-depth interviews in a sample of managers responsible for sustainability, quality or corporate social responsibility of important food retail companies in the Romanian market. The results of the research revealed different opinions and perceptions, but which converge to emphasize the importance of applying the principles underlying the Green Pact to gain competitive advantage and optimize costs, particularly, by developing solutions to reduce carbon emissions, use clean energy, reduce food waste and educate consumers towards sustainable consumption.

6.
Academy of Business Research Journal ; 2:42-56, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2027058

ABSTRACT

In the Spring of 2020, the world was dealt a difficult blow with the pandemic of the novel Coronavirus. One of the most striking issues facing healthcare providers and hospitals was the lack of medical supplies and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The increased use of PPE during the pandemic highlights the problem with the volume of medical waste and its impact on the environment. Approximately 5 million tons of total waste is produced by hospitals around the world per year (Practice Greenhealth, 2020). A study conducted by Health Care Without Harm, found that "healthcare's climate footprint is equivalent to 4.4% of global net emissions (Karliner, Slotterback, Ashby, and Steele, 2019, p. 60)." Research regarding environmental sustainability of the healthcare sector is broad, complex, and disjointed. Therefore, the research is less helpful to hospital administrators. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research, demonstrate the significance of the issue, and to provide a context for discussing more helpful information.

7.
Water ; 14(17):2612, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024375

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is accurately framed in its title: Are pluvial and fluvial (river) floods on the rise? First, physical mechanisms that drive changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods were examined. Then, a review of literature was undertaken on detection and an attribution of changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods in observation records for past to present, as well as in model-based projections for the future. Various aspects, factors, processes and mechanisms, as well as various indices of interest were considered. There is quite a common, even if not scientifically justified, belief that, generally, floods are on the rise. However, in this paper, a balanced, knowledge-based assessment was undertaken, with discussion and interpretation, including caveats and indicating considerable departures from such a flat-rate statement. Observation records show that precipitation extremes have been intensifying on a global scale and for many regions. A formal detection and attribution analysis shows that intensification of rainfall events may have been influenced by greenhouse gas forcing of anthropogenic origin. Frequency and magnitude of pluvial floods is on the rise with increasing intense precipitation, while changes of river floods are more complex. High river discharges were found to increase in some regions, but to decrease in other regions, so that no general corollaries can be drawn at the global scale. Heavy rainfall events and pluvial floods are projected to become, almost ubiquitously, more frequent and more intense with progressing climate change, while frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods are likely to increase in many but not all regions.

8.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10724, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024194

ABSTRACT

Road freight transportation is already contributing significantly to global warming, and its emissions are predicted to grow dramatically in the following years. Carbon footprint calculation can be used to assess CO2e emissions to understand how an organization’s activities impact global sustainability. To this end, the main objective of this paper is initially to assess the impact of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions stemming from road freight transportation. Subsequently, we adopt the EN 16258 standard to calculate the carbon footprint of a truck fleet of a freight transport operator in Greece. Based on the obtained results, we assess the performance of the company’s fleet by adopting relevant sustainability indicators. We also evaluate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel and its impact on CO2e emissions and operational costs. The paper concludes with a list of additional measures toward further reduction and offsetting of CO2e emissions.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10314, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024154

ABSTRACT

Sustainable building practices are a response to environmental issues. Businesses and industries are assessing how their activities affect the environment. The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industries have significant impacts on the environment and economy, while the industry is considered one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has, therefore, been highlighted by researchers as a key area of intervention with a great potential to reduce environmental impacts. This paper critically reviews and evaluates the current state of sustainable building certification systems with the purpose of having a good understanding of the status quo and possibilities for future directions in Saudi Arabia. It reviews the academic literature on Saudi Arabia’s green/sustainable building codes, standards, certification systems, methods and tools. It starts by addressing sustainability in the broadest sense. Then, it investigates sustainability strategies and evaluates the building certification systems in Saudi Arabia, followed by an introduction to the new practice of sustainable healthcare building assessment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and building information modelling (BIM) techniques have also been investigated. The paper introduces the updated Saudi Building Code (SBC) with further evaluation of the Saudi Green Building Code (SBC 1001-CR). Finally, the paper clearly highlights the key role of sustainable building practices and the need to develop a certification system that considers the new trends and the local context.

10.
Recycling ; 7(4):53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024019

ABSTRACT

Increased fashion consumption spurred by fast fashion has led to excessive textile waste, giving rise to a global crisis as textile waste pollutes land and waterways, while landfill and incineration contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. Extending a product’s life for as long as possible is a core principle of the circular economy (CE) to ensure that the maximum value of the original product is realized over its lifetime. As such, repair is an essential component of a CE because it supports the preferred waste hierarchy elements of reduce and reuse, with recycling being the last resort in a CE necessary to close resource loops. Consumers are an essential enabler of a CE;therefore, it is critical to understand consumers’ characteristics in the context of behaviors such as repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender on engagement in clothing repair practices;women have often only been the focus of clothing repair studies. An online survey was conducted to collect responses from Canadian and U.S. consumers (n = 512). Findings showed that self-repair was the most common form of clothing repair, with women being more highly engaged in self-repair practices, increasing with age. Paid repair is the type of repair that has the lowest level of engagement, and there are only negligible differences between the genders. Men utilize unpaid forms of repair more than women. However, among the youngest age group (18–24), both genders are equally likely to have clothing repaired for free. Gender gaps exist, but opportunities for increased utilization in repair can be created to encourage full participation within a CE. In particular, the findings point to the importance of increasing repair activities amongst men and younger consumers.

11.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering ; 10(8):1105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023811

ABSTRACT

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in shipping have been receiving growing concerns in the maritime industry. Recently, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is considering the introduction of a global shipping carbon tax, which has become the most talked-about topic in both industry and academia. To assess the potential impact of the carbon tax on maritime trades, a trade-volume-based model of shipping carbon emissions was developed. Considering that bulk shipping is the second-largest carbon emitter in the maritime industry and the low value-to-weight nature of bulk cargoes, the model was applied to analyze the dry bulk trade in China, one of the leading countries in the global dry bulk trade. The results show that the introduction of the carbon tax could have significant impacts on freight rates and commodity prices. Depending on the trading regions and the carbon charges, shipping freight rates would increase by 10–30%, which is equivalent to 1–4% of the trading prices. Additionally, since shorter shipping distances may have less emission per trading tonnage, the shipping carbon tax may significantly change the dry bulk trade patterns, resulting in China’s increasing reliance on nearby countries, e.g., India and Australia, for the import of key commodities. These findings can help shipping companies and sectors make better carbon reduction responses, such as redeploying their fleets, promoting the development of low-carbon shipping technologies, and increasing investments in Australia, as well as South and Southeast Asia.

12.
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering ; 10(8):1006, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023810

ABSTRACT

The recent inclusion of shipping in the Fit for 55 legislation package will have large knock-on effects on the industry and consequently on end consumers. The present paper presents an innovative top-down methodology, the MSF455 model, which estimates the new vessel Operational Expenditure (OPEX) as per the provisions of the Fit for 55 package and various scenarios based on carbon tax, penalty allowances, maritime fuel tax and effect. The methodology is presented and tested against six scenarios that are based on Det Norske Veritas’s (DNV) fuel maritime projections. The model illustrates that the distinction between intra-EU and extra-EU penalty allowance creates a large disparity and thus reduction in the competitiveness of goods (produced and transported).

13.
Energies ; 15(16):6042, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023310

ABSTRACT

Conventional and emerging paradigms of urbanism require new responses under the current circumstances, especially in relation to the integration of sustainability dimensions and technology advances. The escalating rate of urbanization, coupled with the climate emergency, fundamentally indeed disrupt the challenges that urbanism research and practice deal with, calling for adopting more innovative approaches to urban planning and design. With cities contributing around 65% of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and experiencing an unprecedented growth of population, contemporary urban policy needs to be redefined and re-assessed accordingly. While numerous urban models, such as the Compact City, the Eco-City, the Sustainable City, and the Smart City, have emerged in response to the challenges of sustainability and urbanization, the 15-Minute City has recently gained a steep popularity. This paper explores the theoretical, practical, and technological foundations of the 15-Minute City, with a particular focus on the proximity dimension of mixed land-use and its environmental, social, and economic benefits of sustainability as supported by smart technologies. We argue that this evolving model of urbanism has the potential to gain more expansion and success in regard to building more sustainable, efficient, resilient, equitable, and inclusive cities in line with the global agendas of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11, as it adds a strategic value to the amalgam of the prevailing and emerging paradigms of urbanism and their synergies with respect to increasing the benefits of sustainability while emphasizing its environmental dimension.

14.
Energies ; 15(16):5908, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023306

ABSTRACT

If global energy consumption returns to its pre-pandemic growth rate, it will be almost impossible to transition to a zero-emission or net-zero-emission energy system by 2050 in the absence of large-scale CO2 removal. Since relying on unproven technologies for CO2 removal is speculative and risky, this paper considers an energy descent scenario for reaching zero greenhouse gas emissions from energy by 2050. To drive the rapid transition from fossil fuels to carbon-free energy sources and ensure demand reduction, funding is needed urgently in order to implement four strategies: (i) technology change, i.e., implementing the growth of zero-carbon energy production, end-use energy efficiency and ‘green’ energy carriers, together with ongoing R&D on CO2 removal;(ii) reducing climate impacts;(iii) reducing energy consumption by social and behavioural changes;and (iv) improving human wellbeing while increasing social justice. Modern monetary theory explains how monetary sovereign governments, with their own fiat currencies, can create the necessary funding without financial constraints, although constraints do result from the productive capacities of their economies. The energy transition could be part-funded by a significant transfer of resources from monetary sovereign countries of the global North to the global South, financed by currency issuance.

15.
Ocular Surgery News ; 40(15):1-12, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2012930
16.
The Science Teacher ; 90(1):34-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012095

ABSTRACT

While it should be common practice to talk about climate change throughout the curriculum (NGSS Lead States 2013), only addressing climate when it comes up in other classes results in students graduating high school still unable to articulate the causes or effects of climate change as well as what needs to be done to address the problem (Monroe, Oxarart, and Plate 2013;Reid 2019;Schreiner, Henriksen, and Kirkeby Hansen 2005). Even if building climate change into other science classes was an effective strategy for teaching climate science, students would still not have gained climate literacy because CCE should also incorporate societal effects and climate justice (Stapleton 2019). Students were encouraged to submit their projects to the potentially interested groups or organizations (e.g., Department of Transportation or city planning commission) once complete. Because climate change misconceptions abound (McNeil and Vaughn 2012), we identified common misconceptions ahead of time and provided tools to prevent or resolve these noncanonical understandings. Instead of telling students that the two can be confused, we start by discussing the ozone hole (because they are already familiar with it) and how ozone interacts with UV radiation before even mentioning the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide interacting with infrared radiation.

17.
BioPharm International ; 35(2):26-29, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012042
18.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):2401-2407, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010538

ABSTRACT

The human-nature interface has come under a critical scanner ever since the ill-effects of exploitation of nature have been the most pressing aspects of life on Earth. The twentieth century biological massacre has resulted in a grim environmental situation today-greenhouse effect, depletion of ozone layer, acid rain, air, water, soil and marine pollution, dwindling natural resources, tsunamis, untimely seasonal changes… the list goes on. The recent onslaught of Covid-19 across the globe has been an alarm waking the entire humanity to the disastrous ways it has trudged on for over centuries. There is an awareness everywhere to revisit the march of civilizations as well as the epistemology and ontological premises of human thoughts, anthropocentric knowledge of the universe, belief systems and values that have been propagated, primarily those which underlay the relationships between humans and the environment. This has led to a shift from mono-disciplinary studies to those of inter and multidisciplinary studies not just in natural sciences and social sciences but in humanities as well. Among such intersections of disciplines to gain a holistic comprehension of the universe at large, the multi-disciplinary field of Ecocriticism to engage in the study of literature from the view points of life sciences is not just interesting but yields aspects of knowledge that was hitherto not seriously deliberated upon. Coming to the fore in 1990’s, the field of ‘Ecocriticism’ actually had its antecedents in the writings of all nature-conscious litterateurs. But as American Scholars like William Rueckert, Rachel Carson, Cheryll Glotfelty,Harold Fromm, Lawrence Buell.Scott Slovic and otherswere the first to define the field, mapping its scope and contoursthereby establishing Ecocriticism as a discipline, its origins are attributed to United States. But there have been traces of eco-consciousness in Indian literature in regional languages across India as well as those written in English. Hence this paper explores aspects of ecocritical perspectives that can be evinced in Indian Fiction in English in general with specific focus on a few recent novels that exclusively delve into most pressing environmental concerns of contemporary times. The paper thereby offers methodology of ecocritical reading per se of literary texts.

19.
SciDev.net ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999194
20.
SciDev.net ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999106
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