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1.
Review of Political Economy ; 35(3):823-862, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243319

ABSTRACT

Comparative empirical evidence for 22 OECD countries shows that country differences in cumulative mortality impacts of SARS-CoV-2 are caused by weaknesses in public health competences, pre-existing variances in structural socio-economic and public health vulnerabilities, and the presence of fiscal constraints. Remarkably, the (fiscally non-constrained) U.S. and the U.K. stand out, as they experience mortality outcomes similar to those of fiscally-constrained countries. High COVID19 mortality in the U.S. and the U.K. is due to pre-existing socio-economic and public health vulnerabilities, created by the following macroeconomic policy errors: (a) a deadly emphasis on fiscal austerity (which diminished public health capacities, damaged public health and deepened inequalities);(b) an obsessive belief in a trade-off between ‘efficiency' and ‘equity', which is mostly used to justify extreme inequality;(c) a complicit endorsement by mainstream macro of the unchecked power over monetary and fiscal policy-making of global finance and the rentier class;and (d) an unhealthy aversion to raising taxes, which deceives the public about the necessity to raise taxes to counter the excessive liquidity preference of the rentiers and to realign the interests of finance and of the real economy. The paper concludes by outlining a few lessons for a saner macroeconomics.

2.
Evidence & Policy ; 19(2):236-236–255, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241572

ABSTRACT

Background:The emergency response to the COVID-19 pandemic has required a rapid acceleration of policy decision making, and raised a wide range of ethical issues worldwide, ranging from vaccine prioritisation, welfare and public health ‘trade-offs', inequalities in policy impacts, and the legitimacy of scientific expertise.Aims and objectives:This paper explores the legacy of the pandemic for future science-advice-policy relationships by investigating how the UK government's engagement with ethical advice is organised institutionally. We provide an analysis of some key ethical moments in the UK Government response to the pandemic, and institutions and national frameworks which exist to provide ethical advice on policy strategies.Methods:We draw on literature review, documentary analysis of scientific advisory group reports, and a stakeholder workshop with government ethics advisors and researchers in England.Findings:We identify how particular types of ethical advice and expertise are sought to support decision making. Contrary to a prominent assumption in the extensive literature on ‘governing by expertise', ethical decisions in times of crisis are highly contingent.Discussion and conclusions:The paper raises an important set of questions for how best to equip policymakers to navigate decisions about values in situations characterised by knowledge deficits, complexity and uncertainty. We conclude that a clearer pathway is needed between advisory institutions and decision makers to ensure ethically-informed debate.

3.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8821, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20240899

ABSTRACT

Using a multilevel modelling approach, this study investigates the impact of urban inequalities on changes to rail ridership across Chicago's "L” stations during the pandemic, the mass vaccination rollout, and the full reopening of the city. Initially believed to have an equal impact, COVID-19 disproportionally impacted the ability of lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods' to adhere to non-pharmaceutical interventions: working-from-home and social distancing. We find that "L” stations in predominately Black or African American and Hispanic or Latino neighbourhoods with high industrial land-use recorded the smallest behavioural change. The maintenance of higher public transport use at these stations is likely to have exacerbated existing health inequalities, worsening disparities in users' risk of exposure, infection rates, and mortality rates. This study also finds that the vaccination rollout and city reopening did not significantly increase the number of users at stations in higher vaccinated, higher private vehicle ownership neighbourhoods, even after a year into the pandemic. A better understanding of the spatial and socioeconomic determinants of changes in ridership behaviour is crucial for policymakers in adjusting service routes and frequencies that will sustain reliant neighbourhoods' access to essential services, and to encourage trips at stations which are the most impacted to revert the trend of declining public transport use.

4.
Journal of Dental Hygiene (Online) ; 97(3):13-20, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238748

ABSTRACT

Disparities exist in access to early oral health care, disproportionately impacting minority ethnic groups and populations with low socioeconomic status. Medical dental integration provides an opportunity to create a new dental access point for early prevention and intervention as well as care coordination. The Wisconsin Medical Dental Integration (WI-MDI) model expanded early access to preventive oral health services by integrating dental hygienists (DHs) into pediatric primary care and prenatal care teams to address oral health inequities with the goal of reducing dental disease. This case study will describe how DHs were incorporated into the medical care teams in Wisconsin and how legislation expanding scope of practice made this possible. Since 2019, five federally qualified health systems, one non-profit clinic, and two large health systems have enrolled in the WI-MDI project. Thirteen DHs have worked across nine clinics in the WI-MDI project and over 15,000 patient visits to a medical provider included oral health services provided by DHs from 2019 to 2023. Dental hygienists working in alternative practice models such as those demonstrated in the innovative WI-MDI approach are positioned to reduce oral health disparities through the provision of early and frequent dental prevention, intervention, and care coordination.

5.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 84(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20237523

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted everyday life globally, with severe consequences in several countries and regions. A key concern related to the COVID-19 pandemic is the wide variation in mortality across nations and sub-national locations such as states and counties. Anecdotal evidence, as well as evidence from CDC, indicates that the risk of spread as well as the risk of mortality from the pandemic is higher for regions with a population characterized by disadvantaged economic (income) and racial (underserved communities) and demographic profiles (age). Multiple studies have indicated that the most crucial step toward reducing mortality is expanding critical care capacity through procuring personal protective equipment (PPE) and ventilators and training critical care frontline employees. It is projected that with exponential growth in the pandemic spread, many regions would fall short of critical care capacity, increasing mortality.Furthermore, the pandemic has imposed high levels of constraints on resource availability, even in developed nations. Under resource constraints in critical care delivery, mitigation strategies need to account for the variation in observed cases and the disparity in mortality across locations. In my dissertation, I make a concerted effort to contribute toward understanding the sources of variation in mortality and propose a framework that enables pandemic preparedness and mitigation strategies that encapsulate the spatial and temporal variation in risk of mortality from COVID-19. The mitigation strategies are divided into supply-side and demand-side moderators of mortality. Accordingly, I focus on two mitigation strategies: (i) ICU capacity as a supply-side moderator and (ii) Vaccination coverage as a demand-side moderator. The overarching objective of my dissertation is to understand the role of supply-side and demand-side moderators of mortality, independently and jointly, of the association between socio-economic, demographic (henceforth referred to as social), and clinical risk factors and COVID-19 mortality. Much of the epidemiological literature on COVID-19 has focused on reducing the spread. However, the ultimate goal is to reduce mortality. There is a necessity in both practice and academic literature to understand actionable policies that can reduce mortality in general and spatial variation of mortality in specific. This dissertation research primarily leverages empirical methodology combining matching procedures with fixed effect modeling of panel data to test the hypothesized relationships of interest. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
Journal of Medical Ethics: Journal of the Institute of Medical Ethics ; 47(5):308-317, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20237372

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the just distribution of vaccines against the SARS-CoV- 2 virus and sets forth an ethical framework that prioritises frontline and essential workers, people at high risk of severe disease or death, and people at high risk of infection. Section I makes the case that vaccine distribution should occur at a global level in order to accelerate development and fair, efficient vaccine allocation. Section II puts forth ethical values to guide vaccine distribution including helping people with the greatest need, reducing health disparity, saving the most lives and promoting narrow social utility. It also responds to objections which claim that earlier years have more value than later years. Section III puts forth a practical ethical framework to aid decision-makers and compares it with alternatives. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
European Journal of Housing Policy ; 23(2):232-259, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236395

ABSTRACT

Global rates of excess mortality attributable to the Covid-19 pandemic provide a fresh impetus to make sense of the associations between income inequality, housing inequality and the social gradient in health, suggesting new questions about the ways in which housing and health are treated in the framing and development of public policy. The first half of the paper uses a social harm lens to examine the threefold associations of the social inequality, housing and health trifecta and offers new insights for policy analysis which foregrounds the production, transmission, and experience of various types of harm which occur within the home. The main body of the paper then draws upon the outcomes of an international systematic literature mapping review of 213 Covid-19 research papers to demonstrate three specific harms associated with stay-at-home lockdowns: (i) intimate partner and domestic violence, (ii) poor mental health and (iii) health harming behaviours. The reported findings are interpreted using a social harm perspective and some implications for policy analysis are illustrated. The paper concludes with a reflection on the efficacy of social harm as a lens for policy analysis and suggests directions for further research in housing studies and zemiology.

8.
Salud Publica de Mexico ; 65(3):297-299, 2023.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20235494

ABSTRACT

The National Public Health Institutes (NPHI), members of the Latin American Regional Network of the International Association of National Institutes of Public Health, met face to face at the headquarters of the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico, in the City of Cuernavaca, from October 5 to 7, 2022, with the participation of the directors or their representatives of the NPHIs of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru and Suriname and representatives of the South American Sub regional Program (SAM), and the Central American Sub regional Program (CAM) of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Organization of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (OTCA), the Andean Health Agency/Hipolito Unanue Agreement (ORAS/CONHU) and the Central American Integration System (SICA/COMISCA), analyzing the role of the NPHI in combating health inequities;in confronting the global climate and environmental crisis;combating hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition;successes and challenges in responding to the Covid-19 pandemic;strengthening and continuous improvement of integrated disease surveillance and preparedness for health emergencies;as well as the various existing regional and sub-regional health cooperation programs, noticing that: 1. In the current scenario, the dominating development model is a generator of growing social inequalities, which determine serious inequities in the health conditions of our peoples. 2. Likewise, the current model of production and consumption, adopted at the global level, has increased hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition that possibly constitute nowadays the main health problem in our region. 3. The environmental crisis, which is also a product of the current global development model, has a significant impact on human and animal health and the interaction between both. 4. The NPHIs have played a role of major relevance in confronting the Covid-19 pandemic, not fully applying, however, their full potential for research and for proposing national plans for the disease control. 5. Health surveillance systems, in most of our countries, suffer from significant fragmentation between various sectors and within the health sector itself, implying, in any case, reactive actions that do not allow for anticipating the emergence of new pathologies or health emergencies. 6. The various regional and sub regional cooperation agencies and programs offer an enormous capacity for synergies and mutual cooperation.

9.
Journal of Health Management ; 25(1):8-125, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231629

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 11 s that discuss recent learnings and developments in healthcare financing from a global perspective. The s cover a range of topics such as the impact of mental illness on poverty and catastrophic health expenditure in India, financing challenges in the American healthcare industry, comparative analysis of health system financing in India and Saudi Arabia, and the contribution of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme to inequality in healthcare utilisation. Other s explore the influence of socio-economic status on health financing choices in Jambi Province, households' willingness to pay for community-based health insurance in Bangladesh, and changes in household expenditures during the first wave of COVID-19 in India. The issue also includes discussions on managing the provider-purchaser split in India and reconsidering patient value to create better healthcare.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients hospitalized for COVID-19 experience prolonged symptoms months after discharge. Little is known abou t patients' personal experiences recovering from COVID-19 in the United States (US), where medically underserved populations are at particular risk of adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 hospitalization and barriers to and facilitators of recovery 1 year after hospital discharge in a predominantly Black American study population with high neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage. DESIGN: Qualitative study utilizing individual, semi-structured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 approximately 1 year after discharge home who were engaged in a COVID-19 longitudinal cohort study. APPROACH: The interview guide was developed and piloted by a multidisciplinary team. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and organized into discrete themes using qualitative content analysis with constant comparison techniques. KEY RESULTS: Of 24 participants, 17 (71%) self-identified as Black, and 13 (54%) resided in neighborhoods with the most severe neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage. One year after discharge, participants described persistent deficits in physical, cognitive, or psychological health that impacted their current lives. Repercussions included financial suffering and a loss of identity. Participants reported that clinicians often focused on physical health over cognitive and psychological health, an emphasis that posed a barrier to recovering holistically. Facilitators of recovery included robust financial or social support systems and personal agency in health maintenance. Spirituality and gratitude were common coping mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent health deficits after COVID-19 resulted in downstream consequences in participants' lives. Though participants received adequate care to address physical needs, many described persistent unmet cognitive and psychological needs. A more comprehensive understanding of barriers and facilitators for COVID-19 recovery, contextualized by specific healthcare and socioeconomic needs related to socioeconomic disadvantage, is needed to better inform intervention delivery to patients that experience long-term sequelae of COVID-19 hospitalization.

11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(10)2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233611

ABSTRACT

Despite the significant achievements of current healthcare systems (CHCSs) in curing or treating several acute conditions, there has been far less success coping with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which have complex roots and nonconventional transmission vectors. Owing to the impact of the invisible hyperendemic NCDs and the COVID-19 pandemic, the limitations of CHCSs have been exposed. In contrast, the advent of omics-based technologies and big data science has raised global hope of curing or treating NCDs and improving overall healthcare outcomes. However, challenges related to their use and effectiveness must be addressed. Additionally, while such advancements intend to improve quality of life, they can also contribute the ever-increasing health disparity among vulnerable populations, such as low/middle-income populations, poorly educated people, gender-based violence victims, and minority and indigenous peoples, to name a few. Among five health determinants, the contribution of medical care to individual health does not exceed 11%. Therefore, it is time to implement a new well-being-oriented system complementary or parallel to CHCSs that incorporates all five health determinants to tackle NCDs and unforeseen diseases of the future, as well as to promote cost-effective, accessible, and sustainable healthy lifestyle choices that can reduce the current level of healthcare inequity.

12.
Autism ; : 13623613231176930, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233568

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted doctor's and dental visits, mental health treatments, and other special therapies for children across the United States. Prior research has found that autistic children were more likely to lack these services even before the pandemic, but they experienced more mental health and behavior problems with the onset of the pandemic, increasing the need for these services. This study analyzed data from before (2019) and after (2020) the onset of the pandemic to determine whether autistic children had even more severe disruptions in services after the pandemic started compared to nonautistic children. We found that autistic children were more likely to have unmet medical, dental, and mental health needs in both 2019 and 2020. Overall, children experienced increased disruptions from 2019 to 2020, but this did not differ by diagnosis. Our results suggest that there are persisting gaps in autistic children's healthcare regardless of the pandemic. We discuss issues surrounding barriers to services for autistic children and issues surrounding virtual services, such as teletherapy. Future research should further explore how to reduce barriers to services for autistic children, including virtual and in-person services.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1068, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240510

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 testing is an important risk mitigation strategy for COVID-19 prevention in school settings, where the virus continues to pose a public health challenge for in-person learning. Socially vulnerable school communities with the highest proportion of low-income, minority, and non-English speaking families have the least testing access despite shouldering a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Through the Safer at School Early Alert (SASEA) program, we investigated community perceptions of testing in San Diego County schools, with a focus on barriers and facilitators from the perspective of socially vulnerable parents and school staff. Using a mixed-methods approach, we administered a community survey and conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with staff and parents from SASEA-affiliated schools and childcares. We recruited 299 survey respondents and 42 FGD participants. Protecting one's family (96.6%) and protecting one's community (96.6%) were marked as key motivators to testing uptake. School staff in particular reported that the reassurance of a negative status mitigated concerns about COVID-19 infection in schools. Participants expressed that COVID-19-related stigma, loss of income as a result of isolation/quarantine requirements, and lack of multilingual materials were the most significant barriers to testing. Our findings suggest that the testing barriers faced by school community members are predominantly structural. Testing uptake efforts must provide support and resources to manage the social and financial consequences of testing while continuously communicating its benefits. There is a clear need to continue to incorporate testing as a strategy to maintain school safety and facilitate access for vulnerable community members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Focus Groups , Poverty , Parents
14.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20220558, 2023 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to explore the availability of mental health supports within public schools during the COVID-19 pandemic by using survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. K-12 public schools collected in October-November 2021. METHODS: The prevalence of 11 school-based mental health supports was examined within the sample (N=437 schools). Chi-square tests and adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify associations between school-level characteristics and mental health supports. School characteristics included level (elementary, middle, or high school), locale (city, town, suburb, or rural area), poverty level, having a full-time school nurse, and having a school-based health center. RESULTS: Universal mental health programs were more prevalent than more individualized and group-based supports (e.g., therapy groups); however, prevalence of certain mental health supports was low among schools (e.g., only 53% implemented schoolwide trauma-informed practices). Schools having middle to high levels of poverty or located in rural areas or towns and elementary schools and schools without a health infrastructure were less likely to implement mental health supports, even after analyses were adjusted for school-level characteristics. For example, compared with low-poverty schools, mid-poverty schools had lower odds of implementing prosocial skills training for students (adjusted OR [AOR]=0.49, 95% CI=0.27-0.88) and providing confidential mental health screening (AOR=0.42, 95% CI=0.22-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation levels of school-based mental health supports leave substantial room for improvement, and numerous disparities existed by school characteristics. Higher-poverty areas, schools in rural areas or towns, and elementary schools and schools without a health infrastructure may require assistance in ensuring equitable access to mental health supports.

15.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399231178542, 2023 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239793

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of COVID-19 vaccines for youth since 2021, vaccine hesitancy has resulted in suboptimal uptake. Public health campaigns that empower local youth ambassadors as trusted messengers who share their personal narratives related to getting vaccinated hold promise for promoting COVID-19 vaccination. We used a seven-step approach to develop, implement, and evaluate a youth-led ambassador campaign to promote COVID-19 vaccine uptake in communities experiencing COVID-19 disparities in Worcester, MA. The seven steps included (1) engaging with key partners; (2) determining a community of focus; (3) identifying trusted sources; (4) determining campaign components; (5) training the vaccine ambassadors; (6) disseminating the campaign; and (7) evaluating the campaign. We trained nine youth as vaccine ambassadors. Ambassadors were guided through self-reflection of motivations for COVID-19 vaccination and the resulting personal narratives became the campaign messaging. English/Spanish vaccine messages developed by youth ambassadors were disseminated through social media platforms (n = 3), radio (n = 2), local TV (n = 2), flyers (n = 2,086), posters (n = 386), billboards (n = 10), and local bus ads (n = 40). Qualitative youth feedback indicate participation in the campaign was a positive and empowering experience which reinforces the importance of engaging youth in public health messaging. Youth empowerment through personal narratives (and storytelling) holds promise for future public health campaigns.

16.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mistrust of the government and medical establishments are prominent reasons for vaccine hesitancy among African Americans (AAs). As COVID-19 research evolves in real time with some uncertainties remaining, AA communities may be less trusting of public health agencies. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the association between trust in public health agencies that recommend the COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 vaccination status among AAs in North Carolina. METHODS: A 75-item cross-sectional survey, the Triad Pastors Network COVID-19 and COVID-19 Vaccination survey, was developed and administered to African Americans in North Carolina. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between levels of trust in public health agencies who recommend the COVID-19 vaccine and COVID-19 vaccination status among AAs. RESULTS: Of the 1157 AAs included in these analyses, approximately 14% of AAs had not received the COVID-19 vaccine. These findings indicated that lower levels of trust in public health agencies significantly decreased the odds of getting the COVID-19 vaccination compared to those with higher levels of trust among AAs. The most trusted source for information on COVID-19 included federal agencies among all respondents. Among the vaccinated, primary care physicians were another trusted source of information. Pastors were another trusted source for those willing to be vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the majority of the respondents in this sample receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, subgroups of AAs remain unvaccinated. Federal agencies have a high level of trust among AA adults; however, innovative approaches are needed to reach AAs who remain unvaccinated.

17.
Public Health ; 221: 116-123, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate how people's health-seeking behaviors evolve in the COVID-19 pandemic by community and medical service category. STUDY DESIGN: This is a longitudinal study using mobility data from 19 million mobile devices of visits to all types of health facility locations for all US states. METHODS: We examine the variations in weekly in-person medical visits across county, neighborhood, and specialty levels. Different regression models are used for each level to investigate factors that influence the disparities in medical visits. County-level analysis explores associations between county medical visit patterns, political orientation, and COVID-19 infection rate. Neighborhood-level analysis focuses on neighborhood socio-economic compositions as potential determinants of medical visit levels. Specialty-level analysis compares the evolution of visit disruptions in different specialties. RESULTS: A more left-leaning political orientation and a higher local infection rate were associated with larger decreases in in-person medical visits, and these associations became stronger, moving from the initial period of stay-at-home orders into the post-lockdown period. Initial reactions were strongest for seniors and those of high socio-economic status, but this reversed in post-lockdown period where socio-economically disadvantaged communities stabilized at a lower level of medical visits. Neighborhoods with more female and young people exhibited larger decreases in in-person medical visits throughout the initial and post-lockdown periods. The evolution of disruptions diverges across medical specialties, from only short-term disruption in specialties such as dentistry to increasing disruption, as in cardiology. CONCLUSIONS: Given distinct patterns in visit between communities, medical service categories, and between different periods in the pandemic, policy makers, and providers should concentrate on monitoring patients in disrupted specialties who overlap with the at-risk contexts and socio-economic factors in future health emergencies.

18.
Health Equity ; 7(1): 296-302, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238465

ABSTRACT

As novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) began to spread across the United States in early 2020, health care systems faced extreme demands on resources. As the country's largest single-payer health care system, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) was uniquely positioned to study how the virus impacted different communities and work to improve care provided to all. Early on, a literature review of prior epidemics revealed that occupational exposures and an inability to socially distance could impact some groups more than others. The VA's Office of Health Equity leveraged a general sense of community to create a collaborative research space and a dedicated analytic space to inform pandemic operations. VA researchers and operations staff were able to quickly share information and respond to updates to produce accurate and reliable publications for medical professionals and the general public. Partnerships with VA Medical Centers and Veteran Service Organizations helped to increase communication across the nation and determine the most critical needs. Although COVID-19 was dynamic in nature, VA's intentional examination of social and structural factors was crucial in informing a more equitable approach. Moving forward, these inequities must be intentionally addressed in future pandemic responses.

19.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 40(3): 584-586, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237224

ABSTRACT

Augmented intelligence (AI), the combination of artificial based intelligence with human intelligence from a practitioner, has become an increased focus of clinical interest in the field of dermatology. Technological advancements have led to the development of deep-learning based models to accurately diagnose complex dermatological diseases such as melanoma in adult datasets. Models for pediatric dermatology remain scarce, but recent studies have shown applications in the diagnoses of facial infantile hemangiomas and X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia; however, we see unmet needs in other complex clinical scenarios and rare diseases, such as diagnosing squamous cell carcinoma in patients with epidermolysis bullosa. Given the still limited number of pediatric dermatologists, especially in rural areas, AI has the potential to help overcome health disparities by helping primary care physicians treat or triage patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Dermatology , Melanoma , Adult , Humans , Child , Artificial Intelligence , Melanoma/diagnosis , Intelligence
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 96, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has caused tremendous damage to U.S. public health, but COVID vaccines can effectively reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections and related mortality. Our study aimed to quantify the association between proximity to a community healthcare facility and COVID-19 related mortality after COVID vaccines became publicly available and explore how this association varied across racial and ethnic groups. RESULTS: Residents living farther from a facility had higher COVID-19-related mortality across U.S. counties. This increased mortality incidence associated with longer distances was particularly pronounced in counties with higher proportions of Black and Hispanic populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Ethnicity , Health Status Disparities , Hispanic or Latino , United States/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Community Health Centers , Black or African American
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