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1.
Palliat Med ; : 2692163221133665, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Voluntary and community sector bereavement services are central to bereavement support in the UK. AIM: To determine service providers' perspectives on access to their support before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Mixed methods study using an explanatory sequential design: (1) Cross-sectional online survey of UK bereavement services; (2) Qualitative interviews with staff and volunteers at selected services. SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: 147 services participated in the survey; 24 interviews were conducted across 14 services. RESULTS: 67.3% of services reported there were groups with unmet needs not accessing their services before the pandemic; most frequently people from minoritised ethnic communities (49%), sexual minority groups (26.5%), deprived areas (24.5%) and men (23.8%). Compared with before the pandemic, 3.4% of services were seeing more people from minoritised ethnic groups, while 6.1% were seeing fewer. 25.2% of services did not collect ethnicity data. Qualitative findings demonstrated the disproportionate impact of the pandemic on minoritised ethnic communities, including disruption to care/mourning practices, and the need for culturally appropriate support. During the pandemic outreach activities were sometimes deprioritised; however, increased collaboration was also reported. Online provision improved access but excluded some. Positive interventions to increase equity included collecting client demographic data; improving outreach, language accessibility and staff representation; supporting other professionals to provide bereavement support; local collaboration and co-production. CONCLUSIONS: Service providers report inequities in access to bereavement support. Attention needs to be paid to identifying, assessing and meeting unmet needs for appropriate bereavement support. Identified positive interventions can inform service provision and research.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110004

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence is emerging on the higher risk of infection and adverse outcomes for the most disadvantaged groups of the population, and COVID-19 vaccination campaigns worldwide are struggling to ensure equitable access to immunization for all. From 21 June 2021 to 15 October 2021, the Local Health Unit ASL Roma 1 adopted a tailored immunization strategy to reach socially vulnerable groups of the population with the primary vaccination course. This strategy was developed with a step-by-step, participatory approach. Through engagement with internal and external stakeholders, target groups were identified, potential barriers analyzed, solutions discussed, and tailored interventions designed. Over nine thousand individuals from among irregular migrants, homeless people and hard-to-reach communities were contacted and vaccinated.

3.
Journal of Community Practice ; 30(4):378-394, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2106991

ABSTRACT

Professionals such as social workers, public health officials, cultural networkers, researchers, and community leaders, who are designing and implementing programs and policies, can look to youth to gain a unique perspective on promoting community health. Across the United States, many communities experience inadequate access to nutritious foods that exacerbate poor health outcomes for marginalized populations - people of color, older or disabled adults, and those with lower education or income. To address food access disparities, providing youth voice and building youth empowerment may offer creative strategies to encourage community change. The Youth CAN (Change.Activity.Nutrition) project aimed to engage and empower adolescents to become agents of change for health within their community. Youth became active researchers through participatory action research (PAR) using socially engaged art platforms such as photovoice (photography), street art (graffiti-style art), and spoken word (poetry) to explore their environment and identify facilitators and barriers to healthy eating within their community. The World Cafe activity facilitated conversation among youth and adults to generate ideas to improve community food access. Collaboration between adult and youth researchers, and community leaders led to proposed solutions for improving access to healthy foods within an urban, low-income neighborhood. The Youth CAN project demonstrated how engaging and empowering youth through PAR is fundamental in promoting positive youth development and enabling youth to become advocates for equitable food access in their communities.

4.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 123: 106997, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 quickly overwhelmed the world, but disproportionately affects certain communities, particularly minority groups. Despite overrepresentation among COVID-19 cases and death, minority groups were underrepresented in some of the early COVID-19 clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the demographic characteristics of COVID-19 clinical trial participants to national COVID-19 data. METHODS: PubMed was searched from December 1, 2019 to November 24, 2020, for randomized controlled trials evaluating a pharmacologic treatment for COVID-19 patients from one or more U.S. sites written in the English language following the PRISMA checklist. Descriptive statistics were calculated to characterize patient demographics enrolled in the included clinical trials, as well as for comparison with national COVID-19 data. RESULTS: A total of 4472 records were identified, of which 16 studies were included. The median number of participants was higher in studies of nonhospitalized patients compared to those of hospitalized patients (n = 452 [range 20-1062] vs n = 243 [152-2795]). Ten (63%) studies reported mean or median ages of 50 years or older among all study arms. Males comprised more than half of the study cohort in ten (63%) studies. Race and ethnicity were reported separately in four (25%) studies but were combined when reported in five (31%) studies, while six (38%) reported only race or ethnicity. Proportional representation based on age, sex, race, and ethnicity was evident in some trials, but not in others, when compared to national data. CONCLUSION: Overall, participants often did not reflect the actual population with COVID-19 and demographic characteristics were inconsistently reported.

5.
Korean J Women Health Nurs ; 26(2): 106-108, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099985
6.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399221129536, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098255

ABSTRACT

Recent nationwide racial justice uprisings following ongoing police violence against Black communities juxtaposed with the COVID-19 pandemic have increased the urgency for a reckoning around the ineffectiveness and harm caused by the carceral apparatus. It is well documented that the correctional system was founded upon and continues the legacy of slavery and white supremacy. Research has shown that incarceration directly contributes to many negative health outcomes, including increased risk and spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, especially among people who inject drugs. This high burden of HCV disproportionately impacts low-income communities of color, who not only report higher rates of substance use due to pervasive discrimination but are also over-incarcerated as a result of structural racism and the War on Drugs. The COVID-19 pandemic further underscores that correctional facilities are fundamentally structured to promote health inequities. Minoritized communities who are overrepresented in corrections continue to be put at increased risk of COVID-19 in overcrowded facilities, are isolated from social support and medical care, and have been ignored in vaccination strategies. In this perspective, we argue that HCV interventions within the carceral apparatus will remain largely ineffective due to the negative health impacts of incarceration. Instead, we propose adopting abolitionist principles for HCV elimination-divesting from the carceral apparatus to prioritize community-based efforts on promoting HCV screening, treatment, and prevention. In doing so, the nation will have not only the capacity to meaningfully eliminate HCV but also the potential to improve overall societal outcomes.

7.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 40S-45S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated 2 innovative approaches that supported COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing (CI/CT) in Chicago communities: (1) early engagement of people diagnosed with COVID-19 by leveraging the existing Healthcare Alert Network to send automated telephone calls and text messages and (2) establishment of a network of on-site case investigators and contact tracers within partner health care facilities (HCFs) and community-based organizations (CBOs). METHODS: The Chicago Department of Public Health used Healthcare Alert Network data to calculate the proportion of people with confirmed COVID-19 who successfully received an automated telephone call or text message during December 27, 2020-April 24, 2021. The department also used CI/CT data to calculate the proportion of cases successfully interviewed and named contacts successfully notified, as well as the time to successful case interview and to successful contact notification. RESULTS: Of 67 882 people with COVID-19, 94.3% (n = 64 011) received an automated telephone call and 91.7% (n = 62 239) received a text message. Of the 65 470 COVID-19 cases pulled from CI/CT data, 24 450 (37.3%) interviews were completed, including 6212 (61.3%) of the 10 126 cases diagnosed in HCFs. The median time from testing to successful case interview was 3 days for Chicago Department of Public Health investigators and 4 days for HCF investigators. Overall, 34 083 contacts were named; 13 117 (38.5%) were successfully notified, including 9068 (36.6%) of the 24 761 contacts assigned to CBOs. The median time from contact elicitation to completed notification by CBOs was <24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Partnerships with HCFs and CBOs helped deliver timely CI/CT during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting a potential benefit of engaging non-public health institutions in CI/CT for existing and emerging diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Chicago/epidemiology , Public Health
8.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 89-91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096544
9.
Transl Behav Med ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097459

ABSTRACT

The field of digital health is evolving rapidly and encompasses a wide range of complex and changing technologies used to support individual and population health. The COVID-19 pandemic has augmented digital health expansion and significantly changed how digital health technologies are used. To ensure that these technologies do not create or exacerbate existing health disparities, a multi-pronged and comprehensive research approach is needed. In this commentary, we outline five recommendations for behavioral and social science researchers that are critical to promoting digital health equity. These recommendations include: (i) centering equity in research teams and theoretical approaches, (ii) focusing on issues of digital health literacy and engagement, (iii) using methods that elevate perspectives and needs of underserved populations, (iv) ensuring ethical approaches for collecting and using digital health data, and (v) developing strategies for integrating digital health tools within and across systems and settings. Taken together, these recommendations can help advance the science of digital health equity and justice.


The field of digital health is quickly growing and changing. Digital health technologies have the potential to increase access to health-related information and healthcare and improve wellbeing, but it is important that those technologies don't widen existing health disparities or create new ones. Behavioral and social science researchers have a key role to play in centering equity in their research teams and theoretical approaches, focusing on key barriers to access, uptake, and usage, studying digital health in ways that elevate the voices and needs of historically underserved groups, being thoughtful about how digital health data are collected and used, and making sure that digital health tools are designed to be used in real-world settings.

10.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 123: 106973, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095133

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Alarmingly, 87% of US adults have overweight or obesity, with non-Hispanic black adults having higher obesity and T2D prevalence than non-Hispanic white. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated the clinical benefits of lifestyle intervention (LI). While the DPP LI is effective, some participants don't achieve clinically significant weight loss in the current group-based translation paradigm. Black adults have the lowest adjusted weight loss (3.2%) among all racial/ethnic groups. Early intervention nonresponse defined as ≤1% weight loss at intervention week 4 is linked to lower probability of achieving weight loss goals. This paper describes the design and methods of a cluster randomized controlled trial among black weight loss nonresponders nested in 20 community sites (primarily churches). Descriptions of the adaptations made to transition the program to virtual format during the COVID-19 pandemic are also included. Trained community health workers deliver a group-based, 6-month long DPP over 18 sessions via Zoom. Additionally, nonresponders in the enhanced group receive weekly telephone support to provide individual-level intervention to help overcome weight loss barriers. Outcomes include weight, physical activity level, blood pressure, and dietary behaviors; these are compared between nonresponders in the enhanced intervention group and nonresponders in the active control group. Cost, mediators, and moderators are explored. If found to efficacious, these enhanced strategies could be standardized as a supplement for use with DPP nonresponders.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identified climate change as the 21st century's biggest health threat. This study aimed to identify the current knowledge base, evidence gaps, and implications for climate action and health policymaking to address the health impact of climate change, including in the most underserved groups. METHODS: The Horizon-funded project ENBEL ('Enhancing Belmont Research Action to support EU policy making on climate change and health') organised a workshop at the 2021-European Public Health conference. Following presentations of mitigation and adaptation strategies, seven international researchers and public health experts participated in a panel discussion linking climate change and health. Two researchers transcribed and thematically analysed the panel discussion recording. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: (1) 'Evidence is key' in leading the climate debate, (2) the need for 'messaging about health for policymaking and behaviour change' including health co-benefits of climate action, (3) existing 'inequalities between and within countries', and (4) 'insufficient resources and funding' to implement national health adaptation plans and facilitate evidence generation and climate action, particularly in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: More capacity is needed to monitor health effects and inequities, evaluate adaptation and mitigation interventions, address current under-representations of low- or middle-income countries, and translate research into effective policymaking.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Population Health , Public Health , Policy Making , World Health Organization
12.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 357-372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated existing health inequities, further exposing the challenges in meeting the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs, particularly for Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC). We interviewed 11 key informants through three focus groups to explore barriers and pathways to SRH care for BIPOC during COVID-19 in the United States. Reimagining reproductive health practices requires holistic practices and multisector pathways, a comprehensive reproductive justice approach. This includes interventions across the sexual and reproductive health continuum. Using a deductive-dominant approach grounded in reproductive justice values, we explore themes around SRH during COVID-19. Five themes for advancing reproductive justice were identified: "supremacy of birth"; police violence as a determinant of SR mental health; addressing quality of care outside of hospital settings; digital redlining; and centering joy, liberation, and humanity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health Services , Humans , Reproductive Health , Social Justice , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility
13.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 341-350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091257

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine decision-making among Black adults at high-risk for COVID-19 infection. Despite effective treatment and vaccination availability, Black Americans continue to be disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Design Setting and Participants: Using community-engaged qualitative methods, we conducted virtual, semi-structured focus groups with Black residents in Los Angeles County before widespread vaccine rollout. Recruitment occurred through local community partners. Main Outcome Measures: Themes and subthemes on factors for vaccine confidence and accessibility. Methods: As part of a larger study exploring COVID-19 vaccine decision-making factors among multiethnic groups, two-hour virtual focus groups were conducted between December 15, 2020 and January 27, 2021. Transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Three focus groups were conducted with 17 Black participants, who were primarily female (n=15), residents of high-poverty zip codes (n=11) and employed full-time (n=6). Black-specific considerations for vaccine confidence and accessibility include: 1) reduced confidence in COVID-19 vaccines due to historical government inaction and racism (existing health inequities and disparities are rooted in racism; historical unethical research practices); 2) misunderstanding of Black communities' vaccine concerns ("vaccine hesitancy" as an inaccurate label to describe vaccine skepticism; ignorance to root causes of vaccine skepticism); and 3) recognizing and building on resources (community agency to address COVID-19 vaccine needs adequately). Conclusions: Vaccination campaigns should improve understanding of underlying vaccination concerns to improve vaccine outreach effectiveness and should partner with, provide resources to, and invest in local, trusted Black community entities to improve COVID-19 vaccination disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
14.
Community Dent Health ; 39(4): 254-259, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089548

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A key aspect of the public health response to COVID-19 in Scotland was enhanced community surveillance, including testing in dental settings. Across Scotland, dental settings offered patients over 5-years-old the opportunity to participate in community surveillance of COVID-19. METHODS: A Health Inequalities Impact Assessment (HIIA) was conducted to understand the differential impacts the programme would have on the population and to improve the accessibility of the programme. HIIA is a tool to allow the assessment, understanding, and mitigation of impacts on people of a proposed policy or practice. It fulfils an organisational duty to meet the requirements of the Equality Act and Fairer Scotland Duty. The HIIA was conducted rapidly in parallel with the programme development. An action research approach included an online workshop, consultation, review of population data and a literature search. RESULTS: Adjustments were required to improve the programme's accessibility. Stakeholders, including dental teams from across Scotland were involved in the consultation and brought their front-line experience in different settings. Common issues identified included digital literacy and access, language and cultural barriers to participation, and issues relating to the implications of a positive COVID-19 result. Literature indicated limited evidence on the acceptability, accessibility, and equity of asymptomatic COVID-19 surveillance. CONCLUSION: This HIIA was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. As an example of good practice in tackling inequalities in access to programmes it should represent the benchmark for other similar initiatives.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2124781, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082169

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the early vaccine landscape relative to challenges faced by low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials in 2021 (n = 123) using a structured 13-point analytic framework. Supply sustainability was defined as a composite metric of four manufacturing and regulation variables. Vaccine desirability was defined as a composite metric of nine development and distribution variables. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and five vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a sustainability score equal to or above 0.5. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and seven vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a desirability score equal to or above 0.5. No vaccines in Phases 2/3, 3, or 4 met more than one distribution criterion. Structured assessment COVID-19 vaccine candidates in clinical trials in 2021 revealed numerous challenges to adequate access in LMICs. Key policy recommendations included increasing technology transfer to LMICs, developing international legal mechanisms to prevent export bans, and increasing investment in vaccine candidates with more favorable distribution profiles.

16.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(4): 7657, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081330

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first outbreak of the omicron variant of COVID-19 in the Torres and Cape region of Far North Queensland in Australia was declared in late December 2021. A COVID-19 Care at Home program was created to support the health and non-health needs of people with COVID-19 and their families throughout the mandatory isolation periods and included centralising the coordination and delivery of COVID-19 therapeutics. The therapeutics available included one intravenous monoclonal antibody (sotrovimab) and two oral antiviral therapies: nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (Paxlovid®) and molnupiravir (Lagevrio®). This article describes the uptake and delivery of this therapeutics program. METHODS: COVID-19 cases were documented in a notification database, screened to determine eligibility for COVID-19 therapies and prioritised based on case age, vaccination status, immunosuppression status and existing comorbidities, in line with Queensland clinical guidelines. Eligible cases were individually contacted by phone to discuss treatment options, and administration of therapies were coordinated in partnership with local primary healthcare centres and hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 4744 cases were notified during the outbreak period, of which 217 (4.6%) were deemed eligible for treatment after medical review. Treatment was offered to 148/217 cases (68.2%), with 90/148 cases (60.8%) declining treatment and 53/148 cases (35.8%) receiving therapeutic treatment for COVID-19. Among these 53 cases, 29 received sotrovimab (54.7%), 20 received Paxlovid (37.7%) and four received Lagevrio (7.5%). First Nations people accounted for 48/53 cases (90.6%) who received treatment, and COVID-19 therapeutics were delivered to cases in 16 remote First Nations communities during the outbreak period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 Care at Home program demonstrated a novel, public health led approach to delivering time-critical medications to individuals across a large, remote and logistically complex region. The application of similar models to outbreaks and chronic conditions of public health importance offers potential to address many health access inequities experienced by remote Australian First Nations communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services, Indigenous , Humans , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Queensland/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents
17.
Elife ; 112022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080854

ABSTRACT

Background: The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccinations remains highly unequal. We examine public preferences in six European countries regarding the allocation of COVID-19 vaccines between the Global South and Global North. Methods: We conducted online discrete choice experiments with adult participants in France (n=766), Germany (n=1964), Italy (n=767), Poland (n=670), Spain (n=925), and Sweden (n=938). Respondents were asked to decide which one of two candidates should receive the vaccine first. The candidates varied on four attributes: age, mortality risk, employment, and living in a low- or high-income country. We analysed the relevance of each attribute in allocation decisions using conditional logit regressions. Results: In all six countries, respondents prioritised candidates with a high mortality and infection risk, irrespective of whether the candidate lived in the respondent's own country. All else equal, respondents in Italy, France, Spain, and Sweden gave priority to a candidate from a low-income country, whereas German respondents were significantly more likely to choose the candidate from their own country. Female, younger, and more educated respondents were more favourable to an equitable vaccine distribution. Conclusions: Given these preferences for global solidarity, European governments should promote vaccine transfers to poorer world regions. Funding: Funding was provided by the European Union's Horizon H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 101016233 (PERISCOPE).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Europe/epidemiology
18.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(724): e799-e808, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the provision of health care and expanded telehealth consultations. AIM: To study the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on contact patterns in general practice, and to identify patient groups at risk of losing care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Register-based study of Danish general practice, including daytime and out-of-hours (OOH) services. METHOD: All individuals residing in Denmark from 1 January 2017 to 31 October 2020 were included. The incidence rate for six contact types in general practice and adjusted incidence rate ratio were calculated by comparing the incidence rate in the pandemic period with the adjusted expected incidence rate based on the incidence rate in the pre-pandemic period. RESULTS: The number of face-to-face in-clinic consultations declined during the lockdown in March 2020. A subsequent increase in the number of clinic consultations was observed, rising to a level above that of the pre-pandemic period; this increase resulted mainly from the introduction of telehealth consultations (that is, video and extended telephone). The number of daytime email consultations increased, whereas the number of daytime home visits decreased. Likewise, the number of OOH telephone consultations increased, whereas the number of OOH home visits and clinic consultations decreased. Consultation rates of patients who are vulnerable, that is, those with low education, old age, and comorbidity, were most adversely affected by the pandemic. The most adverse impact in OOH clinic consultations was seen for children aged 0-9 years. CONCLUSION: New methods are called for to ensure access to general practice for patients who are vulnerable during a pandemic. The potential of telehealth consultations should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , Telemedicine , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Family Practice
19.
Front Health Serv ; 22022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080305

ABSTRACT

Background: Meaningful community engagement is instrumental to effective implementation and sustainment of equitable public health interventions. Significant resources are necessary to ensure that community engagement takes place in culturally sensitive, trusted ways that optimize positive public health outcomes. However, the types and costs of resources best suited to enable meaningful community engagement in implementation research are not well-documented. This study's objectives are (1) to describe a pragmatic method for systematically tracking and documenting resources utilized for community engagement activities, (2) report resources across phases of implementation research, and (3) provide recommendations for planning and budgeting for community engagement in health equity implementation research. Methods: Community engagement partners completed a tracking log of their person-hours for community engagement activities across three phases of community engagement (startup, early, maintenance) in two implementation research projects to promote equity in COVID-19 testing and vaccination for underserved communities. Both projects completed a six-session Theory of Change (i.e., a facilitated group discussion about current and desired conditions that culminated with a set of priorities for strategic change making) over 4 months with respective Community Advisory Boards (CAB) that included community organizers, promotores, federally qualified health center providers and administrators, and public health researchers. The reported person-hours that facilitated community member engagement were documented and summarized within and across project phases. Results: For both projects, the startup phase required the highest number of person-hours (M = 60), followed by the maintenance (M = 53) and early phase (M = 47). Within the startup phase, a total of 5 community engagement activities occurred with identifying and inviting CAB members incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 19). Within the early phase, a total of 11 community engagement activities occurred with coordinating and leading live interpretation (Spanish) during CAB sessions incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 10). The maintenance phase included 11 community engagement activities with time dedicated to written translation of CAB materials into Spanish incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 10). Conclusions: Study findings indicate that the most significant investment of resources is required in the startup period. Needed resources decreased, albeit with a greater diversity of activities, in later phases of community engagement with Spanish language translation requiring most in the later stage of the study. This study contributes to the community engagement and implementation science literature by providing a pragmatic tracking and measurement approach and recommendations for planning for and assessing costs to facilitate meaningful community engagement in public health implementation research.

20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40977, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is an important public health tool for curbing the spread of infectious diseases. Effective and efficient contact tracing involves the rapid identification of individuals with infection and their exposed contacts and ensuring their isolation or quarantine, respectively. Manual contact tracing via telephone call and digital proximity app technology have been key strategies in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. However, many people are not reached for COVID-19 contact tracing due to missing telephone numbers or nonresponse to telephone calls. The New York City COVID-19 Trace program augmented the efforts of telephone-based contact tracers with information gatherers (IGs) to search and obtain telephone numbers or residential addresses, and community engagement specialists (CESs) made home visits to individuals that were not contacted via telephone calls. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of information gathering and home visits to the yields of COVID-19 contact tracing in New York City. METHODS: IGs looked for phone numbers or addresses when records were missing phone numbers to locate case-patients or contacts. CESs made home visits to case-patients and contacts with no phone numbers or those who were not reached by telephone-based tracers. Contact tracing management software was used to triage and queue assignments for the telephone-based tracers, IGs, and CESs. We measured the outcomes of contact tracing-related tasks performed by the IGs and CESs from July 2020 to June 2021. RESULTS: Of 659,484 cases and 861,566 contact records in the Trace system, 28% (185,485) of cases and 35% (303,550) of contacts were referred to IGs. IGs obtained new phone numbers for 33% (61,804) of case-patients and 11% (31,951) of contacts; 50% (31,019) of the case-patients and 46% (14,604) of the contacts with new phone numbers completed interviews; 25% (167,815) of case-patients and 8% (72,437) of contacts were referred to CESs. CESs attempted 80% (132,781) of case and 69% (49,846) of contact investigations, of which 47% (62,733) and 50% (25,015) respectively, completed interviews. An additional 12,192 contacts were identified following IG investigations and 13,507 following CES interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Gathering new or missing locating information and making home visits increased the number of case-patients and contacts interviewed for contact tracing and resulted in additional contacts. When possible, contact tracing programs should add information gathering and home visiting strategies to increase COVID-19 contact tracing coverage and yields as well as promote equity in the delivery of this public health intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Contact Tracing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine , Telephone , Public Health
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