Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 4: e25977, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068574

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Empirical research on the burden and determinants of common mental disorders (CMDs), especially depression and anxiety, among older adults living with HIV (OALWH) in sub-Saharan Africa is inadequate. To bridge the gap in Kenya we: (1) determined the prevalence of CMDs among OALWH on routine HIV care compared to HIV-negative peers; (2) investigated HIV status as an independent predictor of CMDs in older adults; and (3) investigated CMD determinants. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted between 2020 and 2021, the prevalence of CMDs and associated determinants were investigated at the Kenyan coast among 440 adults aged ≥50 years (257 OALWH). The Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale were administered alongside measures capturing biopsychosocial information. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of CMDs. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild depressive symptoms, 23.8% versus 18.2% (p = 0.16) and mild anxiety symptoms, 11.7% versus 7.2% (p = 0.12) among OALWH compared to HIV-negative peers, respectively. HIV status was not independently predictive of CMDs. Among OALWH, higher perceived HIV-related stigma, ageism, increasing household HIV burden, loneliness, increasing functional disability, sleeping difficulties, chronic fatigue and advanced age (>70 years) were associated with elevated CMDs. Among HIV-negative older adults, loneliness, increased medication burden and sleeping difficulties were associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Easier access to HIV care was the only factor associated with lower CMDs among OALWH. CONCLUSIONS: On the Kenyan coast, the burden of moderate and severe CMDs among older adults is low; however, both OALWH and their HIV-negative peers have a similar relatively high burden of mild depressive and anxiety symptoms. Our results also suggest that determinants of CMDs among OALWH in this setting are predominantly psychosocial factors. These results highlight the need for psychosocial interventions (at the family, community and clinical levels) to mitigate the risks of mild CMDs as they are known to be potentially debilitating.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Prevalence
2.
Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases ; 100(3):18-22, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067486

ABSTRACT

The article describes a clinical case of tuberculosis pericarditis associated with HIV infection and COVID-19. The patient underwent additional examination due to abnormalities on his X-ray. Large volume of effusion, its lymphocytic nature, bilateral pleural effusion and bilateral infiltration in the upper lobes of both lungs, intrathoracic lymphoadenopathy were indicative tuberculosis etiology of the disease;the diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by morphological tests. COVID-19 was detected post mortem. © 2022 New Terra Publishing House. All rights reserved.

3.
HIV Med ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the last decade, substantial differences in the epidemiology of, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for, cascade of care in and support to people with HIV in vulnerable populations have been observed between countries in Western Europe, Central Europe (CE) and Eastern Europe (EE). The aim of this study was to use a survey to explore whether ART availability and therapies have evolved in CE and EE according to European guidelines. METHODS: The Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) Network Group conducted two identical multicentre cross-sectional online surveys in 2019 and 2021 concerning the availability and use of antiretroviral drugs (boosted protease inhibitors [bPIs], integrase inhibitors [INSTIs] and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs]), the introduction of a rapid ART start strategy and the use of two-drug regimens (2DRs) for starting or switching ART. We also investigated barriers to the implementation of these strategies in each region. RESULTS: In total, 18 centres participated in the study: four from CE, six from EE and eight from Southeastern Europe (SEE). Between those 2 years, older PIs were less frequently used and darunavir-based regimens were the main PIs (83%); bictegravir-based and tenofovir alafenamide-based regimens were introduced in CE and SEE but not in EE. The COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly interrupt delivery of ART in most centres. Two-thirds of centres adopted a rapid ART start strategy, mainly in pregnant women and to improve linkage of care in vulnerable populations. The main obstacle to rapid ART start was that national guidelines in several countries from all three regions did not support such as strategy or required laboratory tests first; an INSTI/NRTI combination was the most commonly prescribed regimen (75%) and was exclusively prescribed in SEE. 2DRs are increasingly used for starting or switching ART (58%), and an INSTI/NRTI was the preferred regimen (75%) in all regions and exclusively prescribed in SEE, whereas the use of bPIs declined. Metabolic disorders and adverse drug reactions were the main reasons for starting a 2DR; in the second survey, HIV RNA <500 000 c/ml and high cluster of differentiation (CD)-4 count emerged as additional important reasons. CONCLUSIONS: In just 2 years and in spite of the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant achievements concerning ART availability and strategies have occurred in CE, EE and SEE that facilitate the harmonization of those strategies with the European AIDS Clinical Society guidelines. Few exceptions exist, especially in EE. Continuous effort is needed to overcome various obstacles (administrative, financial, national guideline restrictions) in some countries.

4.
Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity ; 12(4):639-650, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2040489

ABSTRACT

Pathological conditions of various natures are capable of mutual aggravation, significantly affecting the overall burden of the disease, its manifestations and severity. This analytical review is devoted to the interaction between pathogens of socially significant infections - human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), hepatitis C, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2. Foreign and own data covering the issues of syndemia and interference of pathogens are presented. The results of epidemiological analysis in the North-Western Federal District (NWFD) are presented, which demonstrated the absence of a significant impact of the pandemic caused by a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) on the epidemic incidence of HIV, viral hepatitis C or tuberculosis at the population level, which may be due to various mechanisms of transmission of infections and the required infectious dose of the pathogen. The absence of a negative effect of COVID-19 on mortality rates in HIV infection, viral hepatitis C and tuberculosis in the territories of the NWFD was noted. Special attention is paid to the clinical picture of the combined course of HIV infection, tuberculosis and COVID-19. The data are demonstrated, which allow us to conclude that the worst prognosis and risk of death are patients in the progressive stage of the disease, which is characterized by the presence of opportunistic infections, especially AIDSindicator conditions, with disseminated tuberculosis and in the cirrhotic stage of viral hepatitis. The significance of severe manifestations of infectious pathology in cases of deterioration of the prognosis of COVID-19 is shown. Based on the experience of two years of the pandemic, the problems contributing to the syndrome of new coronavirus infection and other conditions, as well as the causes of high mortality from COVID-19, which include: limited resources for non-infectious areas of medical care;insufficient funding for planned and high-tech care;a decrease in the volume of primary diagnosis and detection of infectious and non-infectious pathology;delayed and limited research in areas;distraction of specialists from preventive and dispensary work outside of infectious pathology;shortage of medicines and consumables;social instability and deterioration of the well-being of the population, characteristic of pandemics. The role of a personalized approach to patients with concomitant somatic and infectious diseases as a preventive measure for the severe course and complications of COVID-19 is determined. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Патологические состояния различной природы способны к взаимному отягощению, существенно влияя на общее бремя болезни, ее проявления и тяжесть. Данный аналитический обзор посвящен взаимодействию между возбудителями социально значимых инфекций - вирусами иммунодефицита человека (ВИЧ), гепатита С, микобактерией туберкулеза и SARS-CoV-2. Представлены зарубежные и собственные данные, освещающие вопросы синдемии и интерференции патогенов. Приведены результаты эпидемиологического анализа на территории Северо-Западного федерального округа (СЗФО), которые показали отсутствие существенного влияния пандемии, вызванной новой коронавирусной инфекцией (COVID-19), на эпидемический показатель заболеваемости ВИЧ, вирусным гепатитом С или туберкулезом на популяционном уровне, что может быть обусловлено различными механизмами передачи инфекций и требуемой инфицирующей дозы возбудителя. Отмечено отсутствие негативного влияния течения COVID-19 на показатели смертности при ВИЧ-инфекции, вирусном гепатите С и туберкулезе на территориях СЗФО. Особое внимание уделено клинической картине сочетанного течения ВИЧ-инфекции, туберкулеза и COVID-19. Продемонстрированы данные, позволяющие сделать вывод, что наиболее худший прогноз и риск летального исхода имеют пациенты в прогрессирующей стадии заболевания, которая характеризуется наличием оппортунистических инфекций, особенно СПИД-индикаторных состояний, с диссеминированной формой туберкулеза и в цирротической стадии вирусного гепатита. Показана значимость тяжелых проявлений инфекционной патологии в случаях ухудшения прогноза развития COVID-19. Исходя из опыта двух лет пандемии, определены проблемы, способствующие синдемии новой коронавирусной инфекции и других состояний, а также причины высокой летальности от COVID-19, к которым можно отнести: ограничение ресурсов для неинфекционных направлений медицинской помощи;недостаточное финансирование плановой и высокотехнологической помощи;снижение объема первичной диагностики и выявления инфекционной и неинфекционнойпатологии;отложенные и ограниченные исследования по направлениям;отвлечение специалистов от профилактической и диспансерной работы вне инфекционной патологии;дефицит лекарственных средств и расход ½Ñ‹Ñ… материалов;социальная нестабильность и ухудшение благополучия населения, свойственные пандемиям. Определена роль персонифицированного подхода к пациентам с сопутствующими соматическими и инфекционными заболеваниями как меры профилактики тяжелого течения и осложнений COVID-19. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity is the property of National Electronic-Information Consortium and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran ; 36(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026777

ABSTRACT

Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) and those at risk of HIV are marginalized worldwide and need to reach services regularly. The COVID-19 pandemic can disrupt the HIV care continuum. This study aimed to identify the extent to which HIV-related services have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and how we can overcome these challenges. Methods: In this rapid review, we systematically searched PubMed and Scopus databases, the references of studies, international agencies, and studies "cited by" feature in google scholar till May 28, 2021, without restrictions to language. Results: Among the total of 1,121 studies, 31 of them were included in the review. The most important HIV-related services affected by the COVID-19 pandemic were;access to anti-retroviral drugs, HIV testing, periodic HIV-related testing in people living with HIV (PLHIV), pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis, harm reduction services, psychological and counseling services. Some factors were introduced to mitigate the effects of these challenges, including increasing the resilience of health, protecting health care workers and their clients against COVID-19 through vaccination, providing HIV-related services through telehealth, and multi-month dispensing (MMD) of medicines. Conclusion: The results of this review study showed that PLHIV had difficulty in accessing follow-up, care and treatment services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Programs such as the MMD or telemedicine can be useful in providing services to PLHIV during the pandemic. © 2022. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. All Rights Reserved.

6.
Journal of Psychiatric Nursing ; 13(2):157-162, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025731

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between work performance and self-reported symptoms of depression, stress, and anxiety among nurses in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV and COVID-19 units on Timor Island, Indonesia. Methods: This research used a comparative, cross-sectional design. The data were collected between October 2020 and January 2021. The total population sampling technique was used. The study group comprised 236 nurses working in TB/HIV isolation rooms and 423 nurses in COVID-19 isolation rooms. The data were collected using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-42) and a work performance questionnaire. The instruments were administered online. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-testing to see differences in the performance of TB/HIV isolation unit nurses compared with that of COVID-19 isolation unit nurses, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to measure the strength and direction of the relationship between work performance and depression, stress, and anxiety. Results: The mean DASS-42 scores of nurses in the TB/HIV isolation units were low, indicating minimal effects. The mean score was 4.56 for depression, 4.44 for anxiety, and 5.63 for stress. The scores of those in the COVID-19 isolation units reflected moderate levels of depression, stress, and anxiety: the mean was 17.03 for depression, 11.23 for anxiety and 6.120 for stress. The work performance results indicated that the nurses in the TB/HIV isolation rooms, on average, had sufficient work performance, while those in the COVID-19 isolation rooms demonstrated weaker work performance. There was a significant difference in the work performance between nurses working in the 2 units (p value <0.05). Conclusion: The state of nurses’ depression, stress, and anxiety was correlated with work performance in the TB/HIV and COVID-19 isolation units. © 2022 by Journal of Psychiatric Nursing.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(12): 1700-1703, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007849

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and people's subsequent behavioral changes have decreased the cases of respiratory infection worldwide. However, research on infectious diseases with other transmission modes is insufficient. The aim was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on non-respiratory infectious diseases: infectious enterocolitis, sexually transmitted diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis, and tick-borne diseases. METHODS: This retrospective, cohort study used comprehensive surveillance data from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2021. The number of cases of infectious diseases before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2019) was compared with that during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021). Reduction rates were calculated as the number of disease cases during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021, respectively, divided by the mean number of disease cases in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: The total numbers of cases of infectious enterocolitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tick-borne diseases during the study period were 2,507,304 cases, 24,972 cases, and 3012 cases, respectively. The number of cases decreased for infectious enterocolitis and sexually transmitted diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the COVID-19 pandemic, with an approximately 40-50% decrease in enterocolitis and 30-55% decreases in sexually transmitted diseases. However, cases of tick-borne diseases changed little, with a 0.2% increase in 2020 and a 6% increase in 2021. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had a different impact on the number of cases of infectious diseases depending on their mode of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterocolitis , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Enterocolitis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 22: 100486, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983612

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been available and fully reimbursed for people at high risk of sexually acquired HIV infection in France since January 2016. Its dissemination has been widely promoted to reduce HIV incidence in high-risk populations. This study aimed to assess the roll-out of PrEP use in France from its implementation until mid-2021. Methods: Using the French National Health Data System (SNDS) covering 99% of people residing in France, all PrEP users defined as individuals aged 15 years or older who received at least one dispensing of PrEP between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2021 were identified. PrEP users number and their socio-demographic and PrEP use characteristics were assessed over time. Findings: As of 30 June 2021, a total of 42 159 individuals had initiated PrEP in France. Monthly PrEP initiations increased steadily up to 1027 in February 2020, and then slowed down sharply from the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic until a recovery in the first half of 2021. PrEP users were overwhelmingly men (97·5%, 41 126/42 159), aged 36 years on average, living in a large metropolitan area (73·8%, 31 096/42 159), and among whom a minority (7·0%, 2966/42 159) were socio-economically disadvantaged. Throughout the study period, 80-90% of users renewed PrEP from one semester to another, suggesting a good level of maintenance among those engaged in treatment. Nevertheless, for 20·1% (7148/35 549) of new PrEP users no prescription renewal was recorded in the first six months after initiation, suggesting a substantial proportion of early treatment discontinuation. Private practitioners accounted for a minority (21·3%, 77 885/366 399) of PrEP renewal prescriptions. Interpretation: PrEP roll-out has been markedly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in France. Although PrEP deployment has been substantial among men who have sex with men, further action is needed to expand access to PrEP to all other population groups who could benefit from it and to promote adherence to treatment. Funding: This research was carried out within EPI-PHARE without external funding.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978217

ABSTRACT

A 22-year-old female with uncontrolled advanced HIV infection was persistently infected with SARS-CoV-2 beta variant for 9 months, the virus accumulating >20 additional mutations. Antiretroviral therapy suppressed HIV and cleared SARS-CoV-2 within 6-9 weeks. Increased vigilance is warranted to benefit affected individuals and prevent the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants.

10.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939028

ABSTRACT

The main aim of this study was to describe the clinical and immunological outcomes, as well as the inflammatory profile, of patients with advanced HIV in an assisted-living facility in which an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 occurred. SARS-CoV-2 humoral and specific T-cell response were analyzed in patients with HIV infection and COVID-19; as a secondary objective of the analysis, levels of the inflammatory markers (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα) were tested in the HIV/COVID-19 group, in HIV-positive patients without COVID-19, and in HIV-negative patients with mild/moderate COVID-19. Antibody kinetics and ability to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated by ELISA assay, as well as the inflammatory cytokines; SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response was quantified by ELISpot assay. Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparisons. Thirty patients were included with the following demographics: age, 57 years old (IQR, 53-62); 76% male; median HIV duration of infection, 18 years (15-29); nadir of CD4, 57/mmc (23-100) current CD4 count, 348/mmc (186-565). Furthermore, 83% had at least one comorbidity. The severity of COVID-19 was mild/moderate, and the overall mortality rate was 10% (3/30). Additionally, 90% of patients showed positive antibody titers and neutralizing activity, with a 100% positive SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response over time, suggesting the ability to induce an effective specific immunity. Significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in COVID-19 without HIV vs. HIV/COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05) were observed. HIV infection did not seem to negatively impact COVID-19-related inflammatory state and immunity. Further data are mandatory to evaluate the persistence of these immunity and its ability to expand after exposure and/or vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(7): e25959, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929864

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent and debilitating disease that may affect medication adherence and thus maternal health and vertical transmission among women with HIV. We assessed the feasibility of a trial of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) versus antidepressant medication (ADM) to treat PPD and/or anxiety among postpartum women with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Between 29 October 2019 and 8 September 2020, we pre-screened women 6-8 weeks after delivery with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and diagnosed PPD or anxiety with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Consenting participants were randomized 1:1 to up to 11 sessions of IPT or daily self-administered sertraline and followed for 24 weeks. We assessed EPDS score, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and medication side effects at each visit and measured maternal HIV viral load at baseline and final study visit. Retention, visit adherence, change in EPDS, CGI-S and log viral load were compared between groups with t-tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests; we report mean differences, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. A participant satisfaction survey assessed trial acceptability. RESULTS: 78/80 (98%) participants were retained at the final study visit. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, visit adherence was greater among women allocated to ADM (9.9 visits, SD 2.2) versus IPT (8.9 visits, SD 2.4; p = 0.06). EPDS scores decreased from baseline to final visit overall, though mean change was greater in the IPT group (-13.8 points, SD 4.7) compared to the ADM group (-11.4 points, SD 5.5; p = 0.04). Both groups showed similar changes in mean log viral load from baseline to final study visit (mean difference -0.43, 95% CI -0.32, 1.18; p = 0.48). In the IPT group, viral load decreased significantly from baseline (0.9 log copies/ml, SD 1.7) to final visit (0.2 log copies/ml, SD 0.9; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that a trial of two forms of PPD treatment is feasible and acceptable among women with HIV in Zambia. IPT and ADM both improved measures of depression severity; however, a full-scale trial is required to determine whether treatment of PPD and anxiety improves maternal-infant HIV outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression, Postpartum , HIV Infections , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/drug therapy , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Zambia/epidemiology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 519, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are two very important diseases. However, relevant researches about how COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on the epidemiological trend of STDs are limited in China. This study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on STDs in China and proposed relevant recommendations to be used in bettering health. METHODS: The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in China from 2008 to 2020 were collected. Grey Model (1,1) were established to predict the incidence of STDs with the incidence data of these three STDs from 2013 to 2018 considering the impact of policies in China, respectively. We then calculated the predictive incidence of each STD in 2019, 2020 and 2021 by the established Model. And we estimated the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiological changes of STDs by analyzing the difference between the absolute percentage error (APE) of the predictive incidence and actual rate in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The incidence of HIV infection and syphilis showed a trend of increase from 2008 to 2019 in China, but that for gonorrhea was fluctuant. Of note, the incidence of these three STDs decreased significantly in 2020 compared with that in 2019. The APE of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in 2020 (20.54%, 15.45% and 60.88%) were about 7 times, 4 times and 2 times of that in 2019 (2.94%, 4.07% and 30.41%). The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea would be 5.77/100,000, 39.64/100,000 and 13.19/100,000 in 2021 based on our model. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological trend of STDs in China was significant influenced by COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to balance the control of COVID-19 and timely management of STDs during the COVID-19 epidemic to prevent or reduce the poor outcome among COVID-19 patients with STDs. New management strategies on STDs, such as leveraging social media, online medical care, rapid self-testing, timely diagnosis and treatment guarantee and balance of medical resources for STDs management should be adapted in the context of the long-term effects of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control
13.
Algorithms ; 15(5):175, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870967

ABSTRACT

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mainly attacks CD4+ T cells in the host. Chronic HIV infection gradually depletes the CD4+ T cell pool, compromising the host’s immunological reaction to invasive infections and ultimately leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of this study is not to provide a qualitative description of the rich dynamic characteristics of the HIV infection model of CD4+ T cells, but to produce accurate analytical solutions to the model using the modified iterative approach. In this research, a new efficient method using the new iterative method (NIM), the coupling of the standard NIM and Laplace transform, called the modified new iterative method (MNIM), has been introduced to resolve the HIV infection model as a class of system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). A nonlinear HIV infection dynamics model is adopted as an instance to elucidate the identification process and the solution process of MNIM, only two iterations lead to ideal results. In addition, the model has also been solved using NIM and the fourth order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method. The results indicate that the solutions by MNIM match with those of RK4 method to a minimum of eight decimal places, whereas NIM solutions are not accurate enough. Numerical comparisons between the MNIM, NIM, the classical RK4 and other methods reveal that the modified technique has potential as a tool for the nonlinear systems of ODEs.

14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol X ; 15: 100153, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851100

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to provide a semi-qualitative histopathological report of the dual SARS-CoV-2 and HIV infected placentae in the third trimester of Advanced Abdominal Pregnancy (AAP). Study design: Four AAP placentae in the third trimester of pregnancy (two positive for HIV-1 and two positives for SARS-CoV-2) were histologically examined. Results: The SARS-CoV-2+ HIV+ placentae were dysmorphic in shape compared to the flattened disc-like shape noted in the SARS-CoV-2+HIV-, SARS-CoV-2-HIV+and SARS-CoV-2-HIV- placentae. Diffused syncytial knots and syncytial degeneration were observed in all placentae. Intermittent cytotrophoblast increase, perivillous and intravillous fibrin deposition, mononuclear inflammatory cells with widespread degeneration/necrosis of the syncytiotrophoblast and microcalcification were pronounced in the SARS-CoV-2+HIV+ compared to the SARS-CoV-2+HIV- placentae. Vascular pathological changes included thrombi, ectasis, mural hypertrophy and atherotic vessels. Conclusion: Elevated syncytial trophoblast injury, villitis, microcalcifications and mineralisation of the syncytial basement membrane in the AAP placentae may be due to SARS-CoV-2 viral transgression instead of HIV infection alone. Vascular malperfusion is suggestive of a hypoxic insult arising from a compensatory response to meet the fetal oxygen and nutrient demands of an AAP. Placentae from HIV infected women on antiretroviral treatment were characterised by vascular malperfusion.

15.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; 11(1):41-46, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1812109

ABSTRACT

Objective. To describe the clinical and epidemical characteristics of a new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people living with HIV, for HIV infection implies the development of an immunosuppressive condition that may exacerbate the course of COVID-19. Material and methods. The research is based on retrospective and current epidemiological situation of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 infections in the Southern Russia regions during 2020 and survey of the patients with the co-infections concerning epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory diagnostic information. We collected all data from 15 regional centers for AIDS prevention and control in the Southern and North Caucasus Federal Districts. The survey sample consists of 121 patients. Statistical computation is done with Microsoft Office Excel 2010. Results and discussion. HIV patients of various age and social characteristics are involved in the COVID-19 epidemic process. Within registered HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infections all patients have apparent clinical symptoms. Asymptomatic cases are not presented. Mild cases prevail in the sample (48.8%). The frequency of severe and extremely severe was significantly higher in people living with HIV/AIDS on ART more than 2 months against naive PLHIV or using ART up two one month (р<0.05). © 2022 by the authors.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854616, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785452

ABSTRACT

Background: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at high risk of HIV infection that accounts for an increasing proportion of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in China. However, little is known about the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors in this population. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal patterns of sexual risk behaviors among YMSM in China. Methods: Study data were collected from a prospective cohort study among 460 YMSM from 2017 to 2020. Based on the predicted HIV infection risk scores, distinct sexual risk behaviors trajectories of YMSM were estimated and plotted using the group-based censored normal model to identify the predictors of trajectories change over time. Results: Three sexual risk behaviors trajectories were identified: a decreasing low-risk group (7.6%), an intermediate-risk group (67.4%), and an ascending high-risk group (25.0%).Compared to the decreasing low-risk group, intermediate-risk group membership was associated with being from rural areas, current smoker and higher depressive symptoms; ascending high-risk group membership was associated with an education level of high school or lower, being from rural areas, younger age at sex debut with a man, current smoker, higher depressive symptoms and sexual minority stress. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors among YMSM changed over time within different trajectories. Identifying YMSM belonging to high-risk trajectories before HIV infection is vital for the intervention and may reduce HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk-Taking
17.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776357

ABSTRACT

About two years have passed since the identification of SARS-CoV-2 in China. The rapid spread of this virus all over the world and its high transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans have resulted in a global pandemic. The negative impact of COVID-19 on health, society and the economy at the global level has pushed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop effective vaccines to fight SARS-CoV-2. Thanks to this collaborative effort, the first COVID-19 vaccine was developed in less than a year. Since then, several COVID-19 vaccines have been validated for use by the World Health Organization. Among these, mRNA- (BNT162b2 and mRNA1273) and adenovirus-based (ChAdOx1) vaccines were developed through the use of novel technologies. While all three of these vaccines have shown effectiveness against the COVID-19 disease and their immunogenicity was characterized in clinical trials in the general population, data on their efficacy and immunogenicity in people living with HIV (PLWH) are limited. In this review, we provide a description of the characteristics of mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines and of the immune response elicited in the general population by vaccination. Then we describe the use of these vaccines and their efficacy and immunogenicity in people living with HIV and we conclude with a discussion regarding some open questions concerning the use of mRNA- and adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Seropositivity , Adenoviridae/genetics , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
18.
Can Liver J ; 5(1): 14-30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment uptake is key to eliminating HCV infection as a public health threat in Canada. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection face barriers to HCV treatment initiation. We sought to identify interventions that could support HCV treatment initiation based on patient and HCV care provider perspectives. METHODS: Eleven people living with HIV with a history of HCV infection and 12 HCV care providers were recruited for this qualitative descriptive study. Participants created ranked-ordered lists of potential interventions during nominal groups (n = 4) and individual interviews (n = 6). Following the nominal group technique, transcripts and intervention lists underwent thematic analysis and ranking scores were merged to create consolidated and prioritized lists from patient and provider perspectives. RESULTS: Patient participants identified a total of eight interventions. The highest-ranked interventions were multidisciplinary clinics, HCV awareness campaigns and patient education, nurse- or pharmacist-led care, peer involvement, and more and better-prepared health professionals. Provider participants identified 11 interventions. The highest-ranked were mobile outreach, DAA initiation at pharmacies, a simplified process of DAA prescription, integration of primary and specialist care, and patient-centred approaches. CONCLUSION: Participants proposed alternatives to hospital-based specialist HCV care, which require increasing capacity for nurses, pharmacists, primary care providers, and peers to have more direct roles in HCV treatment provision. They also identified the need for structural changes and educational initiatives. In addition to optimizing HCV care, these interventions might result in broader benefits for the health of HIV-HCV co-infected people.

19.
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes ; 87(2):E182-E187, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1688416

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 outbreak, facility capacity for HIV testing has been limited. Furthermore, people may have opted against HIV testing during this period to avoid COVID-19 exposure. We investigated the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV testing and the number of reported HIV cases in Japan. Methods: We analyzed quarterly HIV/AIDS-related data from 2015 to the second quarter of 2020 using an anomaly detection approach. The data included the number of consultations, the number of HIV tests performed by public health centers or municipalities, and the number of newly reported HIV cases with and without an AIDS diagnosis. We further performed the same analysis for 2 subgroups: men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-Japanese persons. Results: The number of HIV tests (9,584 vs. 35,908 in the yearbefore period) and consultations (11,689 vs. 32,565) performed by public health centers significantly declined in the second quarter of 2020, whereas the proportion of new HIV cases with an AIDS diagnosis (36.2% vs. 26.4%) significantly increased after removing the trend and seasonality effects. HIV cases without an AIDS diagnosis decreased (166 vs. 217), but the reduction was not significant. We confirmed similar trends for the men who have sex with men and non-Japanese subgroups. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current HIV testing system in Japan seems to have missed more cases of HIV before developing AIDS. Continuously monitoring the situation and securing sufficient test resources by use of self-testing is essential to understand the clear epidemiological picture of HIV incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 1-13, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682186

ABSTRACT

The HIV pandemic has led to close to 40 million people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. To date, SARS-CoV2 has affected > 220 million people, and unprecedented global efforts have resulted in almost 6000 million doses of SARS-CoV2 vaccines being administered. Although several specific COVID-19 antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments and SARS-CoV2 vaccines have been approved, the data available to support their use in specific populations such as PLWH remain limited. PLWH includes a range of individuals from practically unaffected immunity to severely immunocompromised individuals, and preventive and therapeutic interventions should be tailored for these subgroups . However, in most randomized clinical trials regarding antivirals, immunomodulators and vaccines for COVID-19, PLWH have been excluded or only enrolled in small numbers leading to a paucity of data. We briefly discuss the current evidence for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in PLWH and identify key areas where more information is required.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL