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1.
Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 2022, ADIPEC 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162742

ABSTRACT

Energy producers are under tremendous pressure to abate GHG emissions earlier than previously thought. The call for action is driven by multiple factors such as climate activism, policy regulations, a global pandemic and geopolitical conflict. Hydrogen is widely considered the most important energy carrier in a decarbonized future. As organizations are revisiting their business models to evaluate the impact of a shift from fossil fuels to Hydrogen, terms such as "Energy Transition", "Carbon Management" and "Hydrogen Economy" are now making frequent appearances in business and project management plans. The global pandemic and cataclysmic geopolitical conflicts may have expedited this shift in strategies, and to some extent exacerbated capital risks faced by mega projects. As a result, a fundamental realignment in Project Management strategies seem inevitable. While managing the Energy Transition, the traditional Oil & Gas PM knowledge areas will require a "reframing" of sorts. This paper investigates the Project Management challenges and opportunities in a large, Joint Venture capital project in the Energy Transition context. The Paris Agreement, the international treaty on climate change, has intensified the discussions around low carbon energy sources. The transition to Hydrogen is sometimes envisaged to happen with cross-sectoral coupling (CO2 capture, Renewable Energy storage). Its long-term implications in terms of project complexity management, technological maturity and economic feasibility along with stakeholder influences will be reviewed. The high-level interface aspects from technology integration viewpoints and Project Human Resource Management challenges will also be addressed. Other important present-day change drivers include impacts of Covid-19 pandemic and geopolitical conflict in Europe, which have led to watershed policy changes such as Joint European action for secure energy (REPowerEU). Rejigging Risk Management, Contract Management, Supply Chain and Stakeholder alignment strategies in the post pandemic world are key execution strategy elements for Hydrogen projects and these will be reviewed on the basis of learnings from Oil & Gas Project execution management. The fundamental changes in Gas and Oil based Capital Project Management and learnings to be harvested for Hydrogen projects will be elaborated utilizing identified critical change drivers. Project Configuration, Integration and Risk management perspectives will be analyzed from Owners' viewpoints. Additional Critical Success Factors, Project Definition Parameters or integrated Front End Loading (iFEL), Project assurance and leadership model will be identified and elaborated. An overall execution strategy focused on new project realities beyond the realm of triple project constraints will be outlined. The strategic redefinition of Project Management functions in the context of Energy Transition and their deployment will be administered via a competent Project Management Office (PMO) function. Authors identify the PMO's leading role in Change Management, harvesting learnings and synergies, stakeholder alignment and overall strategy definition. Copyright © 2022, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

2.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1102(1):012057, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2151801

ABSTRACT

Dairy production has a considerable effect on climate change due to emissions of greenhouse gases, but dairy products are meals that are well-known for their pleasant taste and nutritional value. During the Covid-19 outbreak, there were shortages of dairy goods on the shelves of grocery stores. This study investigated the consumption patterns of dairy products in Sabah. Using a pre-tested questionnaire, data were collected through online survey during Covid-19 outbreaks from 64 households comprising 16 from rural, 25 from town and 23 from city areas. The surveyed households were classified into 5 groups based on monthly household income: (i) ≤RM2000, (ii) RM2001-RM3000, (iii) RM3001-RM4000 and (iv) >RM4000. Among the participated households, 75% of respondents were female and 25% were male. There was a significant relationship among household income groups for fresh milk consumption. Regardless of areas and household incomes, the average monthly consumption for evaporated milk, fresh milk, condensed milk, powder milk, sweetmeats, yogurt, butter and ice cream per household were 1018g, 1425ml, 978g, 815g, 527g, 468g, 522g, and 650g, respectively. 28% of respondents monthly consumed 0.5-1.0 L fresh milk per household. 42%, 39%, 39%, 63%, 58%, 64% and 50% of respondents-- respectively-- monthly consumed evaporated milk, condensed milk, powder milk, sweetmeats, yogurt, butter and ice cream, where the amount of each component was not more than 500g per household. Results showed that 38% of respondents liked more on butter followed by cheese (30%), yogurt (20%), cream (9%) and condensed milk (3%). The 25% and 45% of respondents had reduced their consumption and expenditure behaviour, respectively. Results indicated that individual of city areas consumed more dairy products. Although cows add methane to our environment, organic dairy farming and husbandry methods can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission.

3.
21st RoEduNet Conference on Networking in Education and Research, RoEduNet 2022 ; 2022-September, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120838

ABSTRACT

Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) management market size has reached in 2021 USD 212.8 Billion and its constantly increasing and expected to reach USD 287.4 Billion by 2027. The demolition of existing infrastructures generates more than twenty types of materials. CDW management aims at the disposing and reusing the materials to reduce the negative impact on the environment and the consumption of raw materials which have higher costs at present after the COVID-19 pandemic. In the last years, the integration of AI and robots for efficient recycling activities in CDW has been increasing. The development of a system for CDW material handling and processing composed of a robotic arm and classification algorithm will have important benefits such as increasing the total amount of recycled material, maximize the economic value of recycled materials and products, reducing the environmental degradation, greenhouse gas emissions, pollution, contamination. This paper aims to present a classification algorithm for fast identification and selection of CDW materials based on information obtained from several hyperspectral cameras and sensors. The main goal is the division of the materials from the conveyor belt into specific groups and their placement into dedicated bins. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Advances in Climate Change Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2094966

ABSTRACT

In order to know how surface air temperature (SAT) changes in East Asia under different emission scenarios after the COVID-19 outbreak, in this paper, we investigated the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and anthropogenic aerosols changes on SAT in East Asia by using the aerosol-climate coupled model BCC-AGCM 2.0_CUACE/Aero, combining with the post-pandemic emission scenarios proposed by Covid multi-Earth system model intercomparison project (CovidMIP scenarios for short, including fossil-fueled recovery, moderate green stimulus, strong green stimulus, hereinafter as FFF, MGG, SGG, respectively). We assessed the impacts of changes in GHGs and anthropogenic aerosols together and separately on SAT in East Asia and its typical subregions during 2020‒2050. The results show that by mid-21st-century, SAT in East Asia will increase by 0.81±0.083°C under Baseline (same as SSP2-4.5 scenario), i.e., SAT difference between 2045‒2050 and 2020‒2025), and there will be more intense warming in all the three scenarios in East Asia, in which the largest SAT difference (SAT-d) compared to Baseline is 0.33±0.11°C under SGG and the smallest SAT-d is 0.07±0.14°C under FFF. To further explore the mechanism of these SAT-d, we analyzed the trend of surface longwave and shortwave net radiation flux driven by GHGs and anthropogenic aerosols there. It is found that in early period (2020‒2035), the role of aerosol changes is bigger than that of GHG changes in dominating SAT-d, particularly sulfate, whose reduction will become the main contributor to SAT-d by affecting the net solar flux at surface. In later period (2036‒2050), because of GHGs’ longer atmospheric lifetime than aerosols, the role of decreasing GHGs concentrations will determine the drop in SAT-d through affecting the net longwave flux at surface.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(11): e11281, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086258

ABSTRACT

Building sector is a major contributor to the emissions of pollutant gases, which are responsible for health-damaging effects of climate change. To quantify and reduce these emissions. This comparative study is presented between two buildings that could have a sanitary or any other type of use. Both buildings have similar characteristics, except for their structures, one made of metal and the other of concrete. The design, structural calculation and three-dimensional dimensioning were performed using Building Information Modeling (BIM). The budget and the product carbon footprint study were also carried out, to calculate the level of emissions of each building. The study determined higher emissions for the metal-structured building, with 621.234 tCO2/tmaterial compared to 446.707 tCO2/tmaterial for the concrete building. To reduce these emissions, measures related to the replacement of the previously selected materials, by other materials with lower emission rates and identical functionality were presented, such as the replacement of metal building roof polyurethane, or the composition of cement for the concrete building. Both actions represented a reduction of 84.61% CO2 emissions for metal envelope building and 31.765% for the concrete structure. The results of this work will help to select more sustainable materials to use in the renovation of existing buildings, or in the construction of new buildings. For example, health-related buildings, currently in high demand, given the current pandemic situation caused by COVID-19.

6.
Textile Research Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2064453

ABSTRACT

Apart from the many social and health problems it has caused, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on most sectors of the economy worldwide. One of the areas where such impact is noticeable is the textile, apparel, and fashion (TAF) industry. The lockdowns and limited access to retailer outlets resulted in a considerable drop in consumption, creating problems related to the excess of stock, the decrease of sales, and the disposal of non-used items. This paper outlines the implications of the COVID-19 on the TAF sectors and European retailers. It analyzes how the current supply chains exacerbated stock control problems, and it reports on the changes in consumption during the pandemic. The worldwide restrictive measures implemented to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic were responsible for significant profit losses. Also, the decrease in consumption, caused by several geographically wide lockdowns, prompted a subsequent reduction in orders and sales, resulting in a significant number of constraints. The implementation of more environmentally friendly processes, including sustainable circularity as a competitiveness source to keep the TAF sectors in the loop and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, may help address the problems associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in the sustainability context, as reported in this paper. © The Author(s) 2022.

7.
International Conference on Transportation and Development 2022, ICTD 2022 ; 4:64-71, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2062376

ABSTRACT

Many believe that telecommuting could be a solution for some of the significant adverse impacts of our transportation systems, e.g., traffic congestion, greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, and energy consumption. Observations may have further strengthened this belief during the first year of the COVID-19 Pandemic, where streets were deserted and clean air and wildlife returned to urban areas. Accordingly, this study investigates the legitimacy of this belief. The NHTS 2017 data set was used to examine the travel activity of commuting workers against telecommuters. Workers were classified into one of five telecommute classes based on primary work location, telecommute engagement, logged trips, and option to telecommute: home-based workers (those who work predominantly from home), primary and ancillary telecommuters (those who telecommute), passive telecommuters (those who have the option to telecommute), and non-Telecommuters. The various forms of telecommuting were found to significantly impact average daily trip counts and average daily trip miles produced in both urban and rural contexts. Contrary to the possibly traditional belief, telecommuters made more trips per day and traveled longer distances per day compared to non-Telecommuters. Additionally, the study investigated the differences in trip rates by trip purpose for each of the five telecommuting classes. The analysis revealed that while home-based work (HBW) trips for primary telecommuters decreased significantly, all other trip purposes increased (in number and distance) and in a higher manner than the decrease of the HBW trips. These findings indicate that telecommuting is likely to increase total VMT and associated negative impacts and should inform relevant transportation policies. © ASCE. All rights reserved.

8.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S241-S244, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2047012

ABSTRACT

Public health Is Increasingly threatened by global warming, land use, and changing wildfire patterns that shape vegetation type, structure, and biodiversity and ultimately affect ecosystem services and our society.1 Uncontrolled large wildfires emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that induce direct and indirect climate feedback through radiative forcing in the atmosphere2 and irreversible changes of natural vegetation, thereby further accelerating climate change and associated fire risks.3 Wildfires are also harmful to human health because they create high pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter that are 2.5 micrometers or smaller (PM2.5) and concentrations of coarse particulate matter that are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size. When inhaled, particulate matter significantly increases a myriad of health outcomes, including overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and emergency department visits for respiratory morbidity, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and angina.4,5 Between July and October 2020, high PM2.5 concentrations from massive wildfires surrounding a large regional hospital in the western United States were associated with a 6% increase in COVID-19 cases.6 Risks for developing adverse health effects from wildfire smoke are greatest among people who are living with chronic conditions;who are experiencing intergenerational racial, economic, and housing discrimination;and who are facing social inequities from the COVID-19 pandemic.4The unprecedented recent wildfires in the western United States and their ill effects on human health and society, as well as the multiple other threats to people and places brought about by climate change, draw attention to the increasing urgency of developing new public health approaches and long-term adaptation strategies to support future population health. Observational fire data covering the past few decades give valuable information on current wildfire events.1 However, these data hardly capture long-term trends (i.e., centennial to millennial time scales) of wildfires and associated atmospheric emissions that may help to improve future fire models and thereby provide the base to adapt public health systems.3 To understand long-term trends, natural archives preserve fire history on a wide range ofspatial scales in the past beyond the period of observational fire data;examples include polar and highalpine ice cores;lake, peat, and marine sediment cores.3,8,9 Such paleofire records are based on measurements of the gaseous tracers ammonium and nitrate or particulate matter, such as levoglucosan and black carbon, and charcoal that reflect different components of wildfire-induced atmospheric smoke pollution.8,9 These paleofire records have previously identified complex regional interactions of humans, ecosystems, and climate change.3 Submicron-sized (100-500 nm in diameter) black carbon particles from wildfires and fossil fuel during the industrial era (i.e., the past 250 years) measured in ice cores and lake sediments can be used as a direct tracer for the release of harmful PM2.5 to the atmosphere.8,10 Such paleo black carbon records have been established from both polar and high-alpine glaciers on several continents and are recently developed from lake sediments.10 These found significant changes of fire activity in response to climate and human impact and enhanced pollution levels varying both in time and space. With public health nurses being well positioned to understand population health needs, planetary health, and the health consequences of wildfires, public health nurses can improve upon wildfire adaptation planning and essential public health services by understanding historical perspectives from past fires.9,11,13 Paleofire data provide direct estimates of historical atmospheric emissions from past wildfires and associated harmful concentrations of particulate matter over long distances.

9.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1054(1):012015, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037332

ABSTRACT

Sustainable design strategies focus on architectural design considerations which assures the welfare, in addition to cohabitation of inanimate elements, and existing creatures that constitute the ecosystem. Sustainable architecture for public spaces, in addition to energy efficiency and zero greenhouse gas emission, needs to adopt approaches that lessen the effect of communicable diseases. Often, the primarily focus of architects is the aesthetics of buildings, there is no cognizant method for sustainable infection prevention and control mostly in the planning/production phase of public buildings. The paper aims to assess and identify how the public space can be safer in a pandemic from the vantage point of built environment professionals with the view of evolving strategies for policymakers with emphasis on the duties of the architect in mitigating the spread of viruses. The steps taken were to assess the relationship amongst environmental space and infectious diseases and propose practical steps to limit infection prevention and control (IPC) in public buildings. The paper is based on works of literature and consultations. The paper concluded that design approaches perform a substantial part in prevention and control of infections in public spaces, as well as healthcare facilities. Hence, sustainable design strategies may well be a remedy for mitigating the spread of coronavirus in public buildings.

10.
Nano-enabled Agrochemicals in Agriculture ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035538

ABSTRACT

There are two major challenging problems facing humanity today which are the ongoing Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic started in late 2019 and the environmental crisis due to fossil fuels combustion causing over increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. While the first problem seems to be a temporary remedy for the second one due to less travels by individuals, actual solution of both problems may require comprehensive scientific, technological, and socioeconomic decisions. In this chapter we look at the role of nanotechnology and nano-scale materials towards the solution of these two major challenges. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

11.
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments ; 53:102735, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031685

ABSTRACT

While more countries are promising to reach net-zero carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, North Africa’s efforts and promises fall well short of what is needed to give the world a fair chance of staying below 1.5 °C global warming by 2050. Therefore, it is crucial that the nations within the region contribute to achieving the clean energy goals outlined in REN21’s latest renewable energy overview. Given the region's solar belt status, and with the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) undermining many of these countries’ emission goals, it has become imperative to evaluate in detail other sites within these countries to increase access to solar energy. Under the shadow of the 26th United Nations climate change conference of the parties, this goal should not seem unrealistic. This study represents the first attempt in the literature to utilize a strategic perspective to explore the viability and cost-effectiveness of adapting REN21’s targets for increasing the share of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in North Africa. With the aid of Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables, the study indicates significant prospects for exploring solar PV across several cities in each country, in accordance with REN21’s nation-specific targets. An examination of different forms of PV technology reveals that Schneider ConextCoreXC 630 kW with Generic PV outperforms the other types investigated by delivering the lowest cost of energy among all types;alternating between US$0.01916/kWh and US$0.1574/kWh across the six nations. By performing comparisons between the proposed PV plants in each of the North African countries and power plants with similar targeted capacity utilizing diesel fuel, PV farm utilization is found to be economically practical, sustainable against volatile prices for diesel fuel, and it is anticipated to avoid nearly between 1 million tons/year and 25.5 million tons/year of pollutants and reduce energy costs by between US$0.07117/kWh and US$1.1046/kWh across the six countries. By analyzing the effects PV cost can have on the cost of energy for the top sites in each country, the anticipated continuing drop in PV costs will set the scene for PV systems to contribute to each of the countries’ energy mix even more attractive fundamentally. Either by focusing on one site and intensifying the farms at that site, or deciding on multiple sites out of the top five locations highlighted in each country and scatter the farms across them, this study offers a generalized design guideline and recommendation for government officials and policymakers to choose the best solutions based on national preferences.

12.
ISES Solar World Congress 2021 ; : 43-56, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025889

ABSTRACT

The paper presents a regional case study of the European Union's clean energy policy impact on the European electricity market transformation reaching a tremendous milestone for the EU as confirmed by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Energy (ENER) on 9th April 2021 - the renewable energy sources for the first time in the history overcoming the combined fossil fuels in electrical energy generation mix of the year 2020. This achievement, although influenced by exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemics and the electricity demand shock, is primarily an effect of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package implementing the European Green Deal strategy designed to position the EU as a global leader in the green transformation, leading by example and turning climate challenges into a growth opportunity, as such presenting optimistic policy perspective for a global transformation towards a 100% renewable energy world, thus mitigating dire threats of the global warming by drastically cutting greenhouse gases emissions. © 2021. The Authors. Published by International Solar Energy Society Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Scientific Committee.

13.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(17):11203-11215, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025099

ABSTRACT

We use satellite methane observations from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), for May 2018 to February 2020, to quantify methane emissions from individual oil and natural gas (O/G) basins in the US and Canada using a high-resolution (∼25 km) atmospheric inverse analysis. Our satellite-derived emission estimates show good consistency with in situ field measurements (R=0.96) in 14 O/G basins distributed across the US and Canada. Aggregating our results to the national scale, we obtain O/G-related methane emission estimates of12.6±2.1 Tg a-1 for the US and 2.2±0.6 Tg a-1 for Canada, 80 % and 40 %, respectively, higher than the national inventories reported to the United Nations. About 70 % of the discrepancy in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inventory can be attributed to five O/G basins, the Permian, Haynesville, Anadarko, Eagle Ford, and Barnett basins, which in total account for 40 % of US emissions. We show more generally that our TROPOMI inversion framework can quantify methane emissions exceeding 0.2–0.5 Tg a-1 from individual O/G basins, thus providing an effective tool for monitoring methane emissions from large O/G basins globally.

14.
4th SAE CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference: The Road to Decarbonization, CO2 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024902

ABSTRACT

The EU projects reaching net-zero emissions by 2050, thus reducing CO2 emissions is a priority in the European Climate Law published in 2021. The transport sector is the second contributor to CO2, responsible for around 26% of EU greenhouse gasses emissions. In 2020, GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from transport in the EU have dropped by 12.7% due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As society comes back to normality, vehicles use is increasing again. To reach the emission targets, new vehicles can introduce CO2-reducing eco-innovative technologies. So far, these technologies accepted under WLTP are light-emitting diodes and efficient alternators. Nevertheless, many other technologies have potential as eco-innovations. In the past, eco-innovative technologies have contributed to reducing EU CO2 emissions. In 2018, the fleet of newly registered cars with eco-innovations saved around 11000 tonnes of CO2. An increasing tendency is seen in 2019: 21000 tonnes of CO2 were saved at fleet level. During 2020, new car registrations with eco-innovations were higher, having the potential to save around 40000 tonnes of CO2 at fleet level. Despite their positive impact, their CO2-reducing effect can be diminished when two of these technologies interact with each other. The presence of the lighting system and the alternator lowers the CO2 savings if compared to the summation of the savings of each technology separately. The impact of the interactions of approved eco-innovations can imply a decrease of 9% of the sum of the CO2 savings from each technology considered independent from the other. ©

15.
Water ; 14(17):2612, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024375

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is accurately framed in its title: Are pluvial and fluvial (river) floods on the rise? First, physical mechanisms that drive changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods were examined. Then, a review of literature was undertaken on detection and an attribution of changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods in observation records for past to present, as well as in model-based projections for the future. Various aspects, factors, processes and mechanisms, as well as various indices of interest were considered. There is quite a common, even if not scientifically justified, belief that, generally, floods are on the rise. However, in this paper, a balanced, knowledge-based assessment was undertaken, with discussion and interpretation, including caveats and indicating considerable departures from such a flat-rate statement. Observation records show that precipitation extremes have been intensifying on a global scale and for many regions. A formal detection and attribution analysis shows that intensification of rainfall events may have been influenced by greenhouse gas forcing of anthropogenic origin. Frequency and magnitude of pluvial floods is on the rise with increasing intense precipitation, while changes of river floods are more complex. High river discharges were found to increase in some regions, but to decrease in other regions, so that no general corollaries can be drawn at the global scale. Heavy rainfall events and pluvial floods are projected to become, almost ubiquitously, more frequent and more intense with progressing climate change, while frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods are likely to increase in many but not all regions.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10724, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024194

ABSTRACT

Road freight transportation is already contributing significantly to global warming, and its emissions are predicted to grow dramatically in the following years. Carbon footprint calculation can be used to assess CO2e emissions to understand how an organization’s activities impact global sustainability. To this end, the main objective of this paper is initially to assess the impact of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions stemming from road freight transportation. Subsequently, we adopt the EN 16258 standard to calculate the carbon footprint of a truck fleet of a freight transport operator in Greece. Based on the obtained results, we assess the performance of the company’s fleet by adopting relevant sustainability indicators. We also evaluate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel and its impact on CO2e emissions and operational costs. The paper concludes with a list of additional measures toward further reduction and offsetting of CO2e emissions.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10314, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024154

ABSTRACT

Sustainable building practices are a response to environmental issues. Businesses and industries are assessing how their activities affect the environment. The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industries have significant impacts on the environment and economy, while the industry is considered one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has, therefore, been highlighted by researchers as a key area of intervention with a great potential to reduce environmental impacts. This paper critically reviews and evaluates the current state of sustainable building certification systems with the purpose of having a good understanding of the status quo and possibilities for future directions in Saudi Arabia. It reviews the academic literature on Saudi Arabia’s green/sustainable building codes, standards, certification systems, methods and tools. It starts by addressing sustainability in the broadest sense. Then, it investigates sustainability strategies and evaluates the building certification systems in Saudi Arabia, followed by an introduction to the new practice of sustainable healthcare building assessment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and building information modelling (BIM) techniques have also been investigated. The paper introduces the updated Saudi Building Code (SBC) with further evaluation of the Saudi Green Building Code (SBC 1001-CR). Finally, the paper clearly highlights the key role of sustainable building practices and the need to develop a certification system that considers the new trends and the local context.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(16):9988, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024124

ABSTRACT

While the development of globally accepted sustainability reporting standards initiated by the IFRS Foundation has largely engaged stakeholders in developed economies, the stakes for developing economies could be compromised without an explicit consideration of their sustainability issues within this standard-setting framework. This paper examines the need to develop global sustainability reporting standards based on the principle of double materiality to warrant that both the target towards carbon net-zero by 2050 under the Paris Agreement and the subsequent promise to accelerate under COP26 are achieved with efficacy. Adopting a multiple-case study approach, this paper reveals the limitations of existing sustainability reporting in the absence of double materiality in a developing economy. Specifically, the analyses reveal limited climate-related disclosures among selected cases in Ghana. Available disclosures connote increasing GHG emissions over the period under consideration. This study also shows weak disclosure comparability across the companies following similar reporting standards. Overall, it argues that enforcement of double materiality to embrace sustainability issues impacting both developed and developing economies is necessary for an effective transformation towards a low-carbon global economy. It contributes to the existing body of knowledge by elucidating double materiality as a pertinent interdisciplinary concept and devising a holistic framework for the emerging global sustainability reporting system to underscore governance accountability for external costs to the environment. Global sustainability reporting standards with a myopic focus on conventional financial matters in the absence of double materiality remain a disclosure system with implausible impact on climate change.

19.
Remote Sensing ; 14(16):3923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024035

ABSTRACT

In a resource-constrained world, there is ongoing concern over the exploitation and potential future shortage of Earth’s natural resources. In this paper, we present the results of two pilot studies in which we used drone technology with spatial mapping tools and environmental and economic analysis to map illegal waste sites. Besides the technical feasibility, we aimed at understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs of extracting the materials stocked therein, transforming illegal waste sites into valuable resources. The innovation of our work is reflected in the integration of existing technologies for aerial mapping and economic\environmental assessment methodologies for promoting a local circular economy. The pilot results suggest that it is feasible to identify valuable materials left on the ground in the form of unattended, illegally disposed waste. Our initial national estimates for the illegal waste cleanup based on the pilot results suggest that the treatment cost in Israel can be reduced by 58 million USD and even reach zero, with the potential to generate up to 82.8 million USD profits. Finally, we link our results to the Sustainable Development Goals framework and suggest how mapping and implementing the recycling potential can promote achieving some of the goals. Our work provides missing data that the state, local authorities, contractors, and companies that monitor and manage waste and recycled raw materials may find useful.

20.
Recycling ; 7(4):53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024019

ABSTRACT

Increased fashion consumption spurred by fast fashion has led to excessive textile waste, giving rise to a global crisis as textile waste pollutes land and waterways, while landfill and incineration contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. Extending a product’s life for as long as possible is a core principle of the circular economy (CE) to ensure that the maximum value of the original product is realized over its lifetime. As such, repair is an essential component of a CE because it supports the preferred waste hierarchy elements of reduce and reuse, with recycling being the last resort in a CE necessary to close resource loops. Consumers are an essential enabler of a CE;therefore, it is critical to understand consumers’ characteristics in the context of behaviors such as repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender on engagement in clothing repair practices;women have often only been the focus of clothing repair studies. An online survey was conducted to collect responses from Canadian and U.S. consumers (n = 512). Findings showed that self-repair was the most common form of clothing repair, with women being more highly engaged in self-repair practices, increasing with age. Paid repair is the type of repair that has the lowest level of engagement, and there are only negligible differences between the genders. Men utilize unpaid forms of repair more than women. However, among the youngest age group (18–24), both genders are equally likely to have clothing repaired for free. Gender gaps exist, but opportunities for increased utilization in repair can be created to encourage full participation within a CE. In particular, the findings point to the importance of increasing repair activities amongst men and younger consumers.

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