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1.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 221, 2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an increasingly urgent gap in knowledge regarding the translation of effective HIV prevention and care programming into scaled clinical policy and practice. Challenges limiting the translation of efficacious programming into national policy include the paucity of proven efficacious programs that are reasonable for clinics to implement and the difficulty in moving a successful program from research trial to scaled programming. This study aims to bridge the divide between science and practice by exploring health care providers' views on what is needed to implement new HIV programs within existing HIV care. METHODS: We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with clinic managers and clinic program implementing staff and five key informant interviews with district health managers overseeing programming in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Qualitative data were analyzed using a template approach. A priori themes were used to construct templates of relevance, including current care context for HIV and past predictors of successful implementation. Data were coded and analyzed by these templates. RESULTS: Heath care providers identified three main factors that impact the integration of HIV programming into general clinical care: perceived benefits, resource availability, and clear communication. The perceived benefits of HIV programs hinged on the social validation of the program by early adopters. Wide program availability and improved convenience for providers and patients increased perceived benefit. Limited staffing capacity and a shortage of space were noted as resource constraints. Programs that specifically tackled these constraints through clinic decongestion were reported as being the most successful. Clear communication with all entities involved in clinic-based programs, some of which include external partners, was noted as central to maximizing program function and provider uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, new programs are continuously being developed for implementation at the primary health care level. A better understanding of the factors that facilitate and prevent programmatic success will improve public health outcomes. Implementation is likely to be most successful when programs capitalize on endorsements from early adopters, tackle resource constraints, and foster greater communication among partners responsible for implementation.

2.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1083(1):012048, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2062806

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has become a disease spread pandemic around the world and treatment and prevention is carried out in compliance with government-issued health protocols. However, it doesn’t run optimally because many people don’t comply with health protocols, especially when going to health facilities. The purpose of this study is to find out the factors that affect the application of health protocols in Klinik Pratama Serasi Kec. Medan Helvetia. This type of research is quantitative descriptive design. The population was patients who visited Klinik Pratama Serasi Kec. Medan Helvetia with a sample of 186 selected with slovin formula. Data collection using health protocol behavior questionnaires that have been tested for validity and reliability and analyzed with univariate and bivariate analysis. The result is three factors that have a meaningful relationship with the application of health protocols in Klinik Pratama Serasi Kec. Medan Helvetia namely knowledge (p = 0.022), education level (p = 0.047), and compliance (p = 0.001). It is expected that patients who visit Klinik Pratama Serasi Kec. Medan Helvetia adhere more to health protocols, not only when going to the clinic, but to other public places in order to prevent the transmission of the Covid-19 virus.

3.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1083(1):012008, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2062800

ABSTRACT

Based on the data from the Public Health Office of Medan City about comprehensive immunization coverage in Medan Deli Public Health Center was 47,3% as of December 2020. This is qualitative research with in-depth interview and case study design. This research aims to know the regulations, health human resources and facility and infrastructure resources, and social environment conditions in the implementation of Complete Basic Immunization for children in Public Health Center Medan Deli during COVID-19 pandemic. The policy of immunization program underwent many changes. One of them is the postponement of immunization according to the official regulation from the Medan City government. The health officers for immunization program during COVID-19 pandemic were sufficient, however after the pandemic their responsibilities were increased. The health officers had to give COVID-19 vaccines to the public, while also had to give immunization to children. The facilities and infrastructure of immunization program were sufficient, but cadres and public who received health services from Integrated Healthcare Center hope that the facilities should be upgraded, e.g. scales and height metre. Moreover, the low enthusiasm of the public and lack of mother’s information about the importance of immunization for children caused the low coverage of the immunization program in Public Health Center.

4.
International Journal of Healthcare Technology & Management ; 19(2):116-129, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2054416

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine, the provision of healthcare services at a distance, has gained the spotlight in recent years for the provision of medical care, medical advice and monitoring of patients in their homes. In Asia, telemedicine has flourished due to motivations such as limited personal resources, scarce healthcare facilities and a growing demand for more and better healthcare. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed many challenges to healthcare delivery, some of which are answered by telemedicine. Asia, one of the first areas of the world to be hit by the new coronavirus, quickly understood the benefits of telemedicine in this scenario. Before engaging in large-scale telemedicine Asian countries still need to resolve several issues related to the users and providers of healthcare, the organisation of healthcare systems, the availability of technology and the existing legal framework. Even so, Asia might experience a dynamic boost in telemedicine due to the pandemic.

5.
2021 Tmrees International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES21Gr 2021 ; 2437, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2050665

ABSTRACT

The coronavrrus disease, popularly known as COVID-19, is a new infectious disease and Nigeria is one of the 213 countnes and territories affected by its pandemic. The pandemic has practically affected every sector of the economy with substantial impacts and implications. The current waste management practice at all health care and isolation centres dunng this period also calls for concern. This paper focuses on the effects of COVID-19 on Waste Management Practices, the Nigeria Economy, and the Way Forward. Responses at the three tiers of government are identified;the involvement of private and public sectors with the role of international orgamzations, donors, public participation, and the impact of religion on COVID-19 response in Nigeria are also considered. The implications on Sustainable Development Goals. Agriculture, Manufacturing, Trade, Mining and Quarrying, and Education Sectors are discussed. SWOT analysis of waste management processes in Nigeria during the pandemic is presented. Based on the study, it is recommended that concerted effort on the part of the government be focused on maximizing welfare policy programs that would erase the sufferings of the people as regards access to primary health care and other social infrastructure that could enhance peoples' living standard Effective responses and recovery plans in the short-, medium and long-term should also be prioritized and consider the pandemic's different dimensions, as a measure to grow truly necessary extraordinary change toward a sustainable society. © 2022 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved.

6.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S226-S230, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2047119

ABSTRACT

Of more than 6100 Commissioned Corps officers in the USPHS, nurses comprise the largest percentage of health professionals.4 Nurses have also been part of CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service program, a globally recognized fellowship program renowned for its response efforts to investigate outbreaks of infectious disease and environmental and occupational health and safety issues throughout the program's 70-year history.5 RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the nursing profession has been in the world's spotlight as nurses have been on the front lines providing care for COVID-19 patients, performing key functions in state and local health departments, and preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in health care facilities, workplaces, and communities.6 At the CDC, nurses have been at the forefront of CDC's response to the pandemic. Most inquiries came from clinical sites in which clinicians inquired about exposure risk, regarding both their own safety and transmission risk to patients.7 In addition, frequent inquiries included risk assessment after a known or potential exposure, implementing the correct return-to-work strategy for exposed personnel, isolation and quarantine guidance, and guidance on personal protective equipment (PPE) use in a health care setting. Providing Personal Protective Equipment Guidance The COVID-19 pandemic created an unprecedented need for respirators as well as immediate guidance and information dissemination related to the use, disinfection, reuse, and optimization of respiratory protection devices for health care and public safety workers. [...]nurses were deployed to the CDC's Vaccine Task Force to monitor the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, the Myocarditis Outcomes After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Investigation Team, and v-safe, a smart phone-based app that contains links to Web-based surveys where individuals can report any adverse effects after vaccination.8 On the Vaccine Task Force, nurses reviewed and replied to vaccine-related inquiries;performed ion of medical records for reports of adverse events, including myocarditis and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis;and called clinicians to conduct surveys about myocarditis.

7.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1299, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046350

ABSTRACT

Introduction: By using pharmacist monitors, active pharmacovigilance projects make possible to detect many adverse drugs and vaccines reactions (ADRs) that otherwise would go unreported and to improve the quality of the reports entered in the Italian National Pharmacovigilance Network [1]. In our healthcare facility, the pharmacist was responsible for catalysing the process of reporting suspected ADRs by doctors and healthcare workers operating in Emergency and Acceptance Department. Since such adverse drugs and vaccines reactions could potentially have caused the patient to access the emergency department, they were responsible for a part of the requests in charge of the emergency system. Objective: The aim of this paper is to analyse the reports of adverse drugs and vaccines reactions (ADRs) that caused patients to enter the emergency department of our facility during the last 10 months. Methods: Suspected ADRs were identified by the analysis of emergency room reports written by clinicians at Careggi University Hospital during the period from May 2021 to February 2022. ADRs reports were loaded into the Italian National Pharmacovigilance Network and were subsequently analysed according to the reported drug/vaccine, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) class and the severity of the reaction, as well as stratified according to patients sex and age. Results: The total number of ADRs reports collected during the analysed period and entered in the Pharmacovigilance Network was 76, of which 38 (50%) related to drugs, 35 (46%) to vaccines used for immunisation against Sars-CoV-2, and 3 (4%) to contrast media for diagnostic use. In terms of severity, only 17 ADRs were classified as serious (22,4 %). Most ADRs were detected in female patients and in adults aged between 30 and 60 years. Conclusion: The active pharmacovigilance project called FARO enabled to intercept a good number of ADRs causing patients to access the emergency department, increasing the quantity and quality of reports entered into the Italian National Pharmacovigilance Network. In the period May 2021-February 2022, almost half of the intercepted ADRs concerned vaccines for immunisation against SARS-CoV-2. However, ADRs from drugs remained prevalent, and concerned molecules belonging to various ATC classes, in particular the class of drugs affecting the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The majority of ADRs were classified as non-serious (77.6%), indicating that many emergency room admissions were inappropriate. This highlights the need of strengthening territorial medicine and continuity of care services, which should ensure adequate care of patients with mild problems.

8.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1054(1):012015, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037332

ABSTRACT

Sustainable design strategies focus on architectural design considerations which assures the welfare, in addition to cohabitation of inanimate elements, and existing creatures that constitute the ecosystem. Sustainable architecture for public spaces, in addition to energy efficiency and zero greenhouse gas emission, needs to adopt approaches that lessen the effect of communicable diseases. Often, the primarily focus of architects is the aesthetics of buildings, there is no cognizant method for sustainable infection prevention and control mostly in the planning/production phase of public buildings. The paper aims to assess and identify how the public space can be safer in a pandemic from the vantage point of built environment professionals with the view of evolving strategies for policymakers with emphasis on the duties of the architect in mitigating the spread of viruses. The steps taken were to assess the relationship amongst environmental space and infectious diseases and propose practical steps to limit infection prevention and control (IPC) in public buildings. The paper is based on works of literature and consultations. The paper concluded that design approaches perform a substantial part in prevention and control of infections in public spaces, as well as healthcare facilities. Hence, sustainable design strategies may well be a remedy for mitigating the spread of coronavirus in public buildings.

9.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1039(1):012063, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037328

ABSTRACT

DKI Jakarta has the highest number of Covid-19 increasing cases in Indonesia, especially the Penjaringan Subdistrict, North Jakarta has a high potential for Covid-19 because of its strategic location and close to Soekarno-Hatta Airport. The distribution of health facilities in the Penjaringan Subdistrict is an essential thing to suppress the growth of Covid-19 cases. This study aims to analyze the resilience of health facilities based on the accessibility and suitability of the number of people served in each facility. This research used secondary data and was guided by Indonesian National Standard (abbreviated SNI) Number 03-1733-2004 about Tata Cara Perencanaan Lingkungan Perumahan di Perkotaan also known as Procedures for Planning a Residential Environment in Urban Area. This study uses the buffering method with ArcMap and assessing the facilities’ availability. The results showed that all villages in Penjaringan Subdistrict are served by available health facilities based on the distance. Meanwhile, six types of health facilities are incompatible with the standard and one type of health facility is compatible with the standard.

10.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1039(1):012022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037322

ABSTRACT

In early March, Indonesia had reported the first two cases of COVID-19 and this was the beginning for the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia. The need for health services is increasing along with the increasing number of COVID-19 cases in Indonesia. DKI Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and is a city with a dense population, causing the transmission of the COVID-19 to be faster than other areas. An assessment of the capacity of health facilities which includes infrastructure and resources is very important to determine the ability of health facilities to manage the rate of spread of COVID-19. This study aims to evaluate the capability of health facilities using the COVID-19 referral hospital readiness index in DKI Jakarta. The data used is the availability of human resources and infrastructure for COVID-19 referral hospitals. Analysis of Geographic Information Systems and Multi-criteria was used to map the readiness index of COVID-19 referral hospitals. The results show that there are no referral hospitals with a high readiness index. There are only 10 referral hospitals with a medium and 92 referral hospitals with a low readiness index. The lack of referral hospitals with a medium readiness index in areas of high vulnerability can have serious consequences in handling COVID-19 cases. Most of the referral hospitals have a low readiness index. However, referral hospitals are capable to reach almost all areas of DKI Jakarta in an emergency condition. It can be concluded that most of the referral hospitals do not have adequate facilities for handling COVID-19 patients.

11.
The Lancet ; 400(10357):984, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2036633

ABSTRACT

Jan Egeland, the Secretary-General of the Norwegian Refugee Council, told The Lancet, “As humanitarians, we have high expectations of Volker Türk, especially that his office will be present in the field—with us—so that they can document atrocities, like attacks on hospitals and relief workers, publish them, and push decision makers to end these violations of international humanitarian and human rights law. “Human rights violations in conflict areas—from forced displacement to atrocities to attacks on health facilities and health workers—are such a pervasive feature of conflicts in today's world that they demand greater attention from the High Commissioner for Human Rights, including new forms of collaboration with other UN agencies including the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.” Kenneth Roth, former Executive Director of Human Rights Watch, told The Lancet, “He has a background as a quiet UN diplomat.

12.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(10):1379-1381, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033926

ABSTRACT

PREPAREDNESS GAPS IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM Concomitantly, the health effects of climate change and the need for public health system engagement are increasingly apparent. The primary federal effort to build state and local climate and health capacity has been the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative, which has funded a handful of jurisdictions to implement its Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework.8 Through its preparedness mandate, the CDC established this framework to provide guidance for state, territorial, and local health agencies in developing and implementing climate change adaptation activities. A lack of sufficient and sustained investments has forced STHAs to master the art of doing more with less;we can only begin to imagine what these agencies could do to prepare for and respond to the health effects of climate change with investments proportional to the magnitude of the threat. CONCLUSION Climate change is stressing our public health system, which is already on the precipice, by exacerbating health disparities, damaging health care facilities and resources, and stretching personnel and capabilities to their limits.

16.
Medicine and Law ; 41(1):55-66, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027000

ABSTRACT

One consequence of the Covid19 pandemic in 2020 was disrupted supply chains for medical devices. In response, many providers began onsite 3d printing medical devices, without special training or custom tailored instructions. Traditional laws protecting patient safety and tort liability regarding possible malfunction of medical devices are not prepared to address the manufacture of medical devices by enduser health care facilities. The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is one regulatory body that has expressed its desire to validate these uses of 3d printing in emergencies, despite concern about these home-grown devices from the standpoint of patient safety. This article explores the uncharted legal landscape concerning the growing need for national or international regulation addressing 3D printed medical devices in Health care facilities (HCFs) and point of care (POCs) venues. New laws may be needed to protect the integrity of medical products within an overarching duty to protect patient safety. © 2022, William S. Hein & Co., Inc.. All rights reserved.

17.
The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ; 35(4):367, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026938

ABSTRACT

Background: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests are increasingly used for sero-epidemiological purposes to provide a better understanding of the extent of the infection in the community, and to monitor the progression of the COVID-19 epidemic. A sero-prevalence study was conducted to estimate prior infections with SARS-CoV-2 in Addis Ababa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 23 to 28, 2020 among 301 randomly selected residents of Addis Ababa;sub-city health offices, health facilities and health extension workers were contacted, to obtain a population profile and to conduct the random selection of study participants. Participants were selected, who had not been in direct contact with people who had contracted COVID-19, to maintain consistency among the study population. Interviews on socio demographic and behavioural risk factors, followed by serological tests were performed for SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and IgG antibodies, using the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette. Based on the manufacturer information, the test has a sensitivity of 87·9% and specificity of 100% for lgM;and a sensitivity of 97·2% and specificity of 100% for IgG. A Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was also done on combined nasopharyngeal and oropharengeal swabs. Findings: The unadjusted antibody-based crude SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was 7·6% and the adjusted (weighted average) SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was estimated at 8·8% (95% CI 5·5%-11·6%) for the study population. Higher sero-prevalence were observed for males (9.0%), age below 50 years (8.2%), students and unemployed (15.6%), as well as those with primary education (12.1%), educated above high school (37·9%), non- smokers (78·7%), with no history of regular alcohol (53·8%), no chat (70·8%), and no shisha use (94·7%). According to the findings, a significantly higher number of individuals had been infected in Addis Ababa as compared to what was being detected and reported by the RT-PCR test, which is suggestive of community transmission.

18.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1056(1):012001, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2017609

ABSTRACT

Our world is resisting the new pandemic “severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2) causing the disease known as COVID-19. To date, more than two hundred and three million cases were confirmed out of who more than four million died. Sharing data that will help the community to intervene with measures that will decrease the spread of the virus and protect the population is an obligation. This will help the world cope with this pandemic. This research aims to highlight the different criteria that will determine that the building of a health facility is ready to control the infection of this virus and similar airborne viruses. The research developed an evaluation tool that can be used by hospital administration to assess the hospital building readiness to prevent and control airborne infection from the viewpoint of architecture if it is an existing one or alternatively it can assess the design in case of a new hospital building, determining required roles and responsibilities.

19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 161, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009440

ABSTRACT

In this article, the developments in the field of COVID-19 pandemic published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2021 are reflected. We describe progresses in SARS-CoV-2 transmission route, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and access to health care facilities in children. They led to substantial changes in the clinical approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999497

ABSTRACT

Underlining the importance of equitable vaccine distribution, Rana Hajje, regional director for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) of the World Health Organization (WHO), told attendees: “No one will be safe, unless we all are.” In the UAE, Hussein el-Rand, assistant undersecretary for health centres and clinics and public health, at the Ministry of Health, said the country’s flexible health system combined with a comprehensive medical awareness among the population has resulted in a successful vaccine campaign. All Arab countries in the region are members of COVAX, the facility for equitable access led by GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), which aims to distribute 2 billion doses globally in 2021.

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