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1.
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina ; 83(3):209-216, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2100503

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Isolation and social distancing strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic probably had a negative impact on physicians' lifestyles. Objective. To design and validate a questionnaire to assess physicians' lifestyle before and during the pandemic. Methods. We carried out a psychometric study. A total of 204 medical specialists from a national hospital in Lima-Peru were admitted to the study and answered the questionnaire virtually. Results. Content validity was carried out with a committee of experts, with a Cochran's Q of 7 and p of 0.50. In the relevance, representativeness and clarity of the items, the global Aiken's V was 0.97. The pilot test showed adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.842). For construct validity, overall sample adequacy was assessed by Bartlett's test of sphericity, before (X2 = 4235.75, p < 0.01) and during (X2 = 4328, p < 0.01) the pandemic. In addition, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test had an overall value before and during the pandemic of 0.78 and 0.76 respectively. Exploratory Factor Analysis structured five domains. Factor loadings (polychoric correlations and Oblimin rotation) were estimated, and the correlation between domains was adequate. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated adequate model fit. Conclusion. The instrument shows adequate psychometric properties, so it can be considered as a useful, valid, and reliable instrument to assess the lifestyle of physicians before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(9), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may indirectly impact hospitalizations for other natural causes. Belo Horizonte is a city with 2.5 million inhabitants in Brazil, one of the most hardly-hit countries by the pandemic, where local authorities monitored hospitalizations daily to guide regulatory measures. In an ecological, time-series study, we investigated how the pandemic impacted the number and severity of public hospitalizations by other natural causes in the city, during 2020. We assessed the number and proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and in-hospital deaths for all-natural causes, COVID-19, non-COVID-19 natural causes, and four disease groups: infectious, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neoplasms. Observed data from epidemiological week (EW) 9 (first diagnosis of COVID-19) to EW 48, 2020, was compared to the mean for the same EW of 2015-2019 and differences were tested by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The five-week moving averages of the studied variables in 2020 were compared to that of 2015-2019 to describe the influence of regulatory measures on the indicators. During the studied period, there was 54,722 hospitalizations by non-COVID-19 natural causes, representing a 28% decline compared to the previous five years (p<0.001). There was a concurrent significant increase in the proportion of ICU admissions and deaths. The greater reductions were simultaneous to the first social distancing decree or occurred in the peak of COVID-19 hospitalizations, suggesting different drivers. Hospitalizations by specific causes decreased significantly, with greater increase in ICU admissions and deaths for infectious, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases than for neoplasms. While the first reduction may have resulted from avoidance of contact with healthcare facilities, the second reduction may represent competing causes for hospital beds with COVID-19 after reopening of activities. Health policies must include protocols to address hospitalizations by other causes during this or future pandemics, and a plan to face the rebound effect for elective deferred procedures.

3.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(9), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098660

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts to increase the proportion of individuals diagnosed with HIV who receive anti-retroviral therapy, 28% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 15 years and older in eastern and southern Africa and 42% in western and central Africa were not receiving anti-retroviral therapy in 2019. Therefore, improving access to health care services is key to reduce HIV incidence and prevalence. The main aim of this study was to generate high-resolution maps of underserved areas where people cannot access the closest health care facilities within appropriate travel time in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Main sources of data for this study were the estimated number of PLHIV for adults aged 15-49 years in 47 countries in SSA and the global map of travel time to the nearest health care facility by motorized and non-motorized transportation. These data were used to estimate and map the number of PLHIV in underserved areas at a travel distance of 10, 30, and 60 minutes from the nearest healthcare facility. We identified and mapped more than 7 million PLHIV in the areas with a lack of access to health care within 10-minute travel time and 1.5 million PLHIV in the areas with a lack of access to health care within 60-minute travel time. The identified locations of underserved areas are an indicator of the challenge faced by PLHIV in accessing health services in SSA, a situation that is likely worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can contribute to developing cost-effective geospatial policies for interventions aimed at underserved areas at a finer resolution for communities that have usually been identified in aggregated spatial areas. Further development and implementation of tailored intervention and treatment programs, especially in areas identified as underserved for PLHIV, should be explored. Geospatial analyses could complement the decision-making process with stakeholders to enhance healthcare access for PLHIV in SSA.

4.
Afrika Focus ; 34(2):323-342, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098095

ABSTRACT

Background: Management of patients with covid-19 needing hospitalisation is challenging worldwide. However, little or no information has been gathered regarding the experiences of healthcare workers (hcw s) involved in the care of patients with covid-19 in poorly resourced settings. This study explored the experiences of hcw s managing hospitalised patients with covid-19 in a treatment centre in Kano, Nigeria. Methods: hcw s directly or indirectly involved in managing patients with covid-19 in one of the two treatment centres in Kano, Nigeria, were sampled based on being information-rich cases. The study participants were interviewed individually via telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection was stopped when content saturation was attained. Data was analysed using thematic synthesis. Results: Eleven hcw s, comprising two medical doctors, five nurses, a laboratory staff member, a community health extension worker, an environmental health officer and a cleaner, participated in this study. Four major themes were generated: (i) the profile and readiness of hcw s prior to being engaged to work in a covid-19 treatment centre, (ii) the experience of hcw s while working in the covid-19 treatment wards, (iii) challenges with working in covid-19 treatment wards, and (iv) post-treatment support for covid-19 patients. The participants had variable prior experience in managing patients with infectious diseases. Interventions offered were mainly antiviral therapy, nursing care, counselling, nutritional interventions and toilet hygiene. Challenges encountered included insufficient cooperation from patients, poor personnel welfare, lack of human resources/equipment and issues interfering with wellbeing (stigma). Conclusion: The studied population exhibited professional competence and success in managing hospitalised patients with covid-19 during hospitalisation, despite existing challenges.

5.
International Journal of Medicine and Public Health ; 12(3):116-130, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080789

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health care associated infections including COVID-19 are drawing attention from patients, insurers and Governments worldwide because of the magnitude of the problem i.e. morbidity, mortality and treatment, although these are preventable. Literature review shows there is very little published information on hand washing practices of health care workers in Kenya. This study provides important inputs for planning, policy making and informs future research areas and methods.

6.
Working Paper Series - National Bureau of Economic Research (Massachusetts) 2022. (w30414):34 pp. 17 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080106

ABSTRACT

We replicate the test of a theoretical framework put forward and tested by Goldberg et al. (2022) on financial incentives to send peers information about health behaviors. The study we replicate validated the theory in the context of tuberculosis testing in India. We adapt the intervention to preventative COVID-19-related behaviors in Zambia. Similar to the India study, individuals respond favorably to the suggestion to pass messages to peers;however, unlike in India, financial incentives neither generate further passing of messages nor cause changes in health behaviors. We discuss the contextual differences that may explain why key results failed to replicate.

7.
PLoS Digital Health ; 1(9), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2079643

ABSTRACT

Background: Health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be strengthened when quality information on health worker performance is readily available. With increasing adoption of mobile health (mHealth) technologies in LMICs, there is an opportunity to improve work-performance and supportive supervision of workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate usefulness of mHealth usage logs (paradata) to inform health worker performance. Methodology: This study was conducted at a chronic disease program in Kenya. It involved 23 health providers serving 89 facilities and 24 community-based groups. Study participants, who already used an mHealth application (mUzima) during clinical care, were consented and equipped with an enhanced version of the application that captured usage logs. Three months of log data were used to determine work performance metrics, including: (a) number of patients seen;(b) days worked;(c) work hours;and (d) length of patient encounters. Principal findings: Pearson correlation coefficient for days worked per participant as derived from logs as well as from records in the Electronic Medical Record system showed a strong positive correlation between the two data sources (r(11)=.92, p < .0005), indicating mUzima logs could be relied upon for analyses. Over the study period, only 13 (56.3%) participants used mUzima in 2,497 clinical encounters. 563 (22.5%) of encounters were entered outside of regular work hours, with five health providers working on weekends. On average, 14.5 (range 1-53) patients were seen per day by providers. Conclusions/Significancem: Health-derived usage logs can reliably inform work patterns and augment supervision mechanisms made particularly challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic. Derived metrics highlight variabilities in work performance between providers. Log data also highlight areas of suboptimal use, of the application, such as for retrospective data entry for an application meant for use during the patient encounter to best leverage built-in clinical decision support functionality.

8.
CAB Abstracts; 2022.
Preprint in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: ppcovidwho-345451

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 50 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed globally as of November 2020. Evidence is rapidly emerging on the epidemiology of COVID-19, and its impact on individuals and potential burden on health services and society. Between 10-35% of people with COVID-19 may experience post-acute long Covid. This currently equates to between 8,129 and 28,453 people in Scotland. Some of these people will require rehabilitation to support their recovery. Currently, we do not know how to optimally configure community rehabilitation services for people with long Covid.

9.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):55-62, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056736

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare providers have been at the frontline of the response to the COVID-19 disease. Many of them have contracted the disease, and some of them already dead. This study assessed the knowledge, compliance with preventive measures and determined the relationship between knowledge and practice of preventive strategies to COVID-19 among nurses working in a selected hospital in South-South Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design guided the study. Census method guided the recruitment of all the 378 nurses in the hospital who met the study's inclusion criteria.

10.
Saude e Pesquisa ; 14(2):247-259, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056618

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the quality of life (QOL) of dental students in the 2019 Coronavirus Disease pandemic (COVID-19). A cross-sectional study was carried out with undergraduate students in Dentistry from Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the state of Ceara, Brazil. Data collection took place in May 2020, online, using questionnaires with sociodemographic, course-related and behavioral variables, in addition to the World Health Organization Questionnaire for Quality of Life-bref (WHOQOL-bref). Multinomial logistic regression was performed. 864 students participated in this study. Variables such as higher income (p = 0.034), having religion (p = 0.010), having health insurance (p = 0.005), satisfaction with sleep quality (p < 0.001), absence of insomnia (p < 0.001) and practicing physical activity always (p < 0.001) were associated with greater satisfaction regarding QOL. The QoL of dental students was classified in the dissatisfaction category, being perhaps impacted by the pandemic of COVID-19. Variables that reflected a more economically favorable living condition were associated with satisfaction with the quality of life of this public in the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):720-724, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055479

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, including both indigenous and imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in June 2022.

12.
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine ; 16(3):399-407, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2053610

ABSTRACT

The study tested the effects of a vegan diet on cardiometabolic outcomes and quality of life among healthcare employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overweight hospital employees were enrolled and randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to an intervention group, which was asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet, or a control group, asked to make no diet changes. However, due to COVID-19 disruptions, all participants remained on their usual diets from March to June (12 weeks), creating a de facto control period, and all (n = 12) started the vegan diet with online classes in June, which continued for 12 weeks. Nine participants completed all final assessments. A crossover ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of differences in cardiovascular health during the control period and during the intervention. Despite the ongoing crisis, body weight decreased (treatment effect -5.7 kg [95% CI -9.7 to -1.7];P = .01);fasting plasma glucose decreased (-11.4 mg/dL [95% CI -18.8 to -4.1];P = .007);total and LDL-cholesterol decreased (-30.7 mg/dL [95% CI -53.8 to -7.5];P = .02;and -24.6 mg/dL [-44.8 to -4.3];P = .02, respectively);diastolic blood pressure decreased (-8.5 mm Hg [95% CI -16.3 to -.7];P = .03);and quality of life increased (P = .005) during the intervention period, compared with the control period. A vegan diet improved cardiometabolic outcomes and quality of life in healthcare workers at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Africa Health ; 43(4):21-23, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046335

ABSTRACT

An overview of global health governance is provided in this article, along with predictions for its post-pandemic state. The interests of the many actors in global health governance have been impacted by COVID-19, particularly the accessibility and international distribution of vaccinations and technologies to fight the epidemic. What position does Africa have in this convoluted and disorganised system of global health governance? In a time of worldwide pandemic like COVID-19, how can the interests of 1.3 billion Africans be addressed the best? This article presents an African perspective on global health governance in order to respond to these inquiries. As a result of Africa's historical marginalisation from the international system, developing a cogent African viewpoint on global health governance requires confronting the system's ingrained biases and institutions that favor the most powerful states and non-state actors. They must acknowledge the obvious but long-standing truth that sickness is only one aspect of public health. In the global arena, health is political. Most activities in the twenty-first century take place outside of the medical field. Any realistic African perspective on global health governance during COVID-19 and future pandemics must, among other things, take into account the fact that most of these health-impacting activities take place in the context of international economic and trade relations, which are frequently driven by the strategic interests of individual countries.

14.
Africa Health ; 43(3):10-11, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046311

ABSTRACT

In Africa, there is frequently an extreme need for nurses and other healthcare professionals. Overcrowding, a lack of administrative oversight, and a lack of resources are all problems in health settings. Health professionals may develop psychological damage referred to as "insufficient resource trauma" as a result of these difficulties, which can lower morale and motivation. Such trauma reduces the standard of treatment provided and causes professional "burn-out," a problem that has become more significant in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. One of the nurses who received training in PSBH-N in 2006 was promoted to the position of MoH Nursing Director by 2019. This nurse reflected on her personal experience and said, "The nurses trained in PSBH are among the top nurses in the country today," when she learned of the new PSBH training for MoH QAU employees. In order to train all 877 registered nurses and 373 licensed practical nurses (LPNs) in the nation during the following three to five years, the director requested that LeBoHA host PSBH-N workshops. The countrywide rollout's training and evaluation are now under progress. Priority setting may result from centralized, "top-down," problem-solving techniques that are not always appropriate for the district. A poll of healthcare professionals in South African hospitals revealed that administrators of hospitals were regarded as effective leaders if their leadership style encouraged engagement and problem-solving. An emphasis on a decentralised and egalitarian (equity-fostering) approach, where problem-solving is the duty of all health workers, is emphasized in a national quality assurance plan that includes PSBH.

15.
ODI Working Paper 2020. (579):29 pp. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046204

ABSTRACT

This paper contends that, given the constraints on national responses to the multiple challenges the pandemic poses in sub-Saharan Africa, multilateral organisations, governments from outside the region and private creditors can and must play a key part in helping African governments and the private sector cope. The paper primarily focuses on the provision of finance, but clearly support in other areas, including health, trade and business, matters too. The paper first examines the scale and nature of the crisis, then looks at some of the principles and constraints shaping the design of policy responses to shield health systems, individuals and economies from the immediate impacts (chapter 2). The paper then explores the role that international cooperation and finance can play in enabling more effective national responses (chapter 3), before concluding with a summary of key recommendations (chapter 4).

16.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

17.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 21(10):1356-1360, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046046

ABSTRACT

Since 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, it has undoubtedly had a huge negative impact on the prevention and control of many diseases including malaria, while malaria also brings new challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19 in malaria endemic areas. Therefore, the awareness of malaria prevention and control to medical workers and the workers of parasitic disease prevention and control needs to be strengthened, and the knowledge of malaria prevention and control needs to be updated urgently. This article focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: on malaria prevention and control, the potential interaction of SARS-CoV-2-Plasmodium parasite co-infection, the challenge of the emergence of "diagnostic resistance" of Plasmodium falciparum strain to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of malaria prevalence on COVID-19 mortality.

18.
Africa Health ; 43(3):15-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045412

ABSTRACT

This is a brief account of a community project that the medical staff of an urban primary care institution carried out. The goal was to spread knowledge and raise awareness about COVID-19 prevention among the Ghanaian communities that are a part of the Manna Mission Hospital's catchment area in the Ledzokuku Municipality. It has been discovered that community-based health education has a larger effect on the prevention of newly emerging infectious diseases, resulting in a decrease in the occurrence of such diseases. The pandemic caused by COVID-19 is not an exception. Results of a community outreach effort carried out by employees of a Ghanaian urban primary care hospital were emphasised in this paper. Increased health education is required to raise community residents' understanding of COVID-19's impact on public health. This community outreach initiative has raised awareness of COVID-19 prevention and control, handwashing, and facemask use. Many patients who attended the hospital wore face masks, frequently washed their hands with soap and water while it was running, and frequently used alcohol-based hand sanitisers, all signs of increased awareness. To stop the spread of COVID-19 in their communities, the primary healthcare workforce has a crucial role to play.

19.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:26-28, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045404

ABSTRACT

Building a robust healthcare system is dependent on infection prevention and control (IPC), which is also essential during pandemics. In late 2020, a multi-country assessment was conducted, and it revealed serious issues that need to be fixed. Poor infection prevention and control (IPC) infrastructure and practices during the Ebola outbreaks in West Africa in 2014 to 2015 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2019 resulted in high numbers of health-care worker infections and decreased use of health services because of people's fear of transmission. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) created a baseline set of IPC criteria for COVID-19 based on their experience with Ebola in an effort to facilitate quick IPC advancements at healthcare facilities serving people impacted by violence and displacement. The main tenets of this basic package for IPC are on personnel and responsibility, expertise and application, and resources and infrastructure. The administered facilities by IRC perform better generally than those by MOH and other partners, it is crucial to mention. The reason for this discrepancy is that IRC can more readily make modifications in facilities that it directly maintains than in facilities that it merely supports. This should show that even under the most challenging situations, it is possible to put appropriate IPC procedures in place. Members of the World Health Assembly (WHA) decided to enhance WASH services in healthcare facilities in four resolutions that were enacted in 2019. 2 Member states likewise urged nations to improve IPC, particularly in the WASH industry, in order to guarantee the greatest standards of universal healthcare. IPC is still given too little priority despite these international agreements.

20.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention ; 30(7 Suppl):4-114, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044470

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contains 114 articles that discuss building toward resilient health systems as the main topic of the first ASGCR plenary. Speakers stressed the significance of collaborations, adaptation, and innovation while highlighting crucial gaps that have appeared in the face of serious threats and emergencies like COVID-19, climate change, and political shifts. In order to close the gap between research and practice in cancer prevention and control in LMICs, this workshop covered evidence-based and cutting-edge solutions. The sometimes transient nature of many programs and initiatives was discussed, along with the difficulties of sustainability in the face of conflicting priorities and dangers to reliable health systems. Nevertheless, even as it discussed past failings, the event also recognised significant gains and started a conversation about resilient building patterns. The second plenary addressed equality in international cancer research, acknowledging the inequalities in the field's translational capacity. Research in LMICs has frequently led to important advances in cancer science, such as the early Burkitt lymphoma treatment trials in Uganda and the human papillomavirus immunisation trials in Costa Rica. The LMIC groups who contributed to these triumphs have frequently not received the rewards of this progress fairly. Inequities in cancer between high-income countries (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) also lead to research that fails to take into account the entire scientific worth of studies carried out in LMICs as well as the worldwide burden of disease. Established power imbalances that are frequently related to funding sources can hinder the development of HIC's career and local knowledge. To ensure the translation of research findings, suggestions included multisectoral stakeholder engagement across entire health systems, such as finance and education, as well as proper humility and listening on the part of HIC researchers and funders. Additionally, the chance for two-way information exchange and learning, respecting local knowledge, and developing trust to ensure successful relationships were noted. In turn, successful collaborations and active community involvement were considered as the way to effectively translate and disseminate research findings.

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