Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 63
Filter
1.
Biomed J ; 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982649

ABSTRACT

This study characterizes the phylogenetic relatedness of non-SARS human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in southern Taiwan by sequencing the nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes directly from ten HCoV PCR-positive respiratory samples collected during 2012-2013. In the N, S1, and RdRp phylogeny, HCoV-OC43 in one and three samples was clustered with genotypes F and G, respectively, and HCoV-OC43 in sample YC101/TWN/2013 represented a recombination event between genotypes F and G. Amino acid substitutions in the S1 protein of HCoV-OC43 were also identified. In the N phylogeny, HCoV-HKU1 in one and two samples clustered with genotypes A and B, respectively, and HCoV-229E in two samples was clustered with genogroup 6. The genotypes and genogroup detected here were in line with the prevalent phylogenetic lineages reported outside of Taiwan during the contemporary period. In summary, three species of non-SARS HCoVs with different genotypes cocirculated in the community, with genetic evolution observed in HCoV-OC43.

2.
Catalysts (2073-4344) ; 12(7):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1974723

ABSTRACT

There is an immense healthcare challenge and financial pressure due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused by a newly identified human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Effective COVID-19 prevention efforts in healthcare, home, and community settings highlight the need for rapid, efficient, and no-contact SARS-CoV-2 inactivation strategies. Here, we examined the photocatalytic and virucidal activity of the MACOMA™ TiO2 photocatalytic film activated by an UVA-LED-12V-367 nm (MA-717836-1) lamp against the HCoV-OC43, a member of the beta coronaviruses family, like SARS-CoV-2, using quantitative RT-qPCR and virus infectivity assays. The UVA radiation-responsive TiO2 film accelerated virus inactivation (decreased viral titer) compared to the uncoated glass surface when placed at a vertical distance of 1.2 feet (~14 inches) from virus samples for 10, 30, and 60 min. UVA-LED exposure for both 10 and 30 min effectively reduced the viral RNA copies and the infectious virus in samples on TiO2-coated surfaces compared to the control surfaces. Importantly, a 60 min exposure of samples on the TiO2 completely eliminated HCoV-OC43. These results confirmed that the MACOMA™ UVA/TiO2-based disinfection system provides a rapid and complete surface inactivation of tested human coronavirus in a human-safe manner and has great potential for limiting the virus spread in poorly ventilated as well as high-traffic public places. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Catalysts (2073-4344) is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Optical Engineering ; 61(7):74102-74102, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1973769

ABSTRACT

A practical tapered optical fiber (TOF) biosensing system was developed for label-free detection using antigen-antibody pairs with repeatable results and a very high degree of sensitivity. This was done by attaching molecular recognition agents to a tapered fiber surface for augmenting sensitivity and specificity of analyte. The entire system included three main parts: a tunable laser, a tapered fiber, and an optical detector. Light from an unpolarized tunable fiber laser was introduced into the tapered fiber from one end, and the transmitted intensity was detected by a photodetector. In the tapered fiber area, the evanescent electromagnetic field, which extends outside the fiber, was able to detect minute changes in the refractive index caused by antigen-antibody pairs. Recorded data was analyzed using an innovative Fourier analysis method to find phase changes, which are directly related to the biomolecular concentration coated on fiber, from which antibody-antigen concentrations are obtained. Two experiments were performed to confirm the concept using two very different agents. The first was the protein Interleukin-8 (IL-8). Repeatable results with a sensitivity of 10 pg/mL were achieved. The second was human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), a surrogate viral particle for SARS-CoV-2, with a sensitivity of 50 viruses/mL. Critical sources of error were identified and addressed for the purpose of using the device for real clinical diagnosis in various real-life environments, where viruses can reside in water, phosphate-buffer solution, or saliva, the most popular three environments in real clinical diagnosis. Our device was designed according to the principle that only one specific kind of antibody and antigen can be combined together. The device demonstrated good accuracy to chosen analyte(s) tailored to specific applications and offered the potential to develop a point-of-care device used in clinics, as well as for detecting a variety of viruses and biocontaminants. The reproducibility of TOFs was confirmed through multiple fabrications and consistent results. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Optical Engineering is the property of SPIE - International Society of Optical Engineering and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 905248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957151

ABSTRACT

In addition to antibacterial effects, macrolide antibiotics exhibit other extensive pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. Erythromycin estolate, one of the macrolide antibiotics, was previously investigated to effectively inhibit infections of various flaviviruses including Zika virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus, but its antiviral effect against human coronavirus remains unknown. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the antiviral efficacy of erythromycin estolate against human coronavirus strain OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and to illustrate the underlying mechanisms. Erythromycin estolate effectively inhibited HCoV-OC43 infection in different cell types and significantly reduced virus titers at safe concentration without cell cytotoxicity. Furthermore, erythromycin estolate was identified to inhibit HCoV-OC43 infection at the early stage and to irreversibly inactivate virus by disrupting the integrity of the viral membrane whose lipid component might be the target of action. Together, it was demonstrated that erythromycin estolate could be a potential therapeutic drug for HCoV-OC43 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Erythromycin Estolate , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Humans , Virion/metabolism
5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 853410, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952413

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is one of the four endemic coronaviruses. It has been suggested that there is a difference in incidence, with PCR-confirmed HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 infections occurring more commonly, whereas HCoV-HKU1 is the least seen. Lower incidence of HCoV-HKU1 infection has also been observed in serological studies. The current study aimed to investigate antibody dynamics during PCR-confirmed HCoV-HKU1 infections using serum collected during infection and 1 month later. We expressed a new HCoV-HKU1 antigen consisting of both the linker and carboxy-terminal domain of the viral nucleocapsid protein and implemented it in ELISA. We also applied a spike-based Luminex assay on serum samples from PCR-confirmed infections by the four endemic HCoVs. At least half of HCoV-HKU1-infected subjects consistently showed no antibody rise via either assay, and some subjects even exhibited substantial antibody decline. Investigation of self-reported symptoms revealed that HCoV-HKU1-infected subjects rated their illness milder than subjects infected by other HCoVs. In conclusion, HCoV-HKU1 infections reported in this study displayed atypical antibody dynamics and milder symptoms when compared to the other endemic HCoVs.

6.
PeerJ ; 10: e13721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928845

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have been at the forefront of the news for the last 2 years. Unfortunately, SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, must be manipulated in biosecurity level 3 settings, which significantly limits research. Meanwhile, several less pathogenic human coronaviruses (HCoV) exist and can be studied in much more common biosafety level 2 laboratories. Among them, HCoV-OC43 is a good surrogate candidate for SARS-CoV-2 since both are phylogenetically related human Betacoronaviruses. However, one issue has been the lack of standardized means among laboratories to propagate and titer this less virulent coronavirus. The present study probes the optimal parameters to propagate HCoV-OC43. First, testing of five different cell lines (MRC-5, Huh7.5, Vero, HCT-8, HRT-18) indicated that the physiologically relevant MRC-5 human lung cell line produced among the highest viral titers. HRT-18 may however be an interesting alternative as they are quick growing cells that also led to higher viral titers and a better tropism for various HCoV-OC43 variants. We also probed the impact of serum and temperature during viral expansion and confirmed that the normal temperature of the upper respiratory track (33 °C) improves viral yields over the typical 37 °C used to grow many other viruses. Meanwhile, we did not notice any evidence that serum concentrations significantly affected the virus but interestingly noted that the virus grew quite efficiently in a serum-free media formulation. Meanwhile sonication of viral stocks somewhat improved viral titers. Four titration methods (plaque assays, TCID50-CPE, TCID50-IFA and TCID50-IPA) were also probed using two cell lines (VeroE6 and HRT-18). In our hands, plaque assays proved unreliable and quantification of the virus by scoring CPE positive wells was significantly less sensitive than antibody-based assays (IFA and IPA). While the latter methods were equally sensitive, we favor the TCID50-IPA method since simpler, faster and cheaper than the IFA protocol. Moreover, the HRT-18 cells appeared more sensitive to quantify the virus. Perhaps most importantly, these optimized protocols routinely led to high titer viral stocks in the order of 108 TCID50/ml magnitude, which should fulfill the requirements of most experimental settings.

7.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(3): 453-469, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903287

ABSTRACT

Using new and original nineteenth-century sources, we analysed the epidemiology, clinical features and virology of the 1889 pandemic, which was referred to at the time as 'Russian flu' or 'Asiatic flu'. However, we rejected this identification of the disease as an 'influenza', which we believe to have been based on insufficient knowledge of the causative agent and instead posit that the pandemic was caused by a coronavirus. We provide a new account of the 1889-1893 pandemic, with a more detailed chronology that included at least four epidemiological waves. At the end of 1889, a new virus appeared in Europe, which could be identified as the coronavirus HCoV-OC43, causing crude death rates of 1.3 per 1000 population in St Petersburg; 2.1 per 1000 in Paris; 2.8 per 1000 in Bilbao and on the French-Spanish border; between 2.9 and 5.2 per 1000 in small towns in the Basque Country; and 5.8 deaths per 1000 in Madrid, which had the highest death rate. The clinical features of the disease differed from classical influenza pandemics in terms of the latency phase, duration, symptomatology, convalescence, immunity, age and death rates. Another factor to be considered was the neurotropic capacity of the disease. The most frequent form of the 1889 pandemic was the 'nervous form', with specific symptoms such as 'heavy headache' (céphalalgie gravative), tiredness, fever and delirium. There are strong parallels between the 1889-1894 pandemic and the COVID-19 pandemic, and a better understanding of the former may therefore help us to better manage the latter.

8.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884014

ABSTRACT

Viruses within a given family often share common essential genes that are highly conserved due to their critical role for the virus's replication and survival. In this work, we developed a proof-of-concept for a pan-coronavirus CRISPR effector system by designing CRISPR targets that are cross-reactive among essential genes of different human coronaviruses (HCoV). We designed CRISPR targets for both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene as well as the nucleocapsid (N) gene in coronaviruses. Using sequencing alignment, we determined the most highly conserved regions of these genes to design guide RNA (gRNA) sequences. In regions that were not completely homologous among HCoV species, we introduced mismatches into the gRNA sequence and tested the efficacy of CasRx, a Cas13d type CRISPR effector, using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in HCoV-OC43. We evaluated the effect that mismatches in gRNA sequences has on the cleavage activity of CasRx and found that this CRISPR effector can tolerate up to three mismatches while still maintaining its nuclease activity in HCoV-OC43 viral RNA. This work highlights the need to evaluate off-target effects of CasRx with gRNAs containing up to three mismatches in order to design safe and effective CRISPR experiments.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Coronavirus , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Guide/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics
9.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; : 101719, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the influence of contemporary contact lens (CL) materials on human coronavirus attachment and the influence of a rub and rinse step to remove these viruses. METHODS: The binding rates of HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 to eight soft CL materials and four rigid gas permeable materials were analyzed. The impact of a rub and rinse step to remove these viruses from all materials was examined. The efficacy of Biotrue (Bausch & Lomb), OPTI-FREE Puremoist (Alcon), Clear Care (Alcon) and cleadew (Ophtecs) to remove virus contamination from two representative soft lens materials (etafilcon A and lotrafilcon B) was also determined. RESULTS: Approximately 102 to 103 infectious viral particles were recovered from each CL material. Although some materials were more prone to coronavirus adhesion, contamination of both viral types was reduced to below the limit of quantification (LQ) from all materials using a simple saline rinse step. Exposure to Clear Care and cleadew reduced the number of infectious viral particles from both etafilcon A and lotrafilcon B to below the LQ, while for Biotrue and OPTI-FREE Puremoist, infectious viral particles were reduced to below the LQ only when additional rub and rinse steps were included. CONCLUSION: Human coronavirus contamination can be easily removed from CL surfaces. Although CL care products containing hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine efficiently removed virus contamination from CL surfaces without the need for a rub and rinse step, a full regimen including rub and rinse steps is crucial when using CL care products based on non-oxidative systems.

10.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822446

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) consist of a large group of RNA viruses causing various diseases in humans and in lots of animals. Human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43, the prototype of beta-coronavirus discovered in the 1960s, has been circulating in humans for long time, and infection with other emerging strains of beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV) can lead to severe illness and death. In this study, we found that montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, potently inhibited the infection of HCoV-OC43 in distinct cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Additionally, the results showed that montelukast induced release of HCoV-OC43 genomic RNA by disrupting the integrity of the viral lipid membrane, and irreversibly inhibited viral infection. Considering the similarity among HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, it suggests that montelukast may be a potential candidate for the treatment of human beta-coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Acetates/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclopropanes , Quinolines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfides
11.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given that reports have suggested SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted via conjunctiva, the ability of contact lens (CL) care products to reduce the infectiousness of two seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43) surrogates for SARS-CoV-2 was investigated. METHODS: Biotrue and Boston Simplus (Bausch&Lomb), OPTI-FREE Puremoist and Clear Care (Alcon), and cleadew and cleadew GP (Ophtecs) were tested. Their ability to inactivate HCoV was evaluated using contact times of 4 and 6 h as well as 1% and 10% of virus inoculum. RESULTS: Non-oxidative systems (Biotrue, Boston Simplus, and OPTI-FREE) did not exhibit a significant log10 reduction compared to controls for the two viral strains for either incubation time (all p > 0.05) when 10% tests were performed. For the 1% test, while Boston Simplus and OPTI-FREE exhibited a significant log10 reduction of both HCoV-229E (after 6 h) and HCoV-OC43 (after either 4 or 6 h incubation), those products showed less than 1 log10 reduction of the two infectious viruses. Oxidative systems based on hydrogen peroxide or povidone-iodine showed a significant log10 reduction compared with the controls for both HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 in all tested conditions (all p < 0.01). Clear Care led to virus inactivation to below the limit of quantification for tests performed with 1% of inoculum after 6 h incubation, while cleadew and cleadew GP led to inactivation of the two viruses to below the limit of quantification in all tested conditions. CONCLUSION: Oxidative CL disinfection systems showed significant virucidal activity against HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, while non-oxidative systems showed minimal ability to inactivate the HCoV species examined.

12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835333, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775667

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is the coronavirus most associated with "common colds", infections of the upper respiratory tract. Previously, we reported that direct interactions of nucleocapsid (N) protein and C-terminal domain of Spike protein (Spike CD) are essential for replication of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Thus, we developed a novel ELISA-based strategy targeting these specific interactions to detect SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Here, we investigated whether the same principles apply to HCoV-OC43. We discovered that the S protein of HCoV-OC43 interacts with N protein and that cell penetrating Spike CD peptide inhibits virus protein expression and replication of HCoV-OC43. The interaction between HCoV-OC43 S and N proteins were recapitulated with a recombinant HCoV-OC43 Spike CD fusion protein and a recombinant HCoV-OC43 N fusion protein in vitro. By producing an anti-HCoV-OC43 N protein-specific monoclonal antibody, we established a virus detection system based on the interaction between recombinant Spike CD and N protein of HCoV-OC43. We suggest that the interaction between Spike CD and N protein is conserved in coronaviruses and therefore could be a target for therapeutics against both novel coronavirus and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(2): 339-346, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772730

ABSTRACT

Multiple questions about SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immunity remain unanswered. One key question is whether preexisting memory T or B cells, specific for related coronaviruses in SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals, can recognize and suppress COVID-19, but this issue remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens are restricted to serum samples from COVID-19 convalescent individuals. In contrast, cross-reactive T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production responses were detected in PBMCs of around 30% of donor samples collected prepandemic, although we found that these prepandemic T cell responses only elicited weak cTFH activation upon stimulation with either HCoV-OC43 or SARS-CoV-2 NP protein. Overall, these observations confirm that T cell cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens are present in unexposed people, but suggest that the T cell response to HCoV-OC43 could be deficient in some important aspects, like TFH expansion, that might compromise the generation of cross-reactive TFH cells and antibodies. Understanding these differences in cellular responses may be of critical importance to advance in our knowledge of immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760755

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has completely disrupted people's lives. All over the world, many restrictions and precautions have been introduced to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation is widely used to disinfect rooms, surfaces, and medical tools; however, this paper presents novel results obtained for modern UV-C light-emitting diodes (LEDs), examining their effect on inhibiting the multiplication of viruses. The main goal of the work was to investigate how to most effectively use UV-C LEDs to inactivate viruses. We showed that UV-C radiation operating at a 275 nm wavelength is optimal for germicidal effectiveness in a time exposure (25-48 s) study: >3 log-reduction with the Kärber method and >6 log-reduction with UV spectrophotometry were noted. We used real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to reliably estimate virus infectivity reduction after 275 nm UV-C disinfection. The relative quantification (RQ) of infectious particles detected after 40-48 s distinctly decreased. The irradiated viral RNAs were underexpressed compared to the untreated control virial amplicon (estimated as RQ = 1). In conclusion, this work provides the first experimental data on 275 nm UV-C in the inactivation of human coronavirus OC43 (HoV-OC43), showing the most potent germicidal effect without hazardous effect.

15.
Antiviral Res ; 200: 105278, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734184

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, along with the likelihood that new coronavirus strains will appear in the nearby future, highlights the urgent need to develop new effective antiviral agents. In this scenario, emerging host-targeting antivirals (HTAs), which act on host-cell factors essential for viral replication, are a promising class of antiviral compounds. Here we show that a new class of HTAs targeting peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a family of calcium-dependent enzymes catalyzing protein citrullination, is endowed with a potent inhibitory activity against human beta-coronaviruses (HCoVs). Specifically, we show that infection of human fetal lung fibroblasts with HCoV-OC43 leads to enhanced protein citrullination through transcriptional activation of PAD4, and that inhibition of PAD4-mediated citrullination with either of the two pan-PAD inhibitors Cl-A and BB-Cl or the PAD4-specific inhibitor GSK199 curbs HCoV-OC43 replication. Furthermore, we show that either Cl-A or BB-Cl treatment of African green monkey kidney Vero-E6 cells, a widely used cell system to study beta-CoV replication, potently suppresses HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential efficacy of PAD inhibitors, in suppressing HCoV infection, which may provide the rationale for the repurposing of this class of inhibitors for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732253

ABSTRACT

Assays using ELISA measurements on serially diluted serum samples have been heavily used to measure serum reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens and are widely used in virology and elsewhere in biology. We test a method using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to reduce the workload of these assays and measure reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV antigens to human serum samples collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Inflection titers for SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein (S1S2), spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), and nucleoprotein (N) inferred from 3 spread-out dilutions correlated with those inferred from 8 consecutive dilutions with an R2 value of 0.97 or higher. We confirm existing findings showing a small proportion of pre-pandemic human serum samples contain cross-reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S1S2 and N, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection increases serum reactivity to the beta-HCoVs OC43 and HKU1 S1S2. In serial dilution assays, large savings in resources and/or increases in throughput can be achieved by reducing the number of dilutions measured and using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to infer inflection or endpoint titers. We have released software for conducting these types of analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Pandemics , Seasons , Workload
17.
J Mol Liq ; 351: 118633, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720649

ABSTRACT

The coronaviridae family has generated highly virulent viruses, including the ones responsible for three major pandemics in last two decades with SARS in 2002, MERS outbreak in 2012 and the current nCOVID19 crisis that has turned the world breadthless. Future outbreaks are also a plausible threat to mankind. As computational biologists, we are committed to address the need for a universal vaccine that can deter all these pathogenic viruses in a single shot. Notably, the spike proteins present in all these viruses function as credible PAMPs that are majorly sensed by human TLR4 receptors. Our study aims to recognize the amino acid sequence(s) of the viral spike proteins that are precisely responsible for interaction with human TLR4 and to screen the immunogenic epitopes present in them to develop a multi-epitope multi-target chimeric vaccine against the coronaviruses. Molecular design of the constructed vaccine peptide is qualified in silico; additionally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies collectively reveal strong and stable interactions of the vaccine construct with TLRs and MHC receptors. In silico cloning is performed for proficient expression in bacterial systems. In silico immune simulation of the vaccine indicates highly immunogenic nature of the vaccine construct without any allergic response. The present biocomputational study hereby innovates a vaccine candidate - AbhiSCoVac hypothesized as a potent remedy to combat all the virulent forms of coronaviruses.

18.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1450-1456, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718389

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an overwhelming crisis across the world. Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a Betacoronavirus responsible mostly for mild respiratory symptoms. Since the presentations of HCoV-OC43 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) are believed to resemble a lot, the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of HCoV-OC43 in the current pandemic and the rate of coinfection for the two viruses. One hundred and seventeen patients referred to Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran with respiratory symptoms were included. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were performed for the detection of HCoV-OC43 and SARS-COV-2. Totally, 23 (20%) had a positive RT-PCR for HCoV-OC43 and 25 (21%) were positive for SARS-COV-2. Two patients (2%) had a positive PCR for both HCoV-OC43 and SARS-COV-2. The two groups showed significant differences in having contact with family members with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (p = 0.017), fever (p = 0.02), edema (p = 0.036), vomiting (p < 0.001), abdominal complaints (p = 0.005), and myalgia (p = 0.02). The median level of lymphocyte count in patients with HCoV-OC43 was significantly lower than patients with SARS-COV-2 infection (p = 0.039). The same frequency of SARS-COV-2 and HCoV-OC43 was found in children with respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rate of coinfection of SARS-COV-2 with HCoV-OC43 in our study was 0.08. Further research into the cocirculation of endemic coronaviruses, such as HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV2, in different regions, is highly recommended. Attempts to determine the geographic distribution and recruit more flexible test panel designs are also highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Iran , Male , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
19.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699339

ABSTRACT

Geraniin is a polyphenolic compound first isolated from Geranium thunbergii. The major protease (Mpro), namely 3 C-like protease (3CLpro), of coronaviruses is considered an attractive drug target as it is essential for the processing and maturation of viral polyproteins. Thus, our primary goal is to explore the efficiency of geraniin on 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 using the computational biology strategy. In this work, we studied the anti-coronavirus effect of geraniin in vitro and its potential inhibitory mode against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2. We found that geraniin inhibited HCoV-OC43 coronavirus-infected cells during the attachment and penetration phases. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations exhibited that geraniin had a strong binding affinity and high stable binding to 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2. Geraniin showed a strong inhibitory activity on coronavirus and may be a potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.

20.
Presse Med ; 51(3): 104111, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665254

ABSTRACT

The "Russian flu", which raged from 1889 to 1894, is considered as the first pandemic of the industrial era for which statistics have been collected. This planetary event started in Turkestan and hit the Russian Empire, before reaching all European countries, the United States of America, and the whole world. Contemporaries were surprised by its high contagiousness as evidenced by attack rates averaging 60% in urban populations, its rapid spread in successive waves circling the globe in a few months by rail and sea, and the tendency of the disease to relapse. Despite its low case-fatality rate (0.10%-0.28%), it is estimated to have caused one million deaths worldwide. On serological grounds, it is generally accepted that the causative agent of Russian influenza was Myxovirus influenzae, the virus identified for all influenza pandemics since the "Spanish flu" of 1918. In light of the Covid-19 pandemic, which has underscored the extraordinary epidemic potential of coronaviruses, this assumption has recently been questioned. Coronaviruses come from wild reservoirs (bats, rodents, birds, …). They induce respiratory symptoms mimicking influenza, possibly leading to respiratory distress with pneumonia. In addition to the Covid-19 pandemic, recent deadly and limited epidemics, such as SARS in 2002 and MERS in 2012, have occurred. Russian influenza presented as an influenza-like syndrome with clinical peculiarities (multivisceral and neurological involvement, skin rash, early iterative relapses), evoking some particularities of Covid-19. Four other coronaviruses circulating in the human population for decades (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1) have been found to be responsible for 15 to 30% of seasonal colds. All of these viruses are of animal origin. Recently, phylogenetic studies have revealed the genetic proximity between a bovine coronavirus BCoV and the human virus HCoV-OC43, indicating that the latter emerged around 1890, at the time of the Russian flu, when an epizootic was raging among cattle throughout Europe. Could the current human virus be the attenuated remnant that appeared after the Russian flu in 1894? Was there a coronavirus pandemic before Covid-19 ?

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL