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1.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology ; 14(3):300-304, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1888181

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is commonly detected in pneumonia patients who travel from the Middle East regions. Besides MERS-CoV, many other pathogenic agents cause pneumonia. Detection of such organisms must be done swiftly, especially in case of the negative MERS-CoV samples. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogenic agents that might account for bacterial pneumonia, from Hajj and Umrah pneumonia cases. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, 38 pneumonia clinical samples from suffering of Hajj and Umrah in 2017 with negative MERS-CoV were selected. The laboratory testing was done at National Reference Laboratory in Jakarta and performed by multiplex real-time PCR using a FTD respiratory pathogens. Results: Haemophilus influenzae (26.4%) was the most frequent bacteria detected. Other causative agents of bacterial pneumonia identified were Moraxella catarrhalis (20.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%). From 38 samples showed that 25 (65.79%) samples were positive with bacteria, including five samples with coinfection. The coinfection were combinations among S. aureus and S. pneumoniae (1/20), S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae (1/20), S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis (2/20), S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (2/20), K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (5/20), and M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae (5/20). Conclusion: Haemophilus influenzae is the most recurrent bacteria to be identified in samples of pneumonia of hajj and umrah cases. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Iranian Journal of Microbiology is the property of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
International Transaction Journal of Engineering Management & Applied Sciences & Technologies ; 13(1):14, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884771

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently a threat to the global human population. Infectious viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, are easily transmitted from person to person and spread very quickly. These viruses are likely to spread anywhere there are massive crowds in confined spaces-and the Hajj pilgrimage to Makkah, Saudi Arabia is no exception. This work aims to prevent the spread of infection in the early stages of an outbreak. This paper explores the various methods for monitoring and controlling infectious disease during the Hajj including strengthening disease control and methods for providing the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) insights to enable them to plan for the specific challenges of controlling Coronavirus disease during the Hajj. This paper proposes a model, based on the Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID), Global Positioning System (GPS), wearable watch technology, and cloud computing infrastructure, which detects and monitors infected pilgrims and also aids in the identification of those pilgrims exposed to sources of a virus. Disciplinary: Information System, Technology, and Application, Healthcare Management. (C) 2022 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

3.
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage ; 10(1):133-151, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837034

ABSTRACT

Every year, millions of Muslim worshippers visit Mecca in Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj which is the ffth and last pillar of Islam. In 2018, Mecca hosted more than 2,300,000 people from around 183 diferent countries and cultures. Based on the objective of Vision 2030 of the Saudi Arabian government, the number of pilgrims was planned to grow to 2.5 million in 2020, and the rate of increase was projected to be 13% per year. This goal, however, has not been achieved due to Covid-19. The pandemic forced the government to severely reduce the number of pilgrims in 2020 to 10,000. Ultimately, this situation will not last forever and visitor numbers should continue to rise. Tourism, especially religious tourism such as the Hajj, is expected to boost the economy and create new jobs for Saudi youth in the services sector. Yet, despite the many benefts of pilgrimage, the Hajj itself has adverse environmental impacts. The activities of the Hajj generate considerable solid and liquid waste, use large quantities of scarce fresh water and produce high levels of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) emissions. This paper provides an overview of the environmental impacts created by Hajj 2018 activities and estimates carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions from municipal solid wastes, travel (air and land) and electricity generation (accommodation and fresh water desalination), using a range of estimation techniques based on data collected across the diferent Hajj activities. These fndings indicate environmental impacts of the Hajj are signifcant, highlighting the need for action to improve environmental sustainability. © International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

4.
J Travel Med ; 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831240
5.
Etnoantropoloski Problemi-Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology ; 17(1):217-232, 2022.
Article in Serbian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820516

ABSTRACT

This paper looks at how the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) adapted to the novel circumstances created by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. The pandemic has been an entirely novel and, probably, dominant liminal situation which has significantly affected the behavior of the faithful and the way in which their individual identity has been transformed, at least in the psychological sense. Following an introductory overview, which provides a brief description of the ritual process of the Hajj, the author briefly looks at the various ways of travel to Saudi Arabia from a historical perspective, as well as at new technical and health aspects which entailed the adaptation of this global ritual to pandemic conditions. Rituals are, undoubtedly, deeply connected to human psychological, but also social needs and inclinations, and help preserve functionality in dysfunctional situations such as natural disasters or the spread of new diseases. Similarly, they provide a safe zone in conditions of drastic and unwanted change. The paper therefore points out the very specific type of ambivalence which accompanies the fact that the natural human reaction at times of crisis is to "close ranks", which became extremely difficult or practically unfeasible in conditions of social distancing implemented as a measure to prevent the spread of the coronavirus in 2020-21. The conclusion highlights the fact that the latest experience with COVID-19 has had medical, economic, social, political, psychological and religious implications with long-term consequences for the organization of the Hajj.

6.
8th International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems (ICIAS) / World Engineering, Science and Technology Congress ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1746080

ABSTRACT

In recent months, crowd management has become more important than ever, given the spread of contagious diseases such as COVID-19. The Hajj, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the largest gatherings in the world;it happens annually and is getting bigger every year. The development of radio-frequency identification (RFID) and mobile apps has been investigated to help estimate crowd movements in and among the holy sites. However, network-based technologies require large infrastructures and are therefore very costly. In this paper, a system is proposed to use existing closed-circuit television (CCTV) to accurately visualize the movements of crowds in the Almasjid Alnabawi, also known as The Prophet's Mosque. The proposed neural network is trained with large datasets of crowd images to produce estimates of the number of pilgrims in an image. Images are then integrated to produce crowd level models throughout the building. The system has been tested on two instances and showed high performance.

8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-8, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory transmission, especially in mass gatherings, is considered one of the main ways of influenza transmission. The Hajj ceremony, as one of the largest gatherings worldwide, can increase the distribution of influenza infection. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of influenza among Hajj pilgrims. METHODS: In this present systematic review and meta-analysis, all English studies published by 2019 were extracted from several databases such as the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Finally, the data were extracted using a pre-prepared checklist and then analyzed by fixed and random effects model tests in the meta-analysis, Cochran, meta-regression, and Begg's test. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a sample size of 62 431 were entered into the meta-analysis process. The overall prevalence of influenza, in addition to the prevalence of types A, B, and C influenza, was estimated at 5.9 (95% CI: 4.3-8.0), 3.6 (95% CI: 2.6-4.9), 2.9 (95% CI: 2.8-3.1), and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5-1.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In general, influenza remains widespread regardless of vaccinating pilgrims and following health protocols. Therefore, it is recommended that comprehensive management and educational approaches be used to reduce the prevalence of influenza and its adverse consequences among the pilgrims.

9.
34th British Human Computer Interaction Conference Interaction Conference, BCS HCI 2021 ; : 192-196, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1687536

ABSTRACT

The Hajj pilgrimage being the largest annual mass gathering globally with two to three million participants from over 180 counties, will remain a high priority for diseases surveillance for future epidemics or any other international public health emergencies with rapid scalability. This paper highlights the importance of monitoring mass gatherings during a pandemic and how mHealth applications can reduce the burden on health facilities during a mass gathering and tackle future infectious diseases outbreaks. The paper also highlights the importance of developing a user-centred application when designing for a diverse group of users with a shared purpose. As a result, a framework has been proposed to update the current applications or design and develop future mobile health applications. The framework has been developed based on the rationale and evidence found in the literature. © Islam et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd.

10.
8th International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems, ICIAS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685084

ABSTRACT

In recent months, crowd management has become more important than ever, given the spread of contagious diseases such as COVID-19. The Hajj, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the largest gatherings in the world;it happens annually and is getting bigger every year. The development of radio-frequency identification (RFID) and mobile apps has been investigated to help estimate crowd movements in and among the holy sites. However, network-based technologies require large infrastructures and are therefore very costly. In this paper, a system is proposed to use existing closed-circuit television (CCTV) to accurately visualize the movements of crowds in the Almasjid Alnabawi, also known as The Prophet's Mosque. The proposed neural network is trained with large datasets of crowd images to produce estimates of the number of pilgrims in an image. Images are then integrated to produce crowd level models throughout the building. The system has been tested on two instances and showed high performance. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101617, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454551

ABSTRACT

Mass gathering (MG) medicine emerged against the backdrop of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) hosted the largest annual mass gathering of over 3 million pilgrims from 180 plus countries. However, the events surrounding the latest threat to global health, the PHEIC COVID-19, may be sufficient to highlight the role of mass gatherings, mass migration, and other forms of dense gatherings of people on the emergence, sustenance, and transmission of novel pathogens. The COVID-19 spread illustrates the role of MGs in exacerbation of the scope of pandemics. Cancellation or suspension of MGs would be critical to pandemic mitigation. It is unlikely that medical countermeasures are available during the early phase of pandemics. Therefore, mitigation of its impact, rather than containment and control becomes a priority during pandemics. As the most systematically studied MG-related respiratory disease data come from KSA, the cancellation of Umrah by the KSA authorities, prior to emergence of cases, provide the best opportunity to develop mathematical models to quantify event cancellations related mitigation of COVID-19 transmission in KSA and to the home countries of pilgrims. COVID-19 has already provided examples of both clearly planned event cancellations such as the Umrah suspension in KSA, and where outbreaks and events were continued.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crowding , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Travel , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Ships
12.
Comput Math Organ Theory ; : 1-26, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401045

ABSTRACT

Since the early days of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, Saudi Arabia started to implement several preventative measures starting with the imposition of travel restrictions to and from China. Due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, and with the first confirmed case in Saudi Arabia in March 2019, more strict measures, such as international travel restriction, and suspension or cancellation of major events, social gatherings, prayers at mosques, and sports competitions, were employed. These non-pharmaceutical interventions aim to reduce the extent of the epidemic due to the implications of international travel and mass gatherings on the increase in the number of new cases locally and globally. Since this ongoing outbreak is the first of its kind in the modern world, the impact of suspending mass gatherings on the outbreak is unknown and difficult to measure. We use a stratified SEIR epidemic model to evaluate the impact of Umrah, a global Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, on the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic during the month of Ramadan, the peak of the Umrah season. The analyses shown in the paper provide insights into the effects of global mass gatherings such as Hajj and Umrah on the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic locally and globally.

13.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(12): 2829-2844, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252260

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus affects over 463 million individuals worldwide. Religious activities such as the Hajj pilgrimage have a major impact on patients with diabetes mellitus, including increasing the risk of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia. This increased risk is due to dietary changes and intense physical activity during pilgrimage while being on antidiabetic medications. Approximately 20% of the pilgrims with underlying illnesses who visit Mecca are diabetic, and complications, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar state, and fatigue/unconsciousness due to hypoglycaemia, have been observed among these patients. Diabetic patients are also at a high risk for foot complications and infections. To avoid any aggravation of the diabetes, a complete biochemical evaluation of the patient must be conducted before Hajj, and the patients must be provided contextualized educational guidance to avert these potential health challenges. This counselling should include the importance of carrying with them at all time their relevant medical history, summaries of the current treatment regimen and emergency snacks. In addition, to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia, the dosage of insulin should be reduced in selected patients by 20% and that of sulfonylurea should be reduced as needed. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists are associated with fewer complications and can be preferentially prescribed. Those patients with type 1 diabetes can continue with the use of insulin pump with suitable education prior to Hajj. For the prevention of foot problems, the use of padded socks and well-fitting shoes is recommended along with an insistence on not walking barefoot. After Hajj, the patient must be followed up, and necessary investigations must be made along with readjustment of insulin dosage in those patients for whom it was reduced. Until the pandemic situation abates, all diabetic patients should avoid making the Hajj journey.

14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16682-16689, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241701

ABSTRACT

Heat-related illnesses (HRIs), mainly heat exhaustion (HE) and heat stroke (HS), are characterized by an elevation of core body temperature. In this study, we aimed to explore the HRIs' types and patient characteristics among a sample taken from various representative in-field points in the Hajj season. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 at 80 data collection points distributed in the field. Data related to demographics, features and risk factors were collected and analyzed from all encountered cases with suspected HRIs. Moreover, we developed a diagnostic tree for HRIs by using the XGBoost model. Out of the 1200 persons encountered during the study period, 231 fulfilled the criteria of HRIs spectrum and were included in this study. Around 6% had HS and 20% had HE. All HS cases (100%) were from outside of Saudi Arabia as compared with 72.5% diagnosed with HE (27.5% were from Saudi Arabia). In addition, 16% were considered as heat-induced muscle spasms, and 7% had limb heat edema. Additionally, most of HRIs cases were reported between 11 am and 1 pm. The HRIs diagnostic tree model gave a diagnostic accuracy of 93.6%. This study highlights the magnitude of HRIs among pilgrims in Hajj and provides a diagnostic tree that can aid in the risk stratification and diagnosis of these patients. We advise the implementation of more educational campaigns to pilgrims regarding preventable measures especially for the vulnerable groups (e.g. from outside Saudi Arabia, those with comorbidities and light-skinned people).


Subject(s)
Heat Stroke , Hot Temperature , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heat Stroke/diagnosis , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Travel
15.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(1)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207816

ABSTRACT

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is causing the loss of what was once considered the miracle cure. The transmission of antimicrobial resistance during mass gathering is a potential threat in addition to other infectious diseases. Here, we review the English language literature on the rate and the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance during the Hajj. There is a variable incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacteriaceae. There had been no report of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance coupled with public health measures are needed to decrease the rate of emergence of resistance.

16.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 51: 101886, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-794326

ABSTRACT

Mass gatherings for sporting events, music shows, and religious needs continue to grow in our urban areas, requiring local authorities to develop safety procedures to mitigate the challenges of keeping the attendees safe. These challenges are even more pronounced at pilgrimage venues where social distancing and contact avoidance are difficult as pilgrims are required to perform various rituals in close proximity with others, in a sequential manner, either daily or weekly, as per their religious tenets. Over two million pilgrims attend the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia annually. Keeping the local and visiting pilgrims safe from crowd crush, sunstroke, skin infections, recurrence of prior medical issues, and contagious diseases requires the Saudi government to allocate huge investments for health communication and prevention programs every year. However, there is no evidence to date that has empirically tested whether Hajj pilgrims' are able to receive such information and are subsequently adopting various health promoting behaviors. This study aims to do that by framing it within the Health Belief Model. Data collected and analyzed from 245 pilgrims in Makkah between September 9th-19th, 2017 suggests that roughly 48% of the pilgrims adopted all five protective measures. However, language barriers, limited health care facilities, and difficulties in purchasing prescription mediciens were cited as impediments to adopting healthy measures. The study concludes with recommendations for the KSA government agencies, Hajj authorities, Mission authorities and pilgrims, during various phases of travel-- i.e. pre-travel, during the pilgrimage and post-travel, in light of new emerging health threats.

17.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143550

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to define the spectrum of viral infections in pilgrims with acute respiratory tract illnesses presenting to healthcare facilities around the holy places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the 2019 Hajj pilgrimage. During the five days of Hajj, a total of 185 pilgrims were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) of 126/185 patients (68.11%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses by PCR. Among the 126 pilgrims whose NPS were PCR positive: (a) there were 93/126 (74%) with a single virus infection, (b) 33/126 (26%) with coinfection with more than one virus (up to four viruses): of these, 25/33 cases had coinfection with two viruses; 6/33 were infected with three viruses, while the remaining 2/33 patients had infection with four viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common detected viruses with 53 cases (42.06%), followed by 27 (21.43%) cases of influenza A (H1N1), and 23 (18.25%) cases of influenza A other than H1N1. Twenty-five cases of CoV-229E (19.84%) were detected more than other coronavirus members (5 CoV-OC43 (3.97%), 4 CoV-HKU1 (3.17%), and 1 CoV-NL63 (0.79%)). PIV-3 was detected in 8 cases (6.35%). A single case (0.79%) of PIV-1 and PIV-4 were found. HMPV represented 5 (3.97%), RSV and influenza B 4 (3.17%) for each, and Parechovirus 1 (0.79%). Enterovirus, Bocavirus, and M. pneumoniae were not detected. Whether identification of viral nucleic acid represents nasopharyngeal carriage or specific causal etiology of RTI remains to be defined. Large controlled cohort studies (pre-Hajj, during Hajj, and post-Hajj) are required to define the carriage rates and the specific etiology and causal roles of specific individual viruses or combination of viruses in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in pilgrims participating in the annual Hajj. Studies of the specific microbial etiology of respiratory track infections (RTIs) at mass gathering religious events remain a priority, especially in light of the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

18.
Earth Syst Environ ; 5(1): 101-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077722

ABSTRACT

Mecca and Madinah are two holy cities where millions of people in general, visit throughout the years, during Hajj (Muslim's pilgrimage) time number of people visit these holy cities from different parts of the world is very high. However, the Government of Saudi Arabia only allowed 1000 pilgrims during the 2020 Hajj especially when the world is suffering from COVID-19. In the present paper, a detailed analysis of air quality parameters available from ground measurements have been carried over major cities of Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Madinah, and Jeddah from June to September 2019 and 2020. At Mecca and Jeddah, PM10, NO2 and CO concentrations are found to be higher in comparison to stations located close to Madinah. In addition, meteorological parameters, temperature, relative humidity, and wind directions are also analysed to understand changes associated with the meteorological parameters. Our detailed analysis shows a reduction in concentrations of pollutants during the 2020 Hajj, when the lockdown was observed in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19. During June-August 2020 lockdown period, no major changes in PM10 concentration was observed since there were frequent dust events were observed. In contrast, our results show 44% reduction in NO2 (8.77 ppbv in 2019 to 4.97 ppbv in 2020) and 16% reduction in CO (0.85 ppm in 2019 to 0.72 ppm in 2020) concentrations during COVID-19 restrictions. The concentrations of NO2 and CO do not cause any issue for the air quality as NO2 and CO Indices lie within the green band (Air quality index 0-50). In Mecca, Madinah and Jeddah, the air quality is generally affected during Hajj, but during 2020, the concentration of particulate matter was influenced by local weather conditions.

20.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(4)2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024649

ABSTRACT

This study examined Hajj pilgrims' knowledge and reported practice of hand hygiene. In Hajj 2019, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Mina, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, of domestic Saudi pilgrims aged ≥18 years by using a self-administered Arabic questionnaire that captured data on pilgrims' socio-demographics, hand hygiene knowledge, and reported practices of hand cleaning following certain actions. A total of 348 respondents aged 18 to 63 (median 32) years completed the survey, of whom 200 (57.5%) were female. The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) hand hygiene knowledge score was 6.7 (±SD 1.9). Two hundred and seventy one (77.9%) and 286 (82.2%) of respondents correctly identified that hand hygiene can prevent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections respectively, but 146 (42%) were not aware that it prevents hand-foot-mouth disease. Eighty-eight (25.3%) respondents erroneously reported that hand hygiene prevents HIV. Washing hands with water and soap was the most preferred method practiced before a meal (67.5% (235/348)), after a meal (80.2% (279/348)), after toilet action (81.6% (284/348)), when hands were visibly soiled (86.2% (300/348)), and after waste disposal (61.5% (214/348)). Hajj pilgrims demonstrated a good knowledge and practice of hand hygiene, but there are gaps that are vital to control outbreaks such as COVID-19.

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