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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(4):331-333, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885024

ABSTRACT

Objective: Assessment of awareness about COVID-19 among medical personnel and general public. Study Description: It is a Cross-Sectional study carried out in R.Y.Khan from June 2020 to September 2020. Methodology: About 430 subjects (medical personnel and general public) were asked to fill a pre-designed questionnaire by using convenient sampling technique. The questionnaire included information regarding their bio-data and study questions. Then SPSS Version 21 was used for data analysis. Results: Our study shows that 90.5% study subjects think that they are well aware about COVID-19 while 9.5% subjects think that they aren’t. In response to question “Is it lethal?” 25.3% subjects replied Always, 67% said Sometimes and 7.7% said Never. 68.6% subjects said that it is Always transmissible, 15.8% said Sometimes and 15.6% said Never. Regarding modes of its spread, 76.5% subjects agreed to Cough, 67.9% to Handshake, 27.9% to Food-sharing, 35.6% to Room-sharing, 28.6% to Utensils-sharing, 21.2% to Fomites-sharing. 6.7% subjects said that its vaccine is Available, 72.1% replied as Not-Available and 21.2% said that they don’t know. 24.9% subjects said that its specific treatment is Available, 53.3% replied as Not-Available and 21.9% said that they don’t know. 71.9% subjects said that it is preventable by adopting specific preventive measures, 8.8% said it isn’t and 19.3% said that they don’t know. Regarding effectiveness of PPEs as preventive measures, 85.8% subjects agreed to Mask, 57.2% to Gown, 52.3% to Goggles, 45.6% to Head-cover, 35.1% to Shoe-cover, 55.8% to Gloves, 70.7% to Social-distancing, 58.4% to use of Hand-wash/Hand-Sanitizer. Conclusion: There is observed some lack of knowledge in different areas regarding COVID-19, almost equally, among medical personnel as well as among general public that results in spread of infection at exponential rates due to negligence of people including poor understanding and poor compliance to the preventive measures advised by health authorities worldwide.

2.
J Hosp Infect ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the advent of Covid-19 pandemic, alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers (HSDs) are installed in most public and clinical settings for hygiene purposes and convenient application. However, this raised concerns if sanitizer-tolerant bacterial pathogens can colonize on HSDs, which can spread diseases and antibiotic resistance. METHODS: We conducted sampling from operational automatic HSDs, specifically the dispensing nozzle in direct contact with sanitizer. Culture-dependent cultivation of bacteria and MALDI-TOF were employed to assess microbiological contamination. Bacterial isolates were selected for rapid killing and biofilm eradication assays with alcohol treatment. Antibiotic minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) assays were performed according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Virulence potential of bacterial isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhadbitis elegans infection model. RESULTS: Nearly 50% HSDs from 52 locations, including clinical settings, food industry and public spaces, contain microbial contamination at 103 - 106 bacteria/ml. Bacterial identification revealed Bacillus cereus as the most common pathogen (29 %), while Enterobacter cloacae was the only Gram-negative bacterial pathogen (2 %). Selecting B. cereus and E. cloacae isolates for further evaluation, we found that these isolates and associated biofilms were tolerant to alcohol with survival up till 70%. They possessed resistance to various antibiotic classes, with higher virulence than lab strains in the C. elegans infection model. CONCLUSION: HSDs serve as potential breeding grounds for dissemination of pathogens and antibiotic resistance across unknowing users. Proper HSD maintenance will ensure protection of public health and sustainable use of sanitizing alcohols, to prevent emergence of alcohol-resistant pathogens.

3.
2022 International Conference on Communication, Computing and Internet of Things, IC3IoT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874252

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic afflicting our society. We propose covIoT, a novel Arduino-based automatic hand sanitizer dispenser, integrated with an oximeter, a heart rate monitor, a non-contact body temperature sensor, and voice assistant feedback. This system can be deployed as an end-to-end COVID patient monitoring system and also for automated sanitization. The system was tested on 100 people to evaluate its performance. The mean absolute error and root mean square error values were found to be 0.79 and 1.03 for the oximeter, 1.22 and 0.70 for the heart rate monitor and 1.07 and 1.28 for the body temperature monitor, respectively, compared to the industry-standard devices. These low error values indicate the high accuracy of our proposed system. We believe this is the first low-cost integrated patient monitoring and sanitization system with vocal feedback, to increase accessibility and ultimately helps combat the virus. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 11(6):4825-4832, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837812

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, automated liquid dispensers have been increasingly developed to assist transmission prevention. However, data availability of automatic liquid dispenser mechanism's technical characteristics is not yet widely available. This causes frequent over or under design in its development. Therefore, we specifically measure push and pull forces engineering characteristics generated by the automatic liquid dispenser mechanism. A wire mechanism-based automatic liquid dispenser apparatus was used to experiment. A load-cell sensor was used to detect the force that occurs from a servo motor controlled by a microcontroller. The force data (push and pull) will be sent directly to the database server cloud with a recording frequency of every second. Three types of fluid treatment levels are used i.e. water, liquid soap, and hand sanitizer gel. Three types of fluid volume treatment levels used were 50 ml, 150 ml, and 250 ml. Each treatment level combination is carried out at the servo motors rotation steps 180°, 150°, 120°, 90°, 60°, and 30°. The results show that no significant differences were found in maximal forces required to release the water, liquid soap, and hand-sanitizer gel. It is also known that the volume of the fluid has a very significant effect on the amount of push and pull forces generated.

5.
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association ; 97(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837695

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn the global health emergency caused by COVID-19, multiple experts have mandated the use of hand sanitizers as a safety measure from COVID-19. The sale of hand sanitizers has increased many folds. Therefore, when there is such large use of hand sanitizers, it becomes extremely important to study and understand hand sanitizers in a comprehensive manner.Main body of the This article starts with the importance of sanitizers as a defence mechanism that is employed by the hand to fight against the coronavirus. This article provides information about history, types, composition, various dosage forms, and marketed formulations of hand sanitizers. The article sheds a detailed light on industrial production techniques for hand sanitizers and also outlines new innovative techniques that were employed by the industry to mass produce hand sanitizers in the wake of the pandemic. The article further dives into a comparison between hand sanitizers and soaps so as to give pros and cons of the use of soap against the use of hand sanitizers. One of the aims of the article is to study the side effects of sanitizers so as to develop a cautious approach while using hand sanitizers and therefore a comprehensive list of side effects of the use of hand sanitizers is given.ConclusionThe review article finds that hand sanitizers are extremely efficient in fight the virus but along with it, it brings along arrange of risks which are outlined in the article.

6.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816922

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many facets of life for rural and urban patients with cancer. Here, we characterize the impact of the pandemic on social and health behaviors of rural and urban cancer patients. Methods: N=1,326 adult cancer patients, who visited HCI in the last 4 years and enrolled in either Total Cancer Care or Precision Exercise Prescription studies, completed a COVID-19 survey. The survey was administered between Aug and Sept 2020 and included questions on demographic and clinical information as well as employment status, health behaviors, and COVID-19 prevention measures. Results: The mean age was 61 (19-92) years, with 54% female, 97% non-Hispanic White, 80% stage I-III, 42% employed full or part-time, 25% living in rural counties, and 85% reporting good to excellent overall health. Cancer patients in rural compared to urban counties were more likely to be older (rural=63 vs. urban=60 years;p=0.01), retired or not employed (rural=63% vs. urban=56%;p=0.04), not have health insurance coverage (rural=4% vs. urban=2%;p=0.01), and have ever smoked (rural=35% vs. urban=24%;p=0.001). However, urban patients reported “somewhat” to “a lot” of change in their daily lives more frequently than rural patients (urban=86% vs. rural=77%;p<0.001), but there were no differences in change in social interaction or feeling lonely between populations. Changes in health behaviors namely exercise habits due to the pandemic were more common in patients residing in urban vs. rural counties (urban=51% vs. rural=39%;p<0.001), with more urban patients either exercising less (urban=23% vs. rural=17%) or more frequently (urban=12% vs. rural=8%);however, there were no significant differences with respect to changes in alcohol consumption between these groups. In terms of prevention measures, urban patients compared to rural patients were more likely to use face masks “fairly” or “very often” (urban=94% vs. rural=83%;p<0.001) and also felt they were more likely to contract a COVID-19 infection (22% vs. 14%;p=0.003), but there were no differences for other risk mitigation behaviors, such as hand sanitizer use. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic had disparate effects on cancer patients living in rural and urban counties. Rural patients were more likely to have risk factors associated with poor health outcomes, such as not having health insurance coverage and having a history of smoking. However, urban patients were more likely to experience larger changes in their daily lives and exercise habits. Urban patients were more likely to follow preventive measures (e.g., wearing face masks) and felt they were at a greater risk of contracting the virus. Further research is needed to better characterize the pandemic's short- and long-term effects on cancer patients in rural and urban settings and appropriate interventions.

7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 38(1):107-111, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1811181

ABSTRACT

Background-The general public’s interest in hand sanitizers has soared after the covid-19 pandemic pestilence. This gave rise to the notion that the use of such hand sanitizers may hinder the visibility of developed fingerprints. Methodology-Based on this hypothesis, a hand sanitizer was tested to see how it affected the detection of fingerprints left behind after use. Fingerprint detection techniques used included: ninhydrin, silver nitrate, iodine fuming and cyanoacrylate method. Result and conclusion-When hand sanitized fingerprints were compared to non-hand sanitized fingerprints, the alcohol-based hand sanitizers improved the visibility of fingerprints developed with ninhydrin and iodine fuming, and marginally improved those developed with silver nitrate and cyanoacrylate method. To determine the longevity of improved developed quality, various parameters such as time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingerprint deposition was tested. © 2021, Medico Legal Society. All rights reserved.

8.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):1083-1092, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798121

ABSTRACT

Background: Knowledge attitude practice study helps in improving the knowledge of the public, their awareness and promote positive message which could help in combating against Corona virus disease (COVID-19) or similar pandemic in future. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of residents and students towards COVID-19 pandemic in Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh. Material and methods: This cross-sectional survey conducted in Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, from February 2021 to March 2021. Data was collected using Google form as an online survey. A self-designed questionnaire with four parts general instructions, knowledge, attitude and practice was prepared comprising of 07 questions on knowledge, 08 for attitude, and 08 for practice. Results: Out of the 164 participants, 48.78 % males, 51.21% females, 82.31% of 18-30 years and 15% ≥31 years. 71.34% were medical students and 28.65% paramedical staffs. 98.78% had correct knowledge about the spread of COVID-19, 97.53% about use of washing hands with soap and water and hand sanitizer. 97.54% avoided crowded places, 87.80% agreed vaccination can prevent spread of COVID-19 infection. 68.71% said they have not visited crowded places, 99.38% said spread of COVID-19 was social responsibility, 95.67% were wearing masks, 75.92% said vaccination will overcome the COVID-19. 92.40% avoided unnecessary travel, 94.93% wearing mask, 94.93% showed good practice, 94.87% encouraged social distancing at office, 89.74% avoided hand shaking. Significant difference found in practice score of different genders (P<0.004). Conclusion: The present study showed that participants had higher knowledge, positive attitude and good practices regarding COVID-19.

9.
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities ; 13(2):130-131, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1786170

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us the emphasis of personal hygiene which was long being ignored. Measures such as hand sanitizer which were predominantly used in health-care facilities in the past have seen recent surge in its usage everywhere. The availability of hand sanitizer in almost all the settings in this pandemic including the household has heralded a new step in personal hygiene. People across the world are using hand sanitizer everywhere. As much is known about its beneficial effect in preventing the spread of pathogens, its injudicious use has resulted in discovering its adverse effect if misused. We hereby present a case where the patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with hand sanitizer ingestion. This case highlights the unwanted effects and lethality of hand sanitizer if used in an unintended manner and hence alert us for its judicious use in the pandemic. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Indian Journal of Medical Specialities is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
Klinicheskaya Dermatologiya i Venerologiya ; 21(1):59-67, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1780348

ABSTRACT

Background. Patients with hand eczema account for 30–40% of dermatological patients. With the pandemic of new coronavirus infection COVID-19 and the need for frequent antiseptics use, there has been a steady increase in hand eczema incidence. The dominant symptoms in exacerbating eczema are skin inflammation and itching, which requires effective and safe skincare that is effective and safe. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the therapy with synthetic tannin and polidocanol-based agents and modern emollients, the time of resolution and degree of severity of clinical symptoms of eczema in patients, as well as the time and duration of remission, safety and compliance with sodium hypochlorite hand antiseptic spray. Materials and methods. Thirty-four patients with exacerbation of hand eczema were examined. The study was conducted in two stages. At the stage 1, before the remission, the patients received synthetic tannin and polidocanol-based agents and modern emollients;at the stage 2, monotherapy with modern emollients was used. Patients used sodium hypochlorite spray as a hand sanitizer throughout the study period. Results. The NESCI score became zero in 33 (96%) patients after the complex treatment of hand eczema. The Dermatology Life Quality Index by the end of stage 2 decreased 6-fold compared to the beginning of the study. No exacerbation of the dermatosis was observed in any of the patients included in the study during the use of sodium hypochlorite hand spray. Conclusion. The complex therapy with synthetic tannin, polidocanol-based agents, and modern emollients in hand eczema helps to achieve stable medical remission, decreases the itching intensity, and improves the patients’ quality of life. The use of new hand sanitizers during the pandemic in patients with hand eczema did not result in dermatosis exacerbations.

11.
Biomedical and Biopharmaceutical Research ; 17(2):246, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1771986

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Introduction: Due to the context of social distancing imposed as a result of COVID-19 pandemic, universities are looking for emergency remote education alternatives. Objective: Objective:To propose and evaluate the students' perception of a teaching-learning model using online platforms to review physiology contents relating them to COVID-19 physiopathology and consequences. Methods: Methods: We organized a web course entitled “Special Topics in Human Physiology”, which aimed to review relevant physiology topics and relate them to COVID-19 with undergraduate students at the Federal University of Pampa. The course was held in May / 2020. The activities were carried out through synchronous meetings that took place through the Zoom platform twice a week, and asynchronous activities, using articles, case studies and online tools for active learning. After making the materials on the interaction between COVID-19 and physiological systems available, the most important points were discussed and the students' doubts were resolved in synchronous meetings. It was also proposed that students use their creativity to create flyers, schemes and drawings for publication on their social networks such as Instagram and or / Facebook in order to contribute to the dissemination of information about COVID-19 and to avoid the divulgation of “fake news”. This proposal was approved by the Institutional Education Committee (Research Ethics Committee No. 10,069. 20). Results: Results: 37 students that participated in the course answered our evaluation questionnaire (a response rate of 74%), students were asked if they ever had thought about the relationship of the different systems studied in Human Physiology course with the COVID-19 previously, 75.7% said “no”. Besides, 94.6% of the students affirmed that they shared information related to COVID-19 with their social group (family, friends, co-workers, etc.), yet, 97.3% said that the information discussed in the course helped them to select better sources of News and all the participants consider that establishing this relationship contributed and will impact their academic formation. Still, 86.5% said that their concern about the seriousness of the pandemic had increased after the course, 97.3%of students affirmed that studying the interactions of Sars-CoV-2 with the different body systems helped to understand better the CoViD-19. In addition, 75.7% of students considered that they learned “much” with this strategy of making relationships between physiology and COVID-19. We also asked if the course contributed to making the participants able to identify fake news about COVID-19 easily;94.6% said that contributed a lot. Besides, 81.1% of the participants thought that studying the action mechanisms of soap and hand sanitizer helped them much to understand the importance of hygiene care. Regarding the way in which the physiology topics related to CoVID-19 were worked, 59.5% considered it excellent, and 40.5% good. Conclusions and Support: Conclusion: We conclude that contextualizing physiological content with daily life situations, such as COVID-19, has a significant impact on the students' learning, and this type of method can be adopted in the web teaching, using online platforms. Additionally, this practice has an impact in the daily life of students, influencing their decisions and practices.

12.
In Practice ; 44(2):120-120, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1767352
13.
International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology ; 12(1):411-422, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1743076

ABSTRACT

The increasing cases of infection and the number of deaths triggered by COVID-19 make all prevention and treatment efforts urgent. Increased discipline to maintain hand hygiene must be sought immediately to break the chain of its spread. The availability of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products with various specifications is needed to ensure increased discipline in hand hygiene. This study carried out the diversification of alcohol-based hand sanitizers by varying the active ingredients and preparations. The effect of alcohol on the characteristics and anti-microbial activity of the gel and wipe hand sanitizer products was studied to obtain optimal benefits. The best hand sanitizer characteristics are shown in gel formulation 3 with bioethanol as an active ingredient, which has pH 5.88, good homogeneity, density 0.95 g/cm3, viscosity 2783.69 cPs, dispersibility 5.16 cm, adhesion 3.21 s, and dry time 29.27 s. While the best formulation of wipe hand sanitizer produced by formulation 3 made from bioethanol has a pH of 6.14, good homogeneity, density 0.86 g/cm3, viscosity 2.812 cPs, spreadability 15.34 cm, adhesion 1.92 s, and dry time 18.20 s. The biological activity test results of the two best hand sanitizer formulations, gel, and wipe preparations, showed good anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. In addition, the two preparations of hand sanitizer products were also detected to have good stability characteristics up to 4 weeks of storage time. © 2022. All Rights Reserved.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia ; 60(1):25-37, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1737526

ABSTRACT

To address the need of alcohol-based hand sanitizers during COVID-19, U.S. FDA has issued a guidance for the preparation of hand sanitizers that recommends 80% v/v ethanol or 75%v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA) along with other ingredients. The aim of this study was to develop a new method to estimate IPA content in hand sanitizers by using Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with a multivariate chemo-metric approach. Calibration samples containing 10-90% of IPA were used for model development. NIR data was mathematically pretreated with multiple scattering correction before development of partial least squares (PLSR) and principal component regressions (PCR) model. Both models showed good linearity over the selected range of IPA content with high R2 (>0.993), low root mean squared error (<2.163), minimum difference between standard errors between calibration and validation models (0.0009). The proposed NIR with multivariate methods provide rapid analysis of IPA content in the hand sanitizer.

15.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ; 64(SUPPL 1):23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1723119

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To understand the impact (health, cognitive, economic, and psychological) of the COVID-19 lockdown on children with chronic neurological disorders (epilepsy, cerebral palsy, autism, ADHD) in Nigeria. Methods: A focused group discussion of caregivers and children with chronic neurological conditions (epilepsy, cerebral palsy, brain tumor and muscular dystrophy) was conducted. Nine caregiver-patient pairs participated in the discussion while observing all precautionary measures. The responses of the participants were recorded, transcribed and analysed. Results: There was limited access to consulting physicians in the hospital to review the child's health status, and lack of money to purchase drugs as parents' means of livelihood were disrupted. Findings indicated that children seemed to have forgotten what they learnt in the previous academic period. Some of the children have torn their books, given that learning tutors gave out the books for children to practice at home. The lockdown policy imposed hunger in the households as parents couldn't attend to their various jobs. Households rarely eat recommended daily servings and mix of food. Some of the caregivers lost their jobs, others had their shops and businesses locked down, leading to inability to contribute money for household feeding. Children had access to cloth face masks. However, children seldom adhere to the use of facemask when necessary. Regular hand washing was common. Only one participant reported availability and use of hand sanitizer. The lockdown of worship centers conferred a sense of anger, frustration, and hopelessness among some of the participants. Caregivers believed they lost social interactions including drinking with friends. Conclusion: The COVID-19 lockdown had untoward effects on different aspects of the lives of children with chronic neurologic illnesses requiring the development of well adapted local strategies to mitigate unintended effects on children.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707126

ABSTRACT

In order to reduce the transmission of pathogens, and COVID-19, WHO and NHS England recommend hand washing (HW) and/or the use of hand sanitizer (HS). The planetary health consequences of these different methods of hand hygiene have not been quantified. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to compare the environmental impact of the UK population practising increased levels of hand hygiene during the COVID-19 pandemic for 1 year. Washing hands with soap and water was compared to using hand sanitizer (both ethanol and isopropanol based sanitizers were studied). The isopropanol-based HS had the lowest environmental impact in 14 out of the 16 impact categories used in this study. For climate change, hand hygiene using isopropanol HS produced the equivalent of 1060 million kg CO2, compared to 1460 million for ethanol HS, 2300 million for bar soap HW, and 4240 million for liquid soap HW. For both the ethanol and isopropanol HS, the active ingredient was the greatest overall contributing factor to the environmental impact (83.24% and 68.68% respectively). For HW with liquid soap and bar soap, there were additional contributing factors other than the soap itself: for example tap water use (28.12% and 48.68% respectively) and the laundering of a hand towel to dry the hands (10.17% and 17.92% respectively). All forms of hand hygiene have an environmental cost, and this needs to be weighed up against the health benefits of preventing disease transmission. When comparing hand sanitizers to handwashing with soap and water, this study found that using isopropanol based hand sanitizer is better for planetary health. However, no method of hand hygiene was ideal; isopropanol had a greater fossil fuel resource use than ethanol based hand sanitizer. More research is needed to find hand hygiene sources which do not diminish planetary health, and environmental impact is a consideration for public health campaigns around hand hygiene.

17.
19th IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, SCOReD 2021 ; : 52-57, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1704473

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, surveillance systems have been implemented to monitor public health and trace the infected individuals. The Malaysian government has imposed the standard operating procedure (SOP) which includes checking of temperature for fever, use of hand sanitizers, and record their name, contact number, and date of attendance at points of entry. This paper proposes a contactless tool for COVID-19 surveillance that integrates all the 3 processes into one. The system carries out each stage in sequential order for every person, starting with checking temperature, dispensing hand sanitizer, and lastly data profiling record. The temperature is done using infrared thermometry that automatically adjusts to forehead height. Hand sanitizer is automatically dispensed when hands are detected under the pump. Image processing and optical character recognition are used to capture the name and contact number that will be shown on a tag carried by the individual and saved to the database. The process is contactless and requires no human operator, and yields accurate temperature data, works as intended while demonstrating high accuracy and speed in extracting information with optical character recognition. © 2021 IEEE.

18.
Pharma Times ; 52(4):9-14, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1696127

ABSTRACT

The article describes stark realities regarding origin and spread of novel Coronavirus SARS CoV-2 that has precipitated into global pandemic and most severe existential crisis since World War II. It touches upon scientific, sociological, international relations and philosophical aspects of the crisis. Due focus is laid on microbiology of virus, molecular basis of transmission and viral genome. The clinical presentation describes common symptoms, effects on lungs & cardiovascular outcomes. Importance of simple preventive measures is explained to ensure containment and prevention of mass communication. Diagnosis holds the key particularly in absence of any approved vaccine and drug therapy. ICMR has taken pragmatic stand on use of testing kits based on RT PCR for diagnosis and serological tests for surveillance. The article describes progress being made in development of vaccines, WHO global clinical trials and other evidence-based trials to find right therapeutic options. Last but not the least, authors delineate some ethical and innate lessons for science and humanity. © 2020, Indian Pharmaceutical Association. All rights reserved.

19.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development ; 13(1):173-181, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1688274

ABSTRACT

The present world is passing a great pandemic where Bangladesh facing an unavoidable challenge to cope up with COVID-19. The government and other health organizations haveannounced somehealth warnings to prevent COVID-19 and make people aware. The study aims to explore the health warnings status (knowledge and practicesof health warnings) among low socio-economic people in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 400 participants (low socio-economic people) by using the purposive sampling and semi-structured questionnaire survey over six months. This study illustrates that 60% of respondents noticed they and their family members are very aware and knowledgeable about COVID-19where 36.5% are conscious to make their family aware about corona virus. About 32% of respondents use mask when they go to outside during corona period where 25% use hand sanitizer. It is found that there is a significant association between occupation, age and perception on people’s awareness about COVID-19 at 1% level of significance where (p<0.002), (p<0.001) respectively. Along with, educational qualification is also significantly associated at 10% level of significance where (p<0.08).Most of the respondents have moderate level of knowledge and awareness about COVID-19 health warnings.

20.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(1):175-176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677847

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid 19 infection is spreading like a wild fire world wide. More worrisome thing is that it has spread in health workers too which are the sole care takers of affected patients, despite of use of personal protective equipments and taking other precautions. Aim: To conduct a study at local level to see causes of high frequency of Covid 19 infection in health care workers. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional observational study in which we enrolled 195 doctors, nurses and paramedics from different hospitals of punjab, who were affected from covid 19 infection and gave them a questionnaire to fill regarding use of mask, (surgical, cloth, n=95)/duration of its use, use of surgical cap, goggles, soap or hand sanitizer use/frequency, technique of donning/doffing of PPE etc, to find out that where is the fault. Results: Out of total 195 participants 148 were doctors from various specialties, departments and with different work experience.47 were nurses and other paramedical staff including lab workers, pharmacists, ward boys and others. Out of 195 participants 42(21.5%) did not use PPE (cover-all with surgical apron, mask KN-95 or N-95, goggles/face shield) whereas 153(78.5%) used it. Conclusion: We concluded at the end of our study that improper doffing techniques, overuse of masks for more than 3 days, and infrequent hand washing may be the reasons for increased rate of infection and need to be dealt promptly.

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