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1.
Africa Health ; 43(4):21-23, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046335

ABSTRACT

An overview of global health governance is provided in this article, along with predictions for its post-pandemic state. The interests of the many actors in global health governance have been impacted by COVID-19, particularly the accessibility and international distribution of vaccinations and technologies to fight the epidemic. What position does Africa have in this convoluted and disorganised system of global health governance? In a time of worldwide pandemic like COVID-19, how can the interests of 1.3 billion Africans be addressed the best? This article presents an African perspective on global health governance in order to respond to these inquiries. As a result of Africa's historical marginalisation from the international system, developing a cogent African viewpoint on global health governance requires confronting the system's ingrained biases and institutions that favor the most powerful states and non-state actors. They must acknowledge the obvious but long-standing truth that sickness is only one aspect of public health. In the global arena, health is political. Most activities in the twenty-first century take place outside of the medical field. Any realistic African perspective on global health governance during COVID-19 and future pandemics must, among other things, take into account the fact that most of these health-impacting activities take place in the context of international economic and trade relations, which are frequently driven by the strategic interests of individual countries.

2.
ODI Working Paper 2020. (579):29 pp. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046204

ABSTRACT

This paper contends that, given the constraints on national responses to the multiple challenges the pandemic poses in sub-Saharan Africa, multilateral organisations, governments from outside the region and private creditors can and must play a key part in helping African governments and the private sector cope. The paper primarily focuses on the provision of finance, but clearly support in other areas, including health, trade and business, matters too. The paper first examines the scale and nature of the crisis, then looks at some of the principles and constraints shaping the design of policy responses to shield health systems, individuals and economies from the immediate impacts (chapter 2). The paper then explores the role that international cooperation and finance can play in enabling more effective national responses (chapter 3), before concluding with a summary of key recommendations (chapter 4).

3.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

4.
NFI Bulletin ; 42(2):1-8, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045646

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to help make sense of what we know about the dramatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security and nutrition at the global level, how we know it, and what we expect to find when more data and analyses are available. It is important to keep in mind that the "global" indicators discussed are derived from common methodologies and applied uniformly to common country data sets. This has advantages but, where possible, needs to be complemented by more in-depth data and analysis in a country. This country-specific data may not be directly comparable to others or be aggregated at the global level. They may be crucial in understanding the country's context and formulating appropriate policy responses. The paper presents 4 pieces of the COVID-19 puzzle. The first is an overview of the measures of food security and nutrition at the global level, based on country-level estimates, followed by a discussion of those indicators for 2019 in the period prior to the epidemic. This is followed by a short discussion of how COVID-19 and other restrictions made things a lot worse. Finally, current estimates are given.

5.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(3):504-512, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040749

ABSTRACT

The eGovernment is an interconnected system that interacts with citizens and provides them increased services through electronic applications, with the help of ICT, in this case, with the arrival of Sars-CoV-2, it was intended to know the momentum in the system of justice of the judicial district of Junin, as well as, the provisions for the containment of the spread of this coronavirus issued by justice and health systems;using the Analysis-Synthesis method. It was possible to obtain that 60.55% of the respondents have stated that the implementation of the Electronic Government contributes to the guarantee in the administration of justice;It contributes to compliance with due process and 49.54% indicated they agree that the application of the eGovernment affects the judicial function in the Junin Judicial District. At the national level, it is in the process of digital transformation through the identification and adoption of digital solutions such as electronic medical records, telehealth and all its forms, and the Digital Agenda of the Health Sector 2020-2025, constitutes a valuable instrument for the articulation and management of the sector, promotion of digital transformation in health with the use of information technologies to improve the quality of health care and, the need to accelerate said transformation, in order to contribute to mitigating the effects of the health emergency due to the current Covid-19 pandemic and, of others that arise.

6.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039235

ABSTRACT

Background: After 18 months of responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is still no agreement on the optimal combination of mitigation strategies. The efficacy and collateral damage of pandemic policies are dependent on constantly evolving viral epidemiology as well as the volatile distribution of socioeconomic and cultural factors. This study proposes a data-driven approach to quantify the efficacy of the type, duration, and stringency of COVID-19 mitigation policies in terms of transmission control and economic loss, personalised to individual countries.

7.
Journal of Tourism ; 23(1):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033872

ABSTRACT

The scope for wellness promotion and related tourism has increased manifold amidst this global crisis exhibited through COVID 19 pandemic that results in formation and popularity of medical hotels, patient hotels and such other new types through partnerships and alliances in many cities in Asia. Severely affected hospitality industry and their professionals are in search for new avenues and scopes now. This present study is an understanding of perceptions and attitudes of hospitality professionals in two diverse sectors with relatively new expertise and skills. This study includes the finding of determinants from the perspective of hospitality professionals by employing an ordered probit model and expressing its implications for future industry and academia.

8.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021495

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a major killer of children younger than five years old. In resource constrained health facilities, the capacity to diagnose severe pneumonia is low. Therefore, it is important to identify technologies that improve the diagnosis of severe pneumonia at the lowest incremental cost. The objective of this study was to conduct a health economic evaluation of standard integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) guideline alone and combined use of standard IMCI guideline and pulse oximetry in diagnosing childhood pneumonia. This is a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in health centres in southern Ethiopia. Two methods of diagnosing pneumonia in children younger than five years old at 24 health centres are analysed. In the intervention arm, combined use of the pulse oximetry and standard IMCI guideline was used. In the control arm, the standard IMCI guideline alone was used. The primary outcome was cases of diagnosed severe pneumonia. Provider and patient costs were collected. A probabilistic decision tree was used in analysis of primary trial data to get incremental cost per case of diagnosed severe pneumonia. The proportion of children diagnosed with severe pneumonia was 148/928 (16.0%) in the intervention arm and 34/876 (4.0%) in the control arm. The average cost per diagnosed severe pneumonia case was USD 25.74 for combined use of pulse oximetry and standard IMCI guideline and USD 17.98 for standard IMCI guideline alone. The incremental cost of combined use of IMCI and pulse oximetry was USD 29 per extra diagnosed severe pneumonia case compared to standard IMCI guideline alone. Adding pulse oximetry to the diagnostic toolkit in the standard IMCI guideline could detect and treat one more child with severe pneumonia for an additional investment of USD 29. Better diagnostic tools for lower respiratory infections are important in resource-constrained settings, especially now during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021489

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate the effect of stimulus payments during the COVID-19 pandemic on the social distancing practices of their recipients. While the directed cash payments stipulated by the 2020 CARES Act were intended to mitigate the economic impact of closures imposed in response to the outbreak, we find that this relief may also have inadvertently contributed to the spread of the virus due to increased social activity. We find that, as the payments were sent out on a staggered weekly schedule, there was a corresponding spike in weekend traffic as indicated by a number of mobility metrics that measure social distancing, over and above the usual uptick expected from weekend shopping following receipt of the stimulus payments on Fridays. This preliminary study gives some indication that the economic benefits of the stimulus package may in fact be outweighed by the detrimental effects of looser social distancing practices prolonging the outbreak.

10.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021484

ABSTRACT

Using three age-structured, stochastic SIRM models, calibrated to Australian data post July 2021 with community transmission of the Delta variant, we projected possible public health outcomes (daily cases, hospitalisations, ICU beds, ventilators and fatalities) and economy costs for three states: New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA). NSW and VIC have had on-going community transmission from July 2021 and were in 'lockdown' to suppress transmission. WA did not have on-going community transmission nor was it in lockdown at the model start date (October 11th 2021) but did maintain strict state border controls. We projected the public health outcomes and the economic costs of 'opening up' (relaxation of lockdowns in NSW and VIC or fully opening the state border for WA) at alternative vaccination rates (70%, 80% and 90%), compared peak patient demand for ICU beds and ventilators to staffed state-level bed capacity, and calculated a 'preferred' vaccination rate that minimizes societal costs and that varies by state. We found that the preferred vaccination rate for all states is at least 80% and that the preferred population vaccination rate is increasing with: (1) the effectiveness (infection, hospitalization and fatality) of the vaccine;(2) the lower is the daily lockdown cost;(3) the larger are the public health costs from COVID-19;(4) the higher is the rate of community transmission before opening up;and (5) the less effective are the public health measures after opening up.

11.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

12.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):430-434, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994246

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in March 2022 and the risk of importation.

13.
Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi ; 79(2):187-198, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934515

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to negatively affect Turkey, as it does many other areas all over the world. One effect of COVID 19 has been the significant expenditure increases in health services in post-pandemic countries. Our aim for this study was the following: determining the frequency of outpatient, inpatient, and intensive care treatment in COVID 19 cases, the factors affecting the rates of inpatient and, intensive care treatments, and examining the changes in healthcare costs according to patient characteristics. METHODS: This research is a cross-sectional record review. The universe of this study is composed of outpatients and inpatients that have been treated after being diagnosed with COVID 19 as from March 11, the date the pandemic was first seen in Turkey, to November 30, 2020. Within the scope of the study, data relating to the COVID-19 diagnosis, comorbidity, age (< 50 and 50), and gender were obtained from all primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare institutions in the province. RESULTS: When the invoices of the inpatients who received no intensive care treatment were examined, it was found that the bills of the male patients aged 50 years and older and those with comorbidities were statistically significantly higher. In the patient groups receiving both clinical and intensive care, the mean amount of invoices of female patients and those aged 50 and older were found to be higher than male patients (p < 0.05). In addition to, In all other patient groups, it has been determined that the invoice amounts are below the patient costs, that is, the invoice amounts do not cover the patient cost. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The disease is more severe in those aged 50 and older, those with comorbidities, and it is more severe and more common in males. Consequently, bill amounts and costs of these patients were found to be higher than those of the opposing groups. As a result, the rate of men getting the COVID-19 disease is higher than women. The disease is more severe in males in hospitalized patients, in 50 age group, and in patients with comorbidities. In parallel with these, the invoice amounts and costs of these patients are higher than the opposite groups. In general, the treatment costs of the patients are higher than the invoice amounts and they carry great risks for the future in ensuring the sustainability of the service. Ensuring sustainability in healthcare services depends on the ability of healthcare institutions to obtain invoices to cover their costs. COVID-19 not only creates a big economic burden for reimbursement institutions but also brings a great economic burden for the institutions that provide the service.

14.
Field Exchange Emergency Nutrition Network ENN ; 67:14-16, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929281

ABSTRACT

This article describes how an ongoing nutrition-smart programming approach was employed by the African Development Bank and harnessed as part of its COVID-19 response intervention.

15.
Health care access among self-employed workers in nonmetropolitan counties 2022. 59 pp. 24 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904635

ABSTRACT

Access to health care involves affordability, which is often tied to health insurance coverage, as well as availability of health care facilities and providers. Self-employed workers are less likely to have access to employer-sponsored health insurance plans, and rural areas may have fewer options for local health care. Through the lens of availability and affordability, this report studies health care access for self-employed individuals, their families, and their households in nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) counties, using data collected between 2014 and 2020. The results indicate that health insurance coverage rates and sources differ more by age and whether workers are self-employed than by whether they live in a metro or nonmetro location. Self-employed workers ages 26 to 64 are more likely to be uninsured than those employed by government or private industry, but more of these working-age adults are insured through employer-based plans than any other insurance source. Few self-employed workers over age 65 are uninsured, and more of them are insured by public plans than any other source of insurance. Family medical expenditures differ more by age and source of health insurance coverage than by whether a family member is self-employed or lives in a metro or nonmetro location. The availability of health care facilities and services varies among U.S. counties by region, metro status, and whether a large share of workers are self-employed. Uninsured rates were higher for all workers at the beginning of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in April and May of 2020 than in 2018 and continued to increase through the pandemic in 2020, mainly due to a decline in coverage from employer-sponsored plans.

16.
Applied Medical Informatics ; 43(4):112-123, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897978

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Teledentistry is a widely accepted procedure for dental practice during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to the nature of strict protocols that aims to prevent the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus), teledentistry is the safest and cost-efficient supplementary interaction that enables dentists to gather diagnostic materials that will lead to appropriate treatment in the Philippines. This article is aimed at providing guidelines on the usage of teledentistry to bridge gaps in the absence of protocols that will help dentists achieve cost-efficient dental services. Materials and Methods: This article employed a narrative review through an electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and ERIC databases. Result: A total of nine hundred thirty-four articles were gathered. Twenty-six articles and three websites were included for analysis. All included articles led to the formation of guidelines that were composed of step-by-step processes (screening, management, and postoperative communication). Screening procedures are vital in obtaining health information and available diagnostic materials. The analysis of collected diagnostic materials application leads to the classification of cases. Based on the classification, management of the cases is enabled through clinical scheduling or pharmacological management during the teledentistry interaction. Teledentistry postoperative communication facilitates the monitoring of the condition of the patients.

17.
Saglik Bilimlerinde Ileri Arastirmalar Dergisi / Journal of Advanced Research in Health Sciences ; 4(1 Suppl):S75-S82, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876452

ABSTRACT

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic process on animals, animal caregiver, and veterinary students, clinical academicians and self-employed veterinarians in our country were evaluated in this study. By examining the available resources on the subject, the situation in our country and in the world has been revealed. In addition, information is given on the characteristics of the COVID-19 agent and the differences between animal species. New studies in dogs and especially cats, in which coronavirus infection is common, will help us to provide information concerning the effects of COVID-19 in these animals and the contamination patterns and course of the disease.

18.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(2), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876345

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus global pandemic now poses additional peril to the already burdened healthcare systems with inadequate funding in Africa. This paper attempts to present the funding patterns for healthcare in Nigeria, Congo, Tanzania, Egypt, and South Africa. It also explored investor opportunities for lowering OOPs and increasing investor profits. Data were drawn from the WHO, the World Bank, and world charts databases. Government health expenditure was far below what individuals and families pay from out-of-pocket payments (OOPs) for healthcare services except in South Africa, where OOP accounts for only 8%. Contrary to popular notion, donation funds or foreign aid for healthcare accounts for a lower percentage of total healthcare expenditure in the countries under consideration. Households mostly bore the healthcare expenditure burden (Nigeria's OOPs of 77%, Congo- 48%, and Egypt- 60%). Averagely, Nigeria and Congo only spent about 3% of their national budget on healthcare. In comparison, Tanzania and Egypt spent an average of 4% and 5% (South Africa-8%) between 2010 and 2017, reflecting low-risk protection for households. Specific aspects for investments through public-private partnerships (PPP) reviewed in this paper should include designing innovative financing models focusing on risk pooling mechanisms to help bridge the funding gap, local production, and manufacture of pharmaceuticals and healthcare equipment at this time, instead of importation. Investors can, therefore, take advantage of the various initiatives outlined in this paper to achieve better health outcomes in Africa.

19.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 6(e2022024), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865746

ABSTRACT

Haiti's Central Plateau region suffers from significant malnutrition, economic hardship, and a crisis level of food insecurity. Already the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, Haiti has pervasively high malnutrition rates, but the Central Plateau is among the most severely affected areas. One in five children of the Central Plateau suffers from malnutrition, and the region exhibits a devastating 30% rate of child stunting. Our US-based team affiliated with Klinik Sen Jozef, a community-respected medical clinic in the Central Plateau city of Thomassique. We partnered with local Haitian leadership, a local agronomist, and Trees That Feed Foundation to introduce breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and an innovative development model to combat local malnutrition. Five years into the program, we have partnered with 152 farmers, and we have enhanced our malnutrition program with breadfruit derivatives. This report addresses the lessons we learned to assist others looking to introduce models or crops in a similar manner. Our experience is particularly significant in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, as supply chain disruptions have worsened food insecurity for more than 800 million people in low-income countries.

20.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 5(e2021044), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865729

ABSTRACT

Background: This paper estimates the costs and benefits of investing in education interventions and specific child marriage programs to reduce child marriage in India. Child marriage in India remains highly prevalent despite considerable progress in the last decade or more, associated, in particular, with a decline in poverty. The economic consequences of the COVID 19 pandemic are likely to reverse these gains, meaning that the interventions to reduce child marriage evaluated in this paper assume even greater importance.

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