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Journal of Engineering and Applied Science ; 70(1):48, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2322049


The impact of the COVID pandemic has resulted in many people cultivating a remote working culture and increasing building energy use. A reduction in the energy use of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is necessary for decreasing the energy use in buildings. The refrigerant charge of a heat pump greatly affects its energy use. However, refrigerant leakage causes a significant increase in the energy use of HVAC systems. The development of refrigerant charge fault detection models is, therefore, important to prevent unwarranted energy consumption and CO2 emissions in heat pumps. This paper examines refrigerant charge faults and their effect on a variable speed heat pump and the most accurate method between a multiple linear regression and multilayer perceptron model to use in detecting the refrigerant charge fault using the discharge temperature of the compressor, outdoor entering water temperature and compressor speed as inputs, and refrigerant charge as the output. The COP of the heat pump decreased when it was not operating at the optimum refrigerant charge, while an increase in compressor speed compensated for the degradation in the capacity during refrigerant leakage. Furthermore, the multilayer perception was found to have a higher prediction accuracy of the refrigerant charge fault with a mean square error of ± 3.7%, while the multiple linear regression model had a mean square error of ± 4.5%. The study also found that the multilayer perception model requires 7 neurons in the hidden layer to make viable predictions on any subsequent test sets fed into it under similar experimental conditions and parameters of the heat pump used in this study.

International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration ; 28(2), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2138152
ASHRAE Transactions ; 127:254-262, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1980287
ASHRAE Transactions ; 128:505-512, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970210
Applied Sciences ; 12(2):673, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1630564